Mecanismos de imunopatogenicidade

1) Specific biomarkers associated with neurological complications and congenital central nervous system abnormalities from Zika Virus-Infected patients in Brazil
Autor: Kam, Yiu-Wing; Leite, Juliana Almeida; Lum, Fok-Moon; Tan, Jeslin J. L.; Lee, Bernett; Judice, Carla C.; Teixeira, Daniel Augusto de Toledo; Andreata-Santos, Robert; Vinolo, Marco A.; Angerami, Rodrigo; Resende, Mariangela Ribeiro; Freitas, Andre Ricardo Ribas; Amaral, Eliana; Passini Junior, Renato; Costa, Maria Laura; Guida, José Paulo; Arns, Clarice Weis; Ferreira, Luis Carlos S.; Rénia, Laurent; Proença-Modena, Jose Luiz; Costa, Fabio T. M.
Assunto: Viruses
Descritores: Zika virus - Neurovirulence ; Zika virus - Pathogenesis ; Zika virus - Immune response ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Immunology
Fonte: The Journal of Infectious Diseases, v. 216, n. 2, p. 175-181, 2017
ISSN: 0022-1899
Resumo: Zika virus (ZIKV) infections have been linked to different levels of clinical outcomes, ranging from mild rash and fever to severe neurological complications and congenital malformations. We investigated the clinical and immunological response, focusing on the immune mediators profile in 95 acute ZIKV-infected adult patients from Campinas, Brazil. These patients included 6 pregnant women who later delivered during the course of this study. Clinical observations were recorded during hospitalization. Levels of 45 immune mediators were quantified using multiplex microbead-based immunoassays. Whereas 11.6% of patients had neurological complications, 88.4% displayed mild disease of rash and fever. Several immune mediators were specifically higher in ZIKV-infected patients, and levels of interleukin 10, interferon gamma-induced protein 10 (IP-10), and hepatocyte growth factor differentiated between patients with or without neurological complications. Interestingly, higher levels of interleukin 22, monocyte chemoattractant protein 1, TNF-?, and IP-10 were observed in ZIKV-infected pregnant women carrying fetuses with fetal growth-associated malformations. Notably, infants with congenital central nervous system deformities had significantly higher levels of interleukin 18 and IP-10 but lower levels of hepatocyte growth factor than those without such abnormalities born to ZIKV-infected mothers. This study identified several key markers for the control of ZIKV pathogenesis. This will allow a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms of ZIKV infection in patients.

2) Characteristics of dysphagia in infants with microcephaly caused by congenital Zika Virus infection, Brazil, 2015
Autor: Leal, Mariana C.; Linden, Vanessa van der; Bezerra, Thiago P.; Valois, Luciana de; Borges, Adriana C.G.; Antunes, Margarida M.C.; Brandt, Kátia G.; Moura, Catharina X.; Rodrigues, Laura C.; Ximenes, Coeli R.
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Viral infections
Fonte: Emerging Infectious Diseases, v. 23, n. 8, 2017
ISSN: 1080-6059
Resumo: We summarize the characteristics of dysphagia in 9 infants in Brazil with microcephaly caused by congenital Zika virus infection. The Schedule for Oral Motor Assessment, fiberoptic endoscopic evaluation of swallowing, and the videofluoroscopic swallowing study were used as noninstrumental and instrumental assessments. All infants had a degree of neurologic damage and showed abnormalities in the oral phase. Of the 9 infants, 8 lacked oral and upper respiratory tract sensitivity, leading to delays in initiation of the pharyngeal phase of swallowing. Those delays, combined with marked oral dysfunction, increased the risk for aspiration of food, particularly liquid foods. Dysphagia resulting from congenital Zika virus syndrome microcephaly can develop in infants >3 months of age and is severe.

3) Hydrocephalus and arthrogryposis in an immunocompetent mouse model of ZIKA teratogeny: a developmental study
Autor: Xavier-Neto, José; Carvalho, Murilo; Pascoalino, Bruno dos Santos; Cardoso, Alisson Campos; Costa, Ângela Maria Sousa; Pereira, Ana Helena Macedo; Santos, Luana Nunes; Saito, Ângela; Marques, Rafael Elias; Smetana, Juliana Helena Costa; Consonni, Silvio Roberto; Bandeira, Carla; Costa, Vivian Vasconcelos; Bajgelman, Marcio Chaim; Oliveira, Bajgelman, Paulo Sérgio; Cordeiro, Mario Tenorio; Gil, Laura Helena Vega Gonzales; Pauletti, Bianca Alves; Granato, Daniela Campos; Leme, Adriana Franco Paes; Freitas-Junior, Lucio; Freitas, Carolina Borsoi Moraes Holanda de; Teixeira, Mauro Martins; Bevilacqua, Estela; Franchini, Kleber
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Immune response ; Zika virus - Immunology ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases
Fonte: PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases, v. 11, n. 2, 2017
ISSN: 1935-2727
Resumo: The teratogenic mechanisms triggered by ZIKV are still obscure due to the lack of a suitable animal model. Here we present a mouse model of developmental disruption induced by ZIKV hematogenic infection. The model utilizes immunocompetent animals from wild-type FVB/NJ and C57BL/6J strains, providing a better analogy to the human condition than approaches involving immunodeficient, genetically modified animals, or direct ZIKV injection into the brain. When injected via the jugular vein into the blood of pregnant females harboring conceptuses from early gastrulation to organogenesis stages, akin to the human second and fifth week of pregnancy, ZIKV infects maternal tissues, placentas and embryos/fetuses. Early exposure to ZIKV at developmental day 5 (second week in humans) produced complex manifestations of anterior and posterior dysraphia and hydrocephalus, as well as severe malformations and delayed development in 10.5 days post-coitum (dpc) embryos. Exposure to the virus at 7.5-9.5 dpc induces intra-amniotic hemorrhage, widespread edema, and vascular rarefaction, often prominent in the cephalic region. At these stages, most affected embryos/fetuses displayed gross malformations and/or intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), rather than isolated microcephaly. Disrupted conceptuses failed to achieve normal developmental landmarks and died in utero. Importantly, this is the only model so far to display dysraphia and hydrocephalus, the harbinger of microcephaly in humans, as well as arthrogryposis, a set of abnormal joint postures observed in the human setting. Late exposure to ZIKV at 12.5 dpc failed to produce noticeable malformations. We have thus characterized a developmental window of opportunity for ZIKV-induced teratogenesis encompassing early gastrulation, neurulation and early organogenesis stages. This should not, however, be interpreted as evidence for any safe developmental windows for ZIKV exposure. Late developmental abnormalities correlated with damage to the placenta, particularly to the labyrinthine layer, suggesting that circulatory changes are integral to the altered phenotypes.

4) Structure of the immature Zika virus at 9 Å resolution
Autor: Prasad, Vidya Mangala; Miller, Andrew S.; Klose, Thomas; Sirohi, Devika; Buda, Geeta; Jiang, Wen; Kuhn, Richard J.; Rossmann, Michael G.
Assunto: Electron microscopy; Virology
Descritores: Zika virus - Pathogenesis ; ZIKV - Pathogenesis ; Zika virus - Immunology ; ZIKV - Epidemic
Fonte: Nature Structural & Molecular Biology, v. 24, p. 184-186, 2017
ISSN: 1545-9993
Resumo: The current Zika virus (ZIKV) epidemic is characterized by severe pathogenicity in both children and adults. Sequence changes in ZIKV since its first isolation are apparent when pre-epidemic strains are compared with those causing the current epidemic. However, the residues that are responsible for ZIKV pathogenicity are largely unknown. Here we report the cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) structure of the immature ZIKV at 9-Å resolution. The cryo-EM map was fitted with the crystal structures of the precursor membrane and envelope glycoproteins and was shown to be similar to the structures of other known immature flaviviruses. However, the immature ZIKV contains a partially ordered capsid protein shell that is less prominent in other immature flaviviruses. Furthermore, six amino acids near the interface between pr domains at the top of the spikes were found to be different between the pre-epidemic and epidemic ZIKV, possibly influencing the composition and structure of the resulting viruses.

5) Congenital Zika Virus infection induces severe spinal cord injury
Autor: Ramalho, Fernando S.; Yamamoto, Aparecida Y.; Silva, Luis L. da; Figueiredo, Luiz T. M.; Rocha, Lenaldo B.; Neder, Luciano; Teixeira, Sara R.; Apolinário, Letícia A.; Ramalho, Leandra N. Z.; Silva, Deisy M.; Coutinho, Conrado M.; Melli, Patrícia P.; Augusto, Marlei J.; Santoro, Ligia B.; Duarte, Geraldo; Mussi-Pinhata, Marisa M.
Assunto: Zika virus; Flavivirus; Spinal cord injury; Cortical atrophy; Cerebellar aplasia
Descritores: Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - RNA virus
Fonte: Clinical Infectious Diseases, v. 65, n. 4, p. 687-690, 2017
ISSN: 1537-6591
Resumo: We report 2 fatal cases of congenital Zika virus (ZIKV) infection. Brain anomalies, including atrophy of the cerebral cortex and brainstem, and cerebellar aplasia were observed. The spinal cord showed architectural distortion, severe neuronal loss, and microcalcifications. The ZIKV proteins and flavivirus-like particles were detected in cytoplasm of spinal neurons, and spinal cord samples were positive for ZIKV RNA.

6) Presence and persistence of Zika Virus RNA in semen, United Kingdom, 2016
Autor: Atkinson, Barry; Thorburn, Fiona; Petridou, Christina; Bailey, Daniel; Hewson, Roger; Simpson, Andrew J.H.; Brooks, Timothy J.G.; Aarons, Emma J.
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Immune response ; Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - RNA virus
Fonte: Emerging Infectious Diseases, v. 23, n. 4, 2017
ISSN: 1080-6059
Resumo: Zika virus RNA has been detected in semen collected several months after onset of symptoms of infection. Given the potential for sexual transmission of Zika virus and for serious fetal abnormalities resulting from infection during pregnancy, information regarding the persistence of Zika virus in semen is critical for advancing our understanding of potential risks. We tested serial semen samples from symptomatic male patients in the United Kingdom who had a diagnosis of imported Zika virus infection. Among the initial semen samples from 23 patients, Zika virus RNA was detected at high levels in 13 (56.5%) and was not detected in 9 (39.1%); detection was indeterminate in 1 sample (4.4%). After symptomatic infection, a substantial proportion of men have detectable Zika virus RNA at high copy numbers in semen during early convalescence, suggesting high risk for sexual transmission. Viral RNA clearance times are not consistent and can be prolonged

7) Dengue virus-reactive CD8+ T cells mediate cross-protection against subsequent Zika virus challenge
Autor: Wen, Jinsheng; Ngono, Annie Elong; Regla-Nava, Jose Angel; Kim, Kenneth; Gorman, Matthew J.; Diamond, Michael S.; Shresta, Sujan
Assunto: Antibodies; CD8-positive T cells; Dengue virus; Viral infection
Descritores: Zika virus - Cell ; Zika virus - Protein synthesis ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases
Fonte: Nature Communications, n. 1459, 2017
ISSN: 2041-1723
Resumo: Zika virus (ZIKV) and dengue virus (DENV) are antigenically related flaviviruses that share cross-reactivity in antibody and T cell responses, and co-circulate in increasing numbers of countries. Whether pre-existing DENV immunity can cross-protect or enhance ZIKV infection during sequential infection of the same host is unknown. Here, we show that DENV-immune Ifnar1?/? or wild-type C57BL/6 mice infected with ZIKV have cross-reactive immunity to subsequent ZIKV infection and pathogenesis. Adoptive transfer and cell depletion studies demonstrate that DENV-immune CD8+ T cells predominantly mediate cross-protective responses to ZIKV. In contrast, passive transfer studies suggest that DENV-immune serum does not protect against ZIKV infection. Thus, CD8+ T cell immunity generated during primary DENV infection can confer protection against secondary ZIKV infection in mice. Further optimization of current DENV vaccines for T cell responses might confer cross-protection and prevent antibody-mediated enhancement of ZIKV infection.

8) Climate variability, vulnerability, and natural disasters: a case study of Zika Virus in Manabi, Ecuador following the 2016 earthquake
Autor: Sorensen, Cecilia J.; Borbor-Cordova, Mercy J.; Calvello-Hynes, Emilie; Diaz, Avriel; Lemery, Jay; Stewart-Ibarra, Anna M.
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Immunology
Fonte: GeoHealth, v. 1, n. 8, p. 298-304, 2017
ISSN: 2471-1403
Resumo: Climate change presents complex and wide-reaching threats to human health. A variable and changing climate can amplify and unmask ecological and socio-political weaknesses and increase the risk of adverse health outcomes in socially vulnerable regions. When natural disasters occur in such areas, underlying climatic conditions may amplify the public health crisis. We describe an emerging epidemic of Zika virus (ZIKV) in Ecuador following the 2016 earthquake, which coincided with an exceptionally strong El Niño event. We hypothesize that the trigger of a natural disaster during anomalous climate conditions and underlying social vulnerabilities were force multipliers contributing to a dramatic increase in ZIKV cases postearthquake.

9) Recurrent potent human neutralizing antibodies to Zika Virus in Brazil and Mexico
Autor: Robbiani, Davide F.; Bozzacco, Leonia; Keeffe, Jennifer R.; Khouri, Ricardo; Olsen, Priscilla C.; Gazumyan, Anna; Schaefer-Babajew, Dennis; Avila-Rios, Santiago; Nogueira, Lilian; Patel, Roshni; Azzopardi, Stephanie A.; Uhl, Lion F.K.; Saeed, Mohsan; Sevilla-Reyes, Edgar E.; Agudelo, Marianna; Yao, Kai-Hui; Golijanin, Jovana; Gristick, Harry B.; Lee, Yu E.; Hurley, Arlene; Caskey, Marina; Pai, Joy; Oliveira, Thiago; Wunder Jr., Elsio A.; Sacramento, Gielson; Nery Jr., Nivison; Orge, Cibele; Costa, Federico; Reis, Mitermayer G.; Thomas, Neena M.; Eisenreich, Thomas; Weinberger, Daniel M.; Almeida, Antonio R.P. de; West Jr., Anthony P.; Rice, Charles M.; Bjorkman, Pamela J.; Reyes-Teran, Gustavo; Ko, Albert I.; MacDonald, Margaret R.; Nussenzwe, Michel C.
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Antibodies ; Zika virus - Serology
Fonte: Cell, v. 169, n. 4, p. 597-609, 2017
ISSN: 0092-8674
Resumo: Antibodies to Zika virus (ZIKV) can be protective. To examine the antibody response in individuals who develop high titers of anti-ZIKV antibodies, we screened cohorts in Brazil and Mexico for ZIKV envelope domain III (ZEDIII) binding and neutralization. We find that serologic reactivity to dengue 1 virus (DENV1) EDIII before ZIKV exposure is associated with increased ZIKV neutralizing titers after exposure. Antibody cloning shows that donors with high ZIKV neutralizing antibody titers have expanded clones of memory B cells that express the same immunoglobulin VH3-23/VK1-5 genes. These recurring antibodies cross-react with DENV1, but not other flaviviruses, neutralize both DENV1 and ZIKV, and protect mice against ZIKV challenge. Structural analyses reveal the mechanism of recognition of the ZEDIII lateral ridge by VH3-23/VK1-5 antibodies. Serologic testing shows that antibodies to this region correlate with serum neutralizing activity to ZIKV. Thus, high neutralizing responses to ZIKV are associated with pre-existing reactivity to DENV1 in humans.

10) Persistence of Zika virus in conjunctival fluid of convalescence patients
Autor: Tan, Jeslin J. L.; Balne, Praveen K.; Leo, Yee-Sin; Tong, Louis
Assunto: Eye manifestations; Risk factors; Viral infection
Descritores: Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - qRTPCR ; Zika virus - Transmission
Fonte: Scientific Reports, v. 7, n. 11194, 2017
ISSN: 2045-2322
Resumo: A widespread epidemic of Zika fever, caused by Zika virus (ZIKAV) has spread throughout the Pacific islands, the Americas and Southeast Asia. The increased incidences of ocular anomalies observed in ZIKAV-infected infants and adults may be associated with the rapid spread of ZIKAV. The objective of this study was to check if ZIKAV could be detected in human tears after the first week of infection. Twenty-nine patients with PCR confirmed ZIKAV infection during the Singapore August 2016 ZIKAV outbreak were enrolled for the study. Detection and quantification of ZIKAV RNA was performed on conjunctival swabs collected from both eyes of these patients at the late convalescent phase (30 days post-illness). Efficiency of viral isolation from swab samples was confirmed by the limit of detection (as low as 0.1 PFU/µL, equivalent to copy number of 4.9) in spiked swabs with different concentrations of ZIKAV (PFU/µL). Samples from three patients were found positive by qRT-PCR for ZIKAV and the viral RNA copy numbers detected in conjunctival swabs ranged from 5.2 to 9.3 copies respectively. ZIKAV could persist in the tears of infected patients for up to 30 days post-illness, and may therefore possess a potential public health risk of transmission.

11) Evidence of Zika Virus RNA fragments in Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) field-collected eggs from Camaçari, Bahia, Brazil
Autor: Smartt, Chelsea T.; Stenn, Tanise M. S.; Chen, Tse-Yu; Teixeira, Maria Gloria; Queiroz, Erivaldo P.; Santos, Luciano Souza dos; Queiroz, Gabriel A. N.; Souza, Kathleen Ribeiro; Silva, Luciano Kalabric; Shin, Dongyoung; Tabachnick , Walter J.
Assunto: Zika virus; Aedes albopictus; Vertical transmission
Descritores: Zika virus - RNA ; Aedes aegypti - RNA ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Aedes aegypti - Viral infections ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission
Fonte: Journal of Medical Entomology, v. 54, n. 4, p. 1085-1087, 2017
ISSN: 0022-2585
Resumo: A major mosquito-borne viral disease outbreak caused by Zika virus (ZIKV) occurred in Bahia, Brazil, in 2015, largely due to transmission by the mosquito, Aedes aegypti (L.). Detecting ZIKV in field samples of Ae. aegypti has proven problematic in some locations, suggesting other mosquito species might be contributing to the spread of ZIKV. In this study, several (five) adult Aedes albopictus (Skuse) mosquitoes that emerged from a 2015 field collection of eggs from Camaçari, Bahia, Brazil, were positive for ZIKV RNA; however, attempts to isolate live virus were not successful. Results from this study suggest that field-collected Ae. albopictus eggs may contain ZIKV RNA that require further tests for infectious ZIKV. There is a need to investigate the role of Ae. albopictus in the ZIKV infection process in Brazil and to study the potential presence of vertical and sexual transmission of ZIKV in this species.

12) Evaluation of possible consequences of Zika Virus infection in the developing nervous system
Autor: Walter, Lais Takata; Higa, Guilherme Shigueto Vilar; Ikebara, Juliane Midori; Vedovello, Danila; Salvador, Felipe Scassi; Takada, Silvia Honda; Kinjo, Erika Reime; Whalley, Benjamin J.; Sperança, Márcia Aparecida; Kihara, Alexandre Hiroaki
Assunto: Neurodevelopment; Disease; Infection; Virulence; Microcephaly
Descritores: Zika virus - Neurovirulence ; ZIKV - Infectious diseases ; ZIKV - Viral infections
Fonte: Molecular Neurobiology, 2017
ISSN: 1559-1182
Resumo: The Zika virus (ZIKV) outbreak that occurred in the northeast of Brazil in 2015 led to alarming numbers of babies born with microcephaly in this region. Since then, several studies have evaluated the relationship between ZIKV infection and development of the malformation although the specific mechanistic interaction between ZIKV and human physiological processes that ultimately manifest as microcephaly remains debated. Importantly, most current studies did not consider the specificities of the biology and life cycle of ZIKV. As a consequence, specificities of the infection on the developing central nervous system (CNS) were frequently disregarded. In order to begin to address this important gap in our knowledge, we have collated and critically reviewed the existing evidence in this area to identify any emerging consensus on this topic and thereafter describe possible mechanisms by which ZIKV infection could interfere with specific processes of CNS development, such as neuronal proliferation, and the complex interactions of immature neurons with radial glial cells. With this, we were able to present the current knowledge on this important topic in the neurobiology field.

13) First report of naturally infected Aedes aegypti with chikungunya virus genotype ECSA in the Americas
Autor: Costa-da-Silva, André Luis; Ioshino, Rafaella Sayuri; Petersen,Vivian; Lima, Antonio Fernando; Cunha, Marielton dos Passos; Wiley, Michael R.; Ladner, Jason T.; Prieto, Karla; Palacios, Gustavo; Costa, Danuza Duarte; Suesdek, Lincoln; Zanotto, Paolo Marinho de Andrade; Capurro, Margareth Lara
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya Virus - Arbovirus ; Chikungunya Virus - Infectious diseases ; Chikungunya Virus - qRTPCR
Fonte: PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases, v. 11, n. 6, 2017
ISSN: 1935-2727
Resumo: The worldwide expansion of new emergent arboviruses such as Chikungunya and Zika reinforces the importance in understanding the role of mosquito species in spreading these pathogens in affected regions. This knowledge is essential for developing effective programs based on species specificity to avoid the establishment of endemic transmission cycles sustained by the identified local vectors. Although the first autochthonous transmission of Chikungunya virus was described in 2014 in the north of Brazil, the main outbreaks were reported in 2015 and 2016 in the northeast of Brazil. During 5 days of February 2016, we collected mosquitoes in homes of 6 neighborhoods of Aracaju city, the capital of Sergipe state. Four mosquito species were identified but Culex quinquefasciatus and Aedes aegypti were the most abundant. Field-caught mosquitoes were tested for Chikungunya (CHIKV), Zika (ZIKV) and Dengue viruses (DENV) by qRT-PCR and one CHIKV-infected Ae. aegypti female was detected. The complete sequence of CHIKV genome was obtained from this sample and phylogenetic analysis revealed that this isolate belongs to the East-Central-South-African (ECSA) genotype. Our study describes the first identification of a naturally CHIKV-infected Ae. aegypti in Brazil and the first report of a CHIKV from ECSA genotype identified in this species in the Americas. These findings support the notion of Ae. aegypti being a vector involved in CHIKV outbreaks in northeast of Brazil.

14) Risk analysis for dengue suitability in Africa using the ArcGIS Predictive Analysis Tools (PA Tools).
Autor: Attaway David F,Jacobsen Kathryn H,Falconer Allan,Manca Germana,Waters Nigel M
Assunto: Africa, Background, dengue, developing countries, geographic information systems, medical geography, risk mapping
Descritores: Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Acta Tropica, v. 158, p. 248-257, 2016
ISSN: 1873-6254
Resumo: Risk maps identifying suitable locations for infection transmission are important for public health planning. Data on dengue infection rates are not readily available in most places where the disease is known to occur. A newly available add-in to Esri's ArcGIS software package, the ArcGIS Predictive Analysis Toolset (PA Tools), was used to identify locations within Africa with environmental characteristics likely to be suitable for transmission of dengue virus. A more accurate, robust, and localized (1km x 1km) dengue risk map for Africa was created based on bioclimatic layers, elevation data, high-resolution population data, and other environmental factors that a search of the peer-reviewed literature showed to be associated with dengue risk. Variables related to temperature, precipitation, elevation, and population density were identified as good predictors of dengue suitability. Areas of high dengue suitability occur primarily within West Africa and parts of Central Africa and East Africa, but even in these regions the suitability is not homogenous. This risk mapping technique for an infection transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes draws on entomological, epidemiological, and geographic data. The method could be applied to other infectious diseases (such as Zika) in order to provide new insights for public health officials and others making decisions about where to increase disease surveillance activities and implement infection prevention and control efforts. The ability to map threats to human and animal health is important for tracking vectorborne and other emerging infectious diseases and modeling the likely impacts of climate change.

15) Interspecies transmission and Chikungunya virus emergence
Autor: Tsetsarkin Konstantin A, Chen Rubing, Weaver Scott C
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Cytopathology ; Chikungunya virus - Infectious diseases ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Transmission ; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever ; Chikungunya virus - Dengue ; Chikungunya virus - Immunology
Fonte: Current Opinion in Virology, v. 16, p. 143-150, 2016
ISSN: 1879-6265
Resumo: Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) causes severe, debilitating, often chronic arthralgia with high attack rates, resulting in severe morbidity - economic costs to affected communities. Since its first well-documented emergence in Asia in the 1950s, CHIKV has infected millions -, since 2007, has spread widely, probably via viremic travelers, to initiate urban transmission in Europe, the South Pacific, - the Americas. Some spread has been facilitated by adaptive envelope glycoprotein substitutions that enhance transmission by the new vector, Aedes albopictus. Although epistatic constraints may prevent the impact of these mutations in Asian strains now circulating in the Americas, as well as in African CHIKV strains imported into Brazil last year, these constraints could eventually be overcome over time to increase the transmission by A. albopictus in rural - temperate regions. Another major determinant of CHIKV endemic stability in the Americas will be its ability to spill back into an enzootic cycle involving sylvatic vectors - nonhuman primates, an opportunity exploited by yellow fever virus but apparently not by dengue viruses.

16) Chikungunya: bending over the Americas and the rest of the world
Autor: Madariaga Miguel, Ticona Eduardo, Resurrecion Cristhian
Assunto: Alphavirus; Chikungunya; Epidemics
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Infectious diseases ; Chikungunya virus - Serology ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya virus - Serology ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Epidemic
Fonte: The Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases, v. 20, n. 1, p. 91-98, 2016
ISSN: 1678-4391
Resumo: Chikungunya is an arthropod-borne virus transmitted by Aedes mosquito bites. A viral mutation has allowed Aedes albopictus to become the preferred vector extending the geographic spread of the condition. The virus causes an acute febrile illness occasionally followed by a chronic rheumatic condition causing severe impairment. The diagnosis is usually confirmed with serology. No specific treatment is currently available. This article reviews the condition with emphasis on his dissemination in the Americas.

17) Immunological evidence of Zika virus transmission in Thailand
Autor: Wikan Nitwara, Suputtamongkol Yupin, Yoksan Sutee, Smith Duncan R, Auewarakul Prasert
Assunto: Emerging infectious diseases; Serosurvey; Thailand; Zika virus
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Infectious diseases ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya virus - Molecular methods ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Transmission ; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever ; Chikungunya virus - Dengue ; Chikungunya virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine, v. 9, n. 2, p. 141-144, 2016
ISSN: 1995-7645
Resumo: To identify immunological evidence of Zika virus transmission in Thail-. To undertake a preliminary serosurvey of possible exposure to Zika virus, 21 serum samples from cohort of acute undifferentiated fever patients were examined for immunoreactivity to Zika, Dengue, Japanese encephalitis - Chikungunya envelope antigens by Western blot analysis. Twenty of the 21 serum samples showed immunoreactivity to at least one of the antigens, with seven samples showing immunoreactivity to all antigens. Of particular note, two serum samples showed immunoreactivity only to Zika envelope antigen, with no immunoreactivity to other envelope antigens. This study presents the first evidence of Zika virus transmission in Thail-, although as yet the relationship between transmission - possible cases of Zika fever in Thail- requires further investigation.

18) Infectious diseases: beyond Ebola.
Autor: Currie Janet,Grenfell Bryan,Farrar Jeremy
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Pathogenesis ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Science, v. 351, n. 6275, p. 815-816, 2016
ISSN: 1095-9203
Resumo:

19) Development of a TaqMan array card for acute-febrile-illness outbreak investigation and surveillance of emerging pathogens, including Ebola virus
Autor: Liu Jie, Ochieng Caroline, Wiersma Steve, Ströher Ute, Towner Jonathan S, Whitmer Shannon, Nichol Stuart T, Moore Christopher C, Kersh Gilbert J, Kato Cecilia, Sexton Christopher, Petersen Jeannine, Massung Robert, Hercik Christine, Crump John A, Kibiki Gibson, Maro Athanasia, Mujaga Buliga, Gratz Jean, Jacob Shevin T, Banura Patrick, Scheld W Michael, Juma Bonventure, Onyango Clayton O, Montgomery Joel M, Houpt Eric, Fields Barry
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Cytopathology ; Chikungunya virus - Infectious diseases ; Chikungunya virus - Serology ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya virus - PCR detection ; Chikungunya virus - Real Time PCR ; Chikungunya virus - Serology ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever ; Chikungunya virus - Dengue
Fonte: Journal of Clinical Microbiology, v. 54, n. 1, p. 49-58, 2016
ISSN: 1098-660X
Resumo: Acute febrile illness (AFI) is associated with substantial morbidity - mortality worldwide, yet an etiologic agent is often not identified. Convalescent-phase serology is impractical, blood culture is slow, - many pathogens are fastidious or impossible to cultivate. We developed a real-time PCR-based TaqMan array card (TAC) that can test six to eight samples within 2.5 h from sample to results - can simultaneously detect 26 AFI-associated organisms, including 15 viruses (chikungunya, Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever [CCHF] virus, dengue, Ebola virus, Bundibugyo virus, Sudan virus, hantaviruses [Hantaan - Seoul], hepatitis E, Marburg, Nipah virus, o'nyong-nyong virus, Rift Valley fever virus, West Nile virus, - yellow fever virus), 8 bacteria (Bartonella spp., Brucella spp., Coxiella burnetii, Leptospira spp., Rickettsia spp., Salmonella enterica - Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi, - Yersinia pestis), - 3 protozoa (Leishmania spp., Plasmodium spp., - Trypanosoma brucei). Two extrinsic controls (phocine herpesvirus 1 - bacteriophage MS2) were included to ensure extraction - amplification efficiency. Analytical validation was performed on spiked specimens for linearity, intra-assay precision, interassay precision, limit of detection, - specificity. The performance of the card on clinical specimens was evaluated with 1,050 blood samples by comparison to the individual real-time PCR assays, - the TAC exhibited an overall 88% (278/315; 95% confidence interval [CI], 84% to 92%) sensitivity - a 99% (5,261/5,326, 98% to 99%) specificity. This TaqMan array card can be used in field settings as a rapid screen for outbreak investigation or for the surveillance of pathogens, including Ebola virus.

20) Concern over Zika virus grips the world
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Samarasekera, Udani; Triunfol, Marcia
Assunto: Womens health, Mosquitoes, Disease control, Abortion, Pregnancy, Public health, Zika virus, Infections
Descritores: Zika virus - DNA ; Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Real Time PCR ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Repellent ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Chikungunya Fever ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Head circumference ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public Health ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: The Lancet, v. 387, n. 10018, p. 521-524, 2016.
ISSN: 0140-6736
Resumo: Worldwide concern over Zika virus and its temporal and geographical association with clusters of birth and neurological conditions escalated this week, with WHO declaring a Public Health Emergency of International Concern.

21) Chikungunya: out of the tropical forests and heading our way ?
Autor: Rowland-Jones Sarah L
Assunto: Aedes mosquito; Alpha virus; Arthritis; Immunopathology; Vaccine
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Immunopathology ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Vaccine
Fonte: Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, v. 110, n. 2, p. 85-86, 2016
ISSN: 1878-3503
Resumo:

22) Next generation sequencing of DNA-launched Chikungunya vaccine virus
Autor: Hidajat Rachmat, Nickols Brian, Forrester Naomi, Tretyakova Irina, Weaver Scott, Pushko Peter
Assunto: Alphavirus; CHIKV; Chikungunya fever; Chikungunya virus; DNA vaccine; Live attenuated vaccine
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Cytopathology ; Chikungunya virus - DNA ; Chikungunya virus - RNA ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Vaccine ; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever
Fonte: Virology, v. 490, p. 83-90, 2016
ISSN: 1096-0341
Resumo: Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) represents a p-emic threat with no approved vaccine available. Recently, we described a novel vaccination strategy based on iDNA® infectious clone designed to launch a live-attenuated CHIKV vaccine from plasmid DNA in vitro or in vivo. As a proof of concept, we prepared iDNA plasmid pCHIKV-7 encoding the full-length cDNA of the 181/25 vaccine. The DNA-launched CHIKV-7 virus was prepared - compared to the 181/25 virus. Illumina HiSeq2000 sequencing revealed that with the exception of the 3' untranslated region, CHIKV-7 viral RNA consistently showed a lower frequency of single-nucleotide polymorphisms than the 181/25 RNA including at the E2-12 - E2-82 residues previously identified as attenuating mutations. In the CHIKV-7, frequencies of reversions at E2-12 - E2-82 were 0.064% - 0.086%, while in the 181/25, frequencies were 0.179% - 0.133%, respectively. We conclude that the DNA-launched virus has a reduced probability of reversion mutations, thereby enhancing vaccine safety.

23) Mild form of Guillain-Barré syndrome in a patient with primary Epstein-Barr virus infection.
Autor: Kim Se Yong; Choe Kang-Won; Park Sehhoon; Yoon Doran,Ock Chan-Young; Hong Seung Wook; Heo Jung Yeon
Assunto: Epstein-Barr virus infections, Guillain-Barre syndrome
Descritores: Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Infectious diseases ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Viral infections ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Virus
Fonte: The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine, 2016
ISSN: 2005-6648
Resumo:

24) The Zika outbreak of the 21st century
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Chang C., Ortiz K., Ansari A., Gershwin M.E.
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Pathogenesis ; Zika virus - Autoimmunity ; Zika virus - Immunology ; Zika virus - Sexual ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Chikungunya Fever ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Rash maculopapular ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Journal of Autoimmunity, v. 68, p. 1-13, apr. 2016
ISSN: 1095-9157 (electronic),0896-8411
Resumo: The Zika virus outbreak has captivated the attention of the global audience and information has spread rapidly and wildly through the internet and other media channels. This virus was first identified in 1947, when it was isolated from a sentinel rhesus monkey placed by British scientists working at the Yellow Fever Research Laboratory located in the Zika forest area of Uganda, hence its name, and is transmitted primarily by the mosquito vector, Aedes aegypti. The fact that the rhesus macaque is an Asian species being placed in an African forest brings to mind the possibility of rapid adaptation of the virus from an African to Asian species, an issue that has not been considered. Whether such adaptation has played any role in acquiring pathogenicity due to cross species transmission remains to be identified. The first human infection was described in Nigeria in 1954, with only scattered reports of about a dozen human infections identified over a 50-year period. It was not until 2007 that Zika virus raised its ugly head with infections noted in three-quarters of the population on the tiny island of Yap located between the Philippines and Papua New Guinea in the western Pacific Ocean, followed by a major outbreak in French Polynesia in 2013. The virus remained confined to a narrow equatorial band in Africa and Asia until 2014 when it began to spread eastward, first toward Oceania and then to South America. Since then, millions of infected individuals have been identified in Brazil, Colombia, Venezuela, including 25 additional countries in the Americas. While the symptoms associated with Zika virus infection are generally mild, consisting of fever, maculopapular rash, arthralgia and conjunctivitis, there have been reports of more severe reactions that are associated with neurological complications. In pregnant women, fetal neurological complications include brain damage and microcephaly, while in adults there have been several cases of virus-associated Guillain-Barre syndrome. The virus was until recently believed to only be transmitted via mosquitoes. But when the Zika virus was isolated from the semen specimens from a patient in Texas, this provided the basis for the recent report of possible sexual transmission of the Zika virus. Due to the neurological complications, various vectors for infection as well as the rapid spread throughout the globe, it has prompted the World Health Organization to issue a global health emergency. Various governmental organizations have recommended that pregnant women do not travel to countries where the virus is epidemic, and within the countries affected by the virus, recommendations were provided for women of childbearing age to delay pregnancy. The overall public health impact of these above findings highlights the need for a rapid but specific diagnostic test for blood banks worldwide to identify those infected and for the counseling of women who are pregnant or contemplating pregnancy. As of this date, there are neither commercially licensed diagnostic tests nor a vaccine. Because cross-reactivity of the Zika virus with dengue and Chikungunya virus is common, it may pose difficulty in being able to quickly develop such tests and vaccines. So far the most effective public health measures include controlling the mosquito populations via insecticides and preventing humans from direct exposure to mosquitoes.

25) Evaluation of commercially available Chikungunya virus immunoglobulin M detection assays
Autor: Johnson Barbara W, Goodman Christin H, Holloway Kimberly, de Salazar P Martinez, Valadere Anne M, Drebot Mike
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya virus - Serological diagnosis ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Public health
Fonte: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, v. 95, n. 1, p. 182-192, 2016
ISSN: 1476-1645
Resumo: Commercial chikungunya virus (CHIKV)-specific IgM detection kits were evaluated at the Centers for Disease Control - Prevention (CDC), the Public Health Agency of Canada National Microbiology Laboratory, - the Caribbean Public Health Agency (CARPHA). The Euroimmun Anti-CHIKV IgM ELISA kit had ? 95% concordance with all three reference laboratory results. The limit of detection for low CHIK IgM+ samples, as measured by serial dilution of seven sera up to 1:12,800 ranged from 1:800 to 1:3,200. The Euroimmun IIFT kit evaluated at CDC - CARPHA performed well, but required more retesting of equivocal results. The InBios CHIKjj Detect MAC-ELISA had 100% - 98% concordance with CDC - CARPHA results, respectively, - had equal sensitivity to the CDC MAC-ELISA to 1:12,800 dilution in serially diluted samples. The Abcam Anti-CHIKV IgM ELISA initially had high performance at CDC - CARPHA, but at CDC, performance was inconsistent between lots. After replacement of the biotinylated IgM antibody controls with serum containing CHIKV-specific IgM - additional quality assurance/control measures, the Abcam kit was rereleased - reevaluated at CDC. The reformatted Abcam kit had 97% concordance with CDC results - limit of detection of 1:800 to 1:3,200. Two rapid tests - three other CHIKV MAC-ELISAs evaluated at CDC had low sensitivity, as the CDC CHIKV IgM in-house positive controls were below the level of detection. In conclusion, laboratories have options for CHIKV serological diagnosis using validated commercial kits.

26) Zika virus disease: a CDC update for pediatric health care providers.
Autor: Karwowski Mateusz P,Nelson Jennifer M,Staples J Erin,Fischer Marc,Fleming-Dutra Katherine E,Villanueva Julie,Powers Ann M,Mead Paul,Honein Margaret A,Moore Cynthia A,Rasmussen Sonja A
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Rash maculopapular ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Pediatrics, v. 137, n. 5, 2016
ISSN: 1098-4275
Resumo: Zika virus is a mosquito-borne flavivirus discovered in Africa in 1947. Most persons with Zika virus infection are asymptomatic; symptoms when present are generally mild and include fever, maculopapular rash, arthralgia, and conjunctivitis. Since early 2015, Zika virus has spread rapidly through the Americas, with local transmission identified in 31 countries and territories as of February 29, 2016, including several US territories. All age groups are susceptible to Zika virus infection, including children. Maternal-fetal transmission of Zika virus has been documented; evidence suggests that congenital Zika virus infection is associated with microcephaly and other adverse pregnancy and infant outcomes. Perinatal transmission has been reported in 2 cases; 1 was asymptomatic, and the other had thrombocytopenia and a rash. Based on limited information, Zika virus infection in children is mild, similar to that in adults. The long-term sequelae of congenital, perinatal, and pediatric Zika virus infection are largely unknown. No vaccine to prevent Zika virus infection is available, and treatment is supportive. The primary means of preventing Zika virus infection is prevention of mosquito bites in areas with local Zika virus transmission. Given the possibility of limited local transmission of Zika virus in the continental United States and frequent travel from affected countries to the United States, US pediatric health care providers need to be familiar with Zika virus infection. This article reviews the Zika virus, its epidemiologic characteristics, clinical presentation, laboratory testing, treatment, and prevention to assist providers in the evaluation and management of children with possible Zika virus infection.

27) Comparison of Mosquito magnet and Biogents sentinel traps for operational surveillance of container-inhabiting Aedes (Diptera: Culicidae) Species
Autor: Rochlin Ilia, Kawalkowski Margaret, Ninivaggi Dominick V
Assunto: Aedes albopictus; Aedes japonicus; Chikungunya; Dengue; West Nile virus
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Transmission ; Chikungunya virus - Dengue
Fonte: Journal of Medical Entomology, v. 53, n. 2, p. 454-459, 2016
ISSN: 0022-2585
Resumo: Container-inhabiting Aedes are among the most medically important mosquito vectors of diseases. They also impact health - quality of life by their persistent - severe biting. Monitoring of container-inhabiting Aedes species is challenging due to the need for specialized traps - lures. Biogents Sentinel (BGS) trap has become a st-ard for Aedes albopictus (Skuse) surveillance; however, it has substantial problems with durability, quality of construction, - sample exposure to the elements. The goal of this study was to develop a methodology for collecting medically important container-inhabiting Aedes species in numbers sufficient for population trend analysis, control efficacy studies, - pathogen testing. Mosquito Magnets (MM) baited with BG lure - R-octenol were selected as the most practical alternative to BGS, collecting significantly more Ae. albopictus (32.1 ± 0.7 vs. 5.6 ± 0.1), Aedes japonicus (Theobald) (10.1 ± 0.4 vs. 1.2 ± 0.02), - Aedes triseriatus (Say) (0.9 ± 0.04 vs. 0.04 ± 0.004) females on average per trapping under a variety of weather conditions. MM can be particularly useful for long-term surveillance or when large numbers of specimens are required for pathogen isolation, such as at the sites with suspected dengue or chikungunya transmission.

28) Assessing Chikungunya risk in a metropolitan area of Argentina through satellite images and mathematical models
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Ruiz-Moreno D.
Assunto: chikungunya (etiology), Chikungunya virus
Descritores: Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Chikungunya Fever ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: BMC Infectious Diseases, v. 16, n. 1, p. 1-12, feb. 2016
ISSN: 1471-2334 (electronic)
Resumo: Background: Chikungunya fever is a viral disease that recently invaded the American continent. In America, it is transmitted mainly by the mosquito Aedes aegypti, but Aedes albopictus is the main vector in other regions of the world. This work estimates the risk of disease emergence and the corresponding population at risk for the case of a naive population in the metropolitan area of Buenos Aires, the capital city of Argentina. Methods: A classic metapopulation epidemiological model, that considers human and mosquito populations, was extended in order to include different environmental signals. First, the vital rates of the mosquitoes were affected by local temperature. Second, habitat availability estimated from satellite images was used to determine the carrying capacity for local mosquito populations. Disease invasion was proposed to occur at different moments of the year. For each scenario, Monte Carlo simulations were used to estimate the risk of disease invasion and the population at risk. Results: The risk of a Chikungunya outbreak displays strong temporal (seasonal) patterns as well as spatial variability at the level of neighborhoods in the study area. According to the model, Summer and Fall display high risk for a Chikungunya invasion. The population at risk displays less variation over the year underlying the importance of preventive actions. Conclusions: The ability of mapping habitat quality for vector-borne diseases allows developing risk analysis at scales that are easily manageable for public health officers. For this location, the correlation of disease risk with the season of the year and the habitat availability could provide information to develop efficient control strategies. This also underlines the importance of involving the whole community when developing control measures for Chikungunya fever and other recently invading vector-borne diseases such as Zika fever.

29) Highly divergent dengue virus type 1 genotype sets a new distance record
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Pyke, Alyssa T.; Moore, Peter R.; Taylor, Carmel T.; Hall-Mendelin, Sonja; Cameron, Jane N.; Hewitson, Glen R.; Pukallus, Dennis S.; Huang, Bixing; Warrilow, David; van den Hurk, Andrew F.
Assunto: African-Green Monkey; Aedes-Aegypti; Monoclonal-Antibodies; Phenotypic Characterization; Evolutionary Genetics; Hemorrhagic-Fever; Emergence; Transmission; Strains; Culicidae
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - RNA ; Aedes aegypti - Immunology ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Scientific Reports, v. 6, 2016
ISSN: 2045-2322
Resumo: Dengue viruses (DENVs) are the leading cause of mosquito-borne viral disease of humans. They exist in both endemic and sylvatic ecotypes. In 2014, a viremic patient who had recently visited the rainforests of Brunei returned to Australia displaying symptoms consistent with DENV infection. A unique DENV strain was subsequently isolated from the patient, which we propose belongs to a new genotype within DENV serotype 1 (DENV-1). Bayesian Evolutionary phylogenetic analysis suggests that the putative sylvatic DENV-1 Brunei 2014 (Brun2014) is the most divergent DENV-1 yet recorded and increases the time to the most recent common ancestor (MRCA) for DENV-1 from approximate to 120 years to approximate to 315 years. DENV-1 classification of the Brun2014 strain was further supported by monoclonal antibody serotyping data. Phenotypic characterization demonstrated that Brun2014 replication rates in mosquito cells and infection rates in Aedes aegypti mosquitoes were not significantly different from an epidemic DENV-1 strain. Given its ability to cause human illness and infect Ae. aegypti, potential urban spillover and clinical disease from further Brun2014 transmission cannot be discounted.

30) Maternal TH17 cells take a toll on baby's brain
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Estes, Myka L.; McAllister, A. Kimberley
Assunto: Pregnancy, Immune system, Prenatal development, Lymphocytes, Infections, Neurobiology
Descritores: Zika virus - Cell ; Zika virus - T lymphocytes
Fonte: Science, v. 351, n. 6276, p. 919-920, 2016.
ISSN: 0036-8075
Resumo: The possibility that microcephaly is caused by Zika virus has made recent alarming headlines. Although few people had previously heard of an association between infection during pregnancy and changes in brain development, epidemiologists have known about this connection for many years. Moreover, mounting evidence suggests that maternal immune activation (MIA) alone is sufficient to alter brain development and may be causally linked to autism spectrum disorder (ASD) (-). How could the maternal immune system, which normally serves to protect mother and child from environmental insults, cause changes in brain development? On page 933 of this issue, Choi et al. uncover an important component of this immune pathway: a critical signal from a special class of cells in the mother's immune system, called T helper 17 (TH17) cells, that alters brain development in her fetal offspring (see the figure). These findings have exciting implications for the development of new treatments to prevent ASD caused by maternal infection.

31) Dengue and chikungunya seroprevalence in Gabonese infants prior to major outbreaks in 2007 and 2010: A sero-epidemiological study
Autor: Gabor Julian Justin, Schwarz Norbert Georg, Esen Meral, Kremsner Peter Gottfried, Grobusch Martin Peter
Assunto: Chikungunya; Dengue; ELISA; Infants; Seroprevalence
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Antibodies ; Chikungunya virus - Infectious diseases ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Dengue
Fonte: Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease, v. 14, n. 1, p. 26-31, 2016
ISSN: 1873-0442
Resumo: Apart from outbreak reports, little is known about the endemicity of dengue - chikungunya virus in African countries. We investigated serum samples collected in Gabon before major outbreaks in 2007 - 2010 in order to identify pre-outbreak-circulation of both viruses. Serum samples from Gabonese infants (162) were analyzed at 3, 9, 15 - 30 months of age by commercial ELISA for dengue - chikungunya IgG-antibodies. If samples were positive medical records of participants were analyzed for symptoms concordant with dengue - chikungunya infections during the time period of assumed seroconversion. IgG-antibodies against dengue were found in 12.3%, - IgG-antibodies against chikungunya in 0.6% of infants tested. Using the four measuring time points, we estimated corresponding incidences of 51/1.000 person-years - 2.5/1.000 person-years, respectively. Symptoms in positive-tested infants were mostly non-specific. Seropositivity suggests that both viruses circulated before the well-noticed outbreaks. Clinical diagnosis of dengue - chikungunya is difficult especially in infants, underscoring the need for accurate - reliable diagnostic tests as well as awareness of medical personnel. NCT00167843.

32) Zika virus and microcephaly: Why is this situation a PHEIC?
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Heymann D.L., Hodgson A., Sall A.A., Freedman D.O., Staples J.E., Althabe F., Baruah K., Mahmud G., Kandun N., Vasconcelos P.F.C., Bino S., Menon K.U.
Assunto: microcephaly, virus
Descritores: Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Microcephaly; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: The Lancet, v. 387, n. 10020, p. 719-721, feb. 2016
ISSN: 1474-547X (electronic),0140-6736
Resumo:

33) Chikungunya virus: recent advances in epidemiology, host pathogen interaction and vaccine strategies
Autor: Deeba Farah, Islam Asimul, Kazim Syed Naqui, Naqvi Irshad Hussain, Broor Shobha, Ahmed Anwar, Parveen Shama
Assunto: Chikungunya virus; Disease dissemination; Host-pathogen interactions
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Biochemistry ; Chikungunya virus - Cell ; Chikungunya virus - Pathogenesis ; Chikungunya virus - Cytokines ; Chikungunya virus - Molecular methods ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Molecular screening ; Chikungunya virus - Vaccine ; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever ; Chikungunya virus - Epidemic ; Chikungunya virus - Epidemiology ; Chikungunya virus - Public health
Fonte: Pathogens and Disease, v. 74, n. 3, 2016
ISSN: 2049-632X
Resumo: The Chikungunya virus is a re-emerging alphavirus that belongs to the family Togaviridae. The symptoms include fever, rashes, nausea - joint pain that may last for months. The laboratory diagnosis of the infection is based on the serologic assays, virus isolation - molecular methods. The pathogenesis of the Chikungunya viral infection is not completely understood. Some of the recent investigations have provided information on replication of the virus in various cells - organs. In addition, some recent reports have indicated that the severity of the disease is correlated with the viral load - cytokines. The Chikungunya virus infection re-emerged as an explosive epidemic during 2004-09 affecting millions of people in the Indian Ocean. Subsequent global attention was given to research on this viral pathogen due to its broad area of geographical distribution during this epidemic. Chikungunya viral infection has become a challenge for the public health system because of the absence of a vaccine as well as antiviral drugs. A number of potential vaccine c-idates have been tested on humans - animal models during clinical - preclinical trials. In this review, we mainly discuss the host-pathogen relationship, epidemiology - recent advances in the development of drugs - vaccines for the Chikungunya viral infection.

34) An autochthonous case of zika due to possible sexual transmission, Florence, Italy, 2014
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Venturi G., Zammarchi L., Fortuna C., Remoli M.E., Benedetti E., Fiorentini C., Trotta M., Rizzo C., Mantella A., Rezza G., Bartoloni A.
Assunto: Italy, sexual transmission
Descritores: Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Serology ; Zika virus - Serological diagnosis ; Zika virus - Sexual ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Epidemiology
Fonte: Eurosurveillance, v. 21, n. 8, p. 1-4, feb. 2016
ISSN: 1560-7917 (electronic),1025-496X
Resumo: We report a case of Zika virus infection imported in Florence, Italy ex-Thailand, leading to a secondary autochthonous case, probably through sexual transmission. The two cases occurred in May 2014 but were retrospectively diagnosed in 2016 on the basis of serological tests (plaque reduction neutralisation) performed on stored serum samples. Our report provides further evidence that sexual transmission of Zika virus is possible.

35) Four emerging arboviral diseases in North America: Jamestown Canyon, Powassan, chikungunya, and Zika virus diseases
Autor: Pastula Daniel M, Smith Daniel E, Beckham J David, Tyler Kenneth L
Assunto: Arboviral disease; Arbovirus; Chikungunya virus; Jamestown Canyon virus; North America; Powassan virus; Zika virus
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Arbovirus ; Chikungunya virus - Infectious diseases ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Vaccine
Fonte: Journal of Neurovirology, v. 22, n. 3, p. 257-260, 2016
ISSN: 1538-2443
Resumo: Arthropod-borne viruses, or arboviruses, are viruses that are transmitted through the bites of mosquitoes, ticks, or s-flies. There are numerous arboviruses throughout the world capable of causing human disease spanning different viral families - genera. Recently, Jamestown Canyon, Powassan, chikungunya, - Zika viruses have emerged as increasingly important arboviruses that can cause human disease in North America. Unfortunately, there are currently no proven disease-modifying therapies for these arboviral diseases, so treatment is largely supportive. Given there are also no commercially available vaccines for these four arboviral infections, prevention is the key. To prevent mosquito or tick bites that might result in one of these arboviral diseases, people should wear long-sleeved shirts - pants while outside if feasible, apply insect repellant when going outdoors, using window screens or air conditioning to keep mosquitoes outside, - perform tick checks after being in wooded or brushy outdoor areas.

36) Zika virus: history, emergence, biology, and prospects for control.
Autor: Weaver Scott C,Costa Federico,Garcia-Blanco Mariano A,Ko Albert I,Ribeiro Guilherme S,Saade George,Shi Pei-Yong,Vasilakis Nikos
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Biochemistry ; Zika virus - Cytopathology ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Immunology ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Antiviral Research, v. 130, p. 69-80, 2016
ISSN: 1872-9096
Resumo: Zika virus (ZIKV), a previously obscure flavivirus closely related to dengue, West Nile, Japanese encephalitis and yellow fever viruses, has emerged explosively since 2007 to cause a series of epidemics in Micronesia, the South Pacific, and most recently the Americas. After its putative evolution in sub-Saharan Africa, ZIKV spread in the distant past to Asia and has probably emerged on multiple occasions into urban transmission cycles involving Aedes (Stegomyia) spp. mosquitoes and human amplification hosts, accompanied by a relatively mild dengue-like illness. The unprecedented numbers of people infected during recent outbreaks in the South Pacific and the Americas may have resulted in enough ZIKV infections to notice relatively rare congenital microcephaly and Guillain-Barré syndromes. Another hypothesis is that phenotypic changes in Asian lineage ZIKV strains led to these disease outcomes. Here, we review potential strategies to control the ongoing outbreak through vector-centric approaches as well as the prospects for the development of vaccines and therapeutics.

37) Forecasting Chikungunya spread in the Americas via data-driven empirical approaches
Autor: Escobar Luis E, Qiao Huijie, Peterson A Townsend
Assunto: Epidemic; Transmission; Disease model; Vector-borne; Passenger flow
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Transmission ; Chikungunya virus - Epidemic ; Chikungunya virus - Public health
Fonte: Parasites & Vectors, v. 9, n. 1, p. 112, 2016
ISSN: 1756-3305
Resumo: Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is endemic to Africa - Asia, but the Asian genotype invaded the Americas in 2013. The fast increase of human infections in the American epidemic emphasized the urgency of developing detailed predictions of case numbers - the potential geographic spread of this disease. We developed a simple model incorporating cases generated locally - cases imported from other countries, - forecasted transmission hotspots at the level of countries - at finer scales, in terms of ecological features. By late January 2015, >1.2 M CHIKV cases were reported from the Americas, with country-level prevalences between nil - more than 20 %. In the early stages of the epidemic, exponential growth in case numbers was common; later, however, poor - uneven reporting became more common, in a phenomenon we term surveillance fatigue." Economic activity of countries was not associated with prevalence, but diverse social factors may be linked to surveillance effort - reporting. Our model predictions were initially quite inaccurate, but improved markedly as more data accumulated within the Americas. The data-driven methodology explored in this study provides an opportunity to generate descriptive - predictive information on spread of emerging diseases in the short-term under simple models based on open-access tools - data that can inform early-warning systems - public health intelligence."

38) Zika virus and the never-ending story of emerging pathogens and transfusion medicine.
Autor: Marano Giuseppe,Pupella Simonetta,Vaglio Stefania,Liumbruno Giancarlo M,Grazzini Giuliano
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Viral infections
Fonte: Blood Transfusion, v. 14, n. 2, p. 95-100, 2016
ISSN: 1723-2007
Resumo: In the last few years, the transfusion medicine community has been paying special attention to emerging vector-borne diseases transmitted by arboviruses. Zika virus is the latest of these pathogens and is responsible for major outbreaks in Africa, Asia and, more recently, in previously infection-naïve territories of the Pacific area. Many issues regarding this emerging pathogen remain unclear and require further investigation. National health authorities have adopted different prevention strategies. The aim of this review article is to discuss the currently available, though limited, information and the potential impact of this virus on transfusion medicine.

39) Chikungunya virus-associated encephalitis: a cohort study on La Réunion Island, 2005-2009
Autor: Gérardin Patrick, Couderc Thérèse, Bintner Marc, Tournebize Patrice, Renouil Michel, Lémant Jérome, Boisson Véronique, Borgherini Gianandrea, Staikowsky Frédérik, Schramm Frédéric, Lecuit Marc, Michault Alain
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Antibodies ; Chikungunya virus - Infectious diseases ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus
Fonte: Neurology, v. 86, n. 1, p. 94-102, 2016
ISSN: 1526-632X
Resumo: To estimate the cumulative incidence rate (CIR) of Chikungunya virus (CHIKV)-associated CNS disease during the La Réunion outbreak, - assess the disease burden - patient outcome after 3 years. CHIKV-associated CNS disease was characterized retrospectively in a cohort of patients with positive CHIKV reverse transcriptase PCR or anti-CHIKV immunoglobulin M antibodies in the CSF - fulfilling International Encephalitis Consortium criteria for encephalitis or encephalopathy. Neurologic sequelae were assessed after 3 years. Between September 2005 - June 2006, 57 patients were diagnosed with CHIKV-associated CNS disease, including 24 with CHIKV-associated encephalitis, the latter corresponding to a CIR of 8.6 per 100,000 persons. Patients with encephalitis were observed at both extremes of age categories. CIR per 100,000 persons were 187 - 37 in patients below 1 year - over 65 years, respectively, both far superior to those of cumulated causes of encephalitis in the United States in these age categories. The case-fatality rate of CHIKV-associated encephalitis was 16.6% - the proportion of children discharged with persistent disabilities estimated between 30% - 45%. Beyond the neonatal period, the clinical presentation - outcomes were less severe in infants than in adults. In the context of a large outbreak, CHIKV is a significant cause of CNS disease. As with other etiologies, CHIKV-associated encephalitis case distribution by age follows a U-shaped parabolic curve.

40) Community crystal gazing
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Acharya, Anu; Bingham, Kate; Bradner, Jay; Burke, Wylie; Charo, R Alta; Cherry, Joel; Choulika, André; Coles, Tony; Cook-deegan, Robert; Crook, Stanley T; Díaz, Emilia; Erickson, Brent; Giddings, L Val; Giwa, Sebastian Eriksson; Greenwood, James C; Gulati, Vishal; Hall, Sam; Harris, John; Heywood, Jamie; Hill, Colin; Levin, Jeremy; Mangubat, Adina; Maraganore, John; Mariggi, Giovanni; Mazur, Barbara J; Mcguire, Amy L; Moll, Nathalie; Moreno, Jonathan; Naughton, Gail; Nelsen, Lita; Osbourn, Jane; Perez, Daniel; Reed, John; Schmidt, Eric; Seyfert-margolis, Vicki; Stoffels, Paul; Thorball, Jorgen; O'toole, Tara; Vainu, Indrek; Van Deventer, Sander; Zerhouni, Elias; Zohar, Daphne
Assunto: Biotechnology industry, Business innovations
Descritores: Zika virus - Antibodies ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Clinical examination ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Nature Biotechnology, v. 34, n. 3, p. 276-283, 2016.
ISSN: 1087-0156
Resumo:

41) Parameters of Mosquito-Enhanced West Nile Virus Infection
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Moser, Lindsey A.; Lim, Pei-Yin; Styer, Linda M.; Kramer, Laura D.; Bernard, Kristen A.
Assunto: Salivary gland extracts; Host immune response; Female Aedes aegypti; Dengue virus; Differential modulation; Culex tarsalis; Mast cells; Mice; Disease; Bite
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - Immune response ; Aedes aegypti - Molecular structure ; Aedes aegypti - Viral infections ; Aedes aegypti - Virus
Fonte: Journal of Virology, v. 90, n. 1, p. 292-299, 2016
ISSN: 0022-538X
Resumo: The arthropod-borne West Nile virus (WNV) emerged in New York State in 1999 and quickly spread throughout the United States. Transmission is maintained in an enzootic cycle in which infected mosquitoes transmit the virus to susceptible hosts during probing and feeding. Arthropod-derived components within the viral inoculum are increasingly acknowledged to play a role in infection of vertebrate hosts. We previously showed that Culex tarsalis mosquito saliva and salivary gland extract (SGE) enhance the in vivo replication of WNV. Here, we characterized the effective dose, timing, and proximity of saliva and SGE administration necessary for enhancement of WNV viremia using a mouse model Mosquito saliva and SGE enhanced viremia in a dose-dependent manner, and a single mosquito bite or as little as 0.01 mu g of SGE was effective at enhancing viremia, suggesting a potent active salivary factor. Viremia was enhanced when SGE was injected in the same location as virus inoculation from 24 h before virus inoculation through 12 h after virus inoculation. These results were confirmed with mosquito saliva deposited by uninfected mosquitoes. When salivary treatment and virus inoculation were spatially separated, viremia was not enhanced. In summary, the effects of mosquito saliva and SGE were potent, long lasting, and localized, and these studies have implications for virus transmission in nature, where vertebrate hosts are fed upon by both infected and uninfected mosquitoes over time. Furthermore, our model provides a robust system to identify the salivary factor(s) responsible for enhancement of WNV replication.

42) Catastrophic antiphospholipid syndrome triggered by fulminant Chikungunya infection in a patient with systemic lupus erythematosus
Autor: Betancur Juan-Felipe, Navarro Erika Paola, Echeverry Alex, Suso Juan Pablo, Bravo Bonilla José Humberto, Daniel Cortés Armando, Cañas Dávila Carlos, Vélez Juan Diego, Tobón Gabriel J
Assunto: Chikungunya virus infection; Catastrophic antiphospholipid syndrome; Multiorgan failure; Systemic lupus erythematosus
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Cytopathology ; Chikungunya virus - Infectious diseases ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Immunology
Fonte: Arthritis & Rheumatology, v. 68, n. 4, p. 1044, 2016
ISSN: 2326-5205
Resumo:

43) Effects of an in-frame deletion of the 6k gene locus from the genome of Ross River virus
Autor: Taylor Adam, Melton Julian V, Herrero Lara J, Thaa Bastian, Karo-Astover Liis, Gage Peter W, Nelson Michelle A, Sheng Kuo-Ching, Lidbury Brett A, Ewart Gary D, McInerney Gerald M, Merits Andres, Mahalingam Suresh
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Cell ; Chikungunya virus - Genome ; Chikungunya virus - Proteins ; Chikungunya virus - Inflammation ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Vaccine ; Chikungunya virus - Epidemic
Fonte: Journal of Virology, v. 90, n. 8, p. 4150-4159, 2016
ISSN: 1098-5514
Resumo: The alphaviral 6k region encodes the two structural proteins 6K protein -, due to a ribosomal frameshift event, TF protein. Here, we characterized the role of the 6k proteins in the arthritogenic alphavirus Ross River virus (RRV) in infected cells - in mice, using a novel 6k in-frame deletion mutant. Comprehensive microscopic analysis revealed that the 6k proteins were predominantly localized at the endoplasmic reticulum of RRV-infected cells. RRV virions that lack the 6k proteins were more vulnerable to changes in pH - corresponding virus had increased sensitivity to higher temperature. While the 6k deletion did not reduce RRV particle production in BHK-21 cells, it affected virion release from the host cell. Subsequent in vivo studies demonstrated that RRV-(?6K) caused a milder disease than wild-type virus, with reduced viral titres in infected mice. Immunisation of mice with RRV-(?6K) resulted in reduced viral load - accelerated viral elimination upon secondary infection with WT-RRV or another alphavirus, chikungunya virus (CHIKV). Our results show that the 6k proteins may contribute to alphaviral disease manifestations - suggest that manipulating the 6k gene may be a potential strategy to facilitate viral vaccine development. Arthritogenic alphaviruses such as chikungunya virus (CHIKV) - Ross River virus (RRV) cause epidemics of debilitating rheumatic disease in endemic areas - can emerge in new regions worldwide. RRV is of considerable medical significance in Australia, where it is the leading cause of arboviral disease. The mechanisms by which alphaviruses persist - cause disease in the host are ill-defined. This paper describes the phenotypic properties of an RRV 6k-deletion mutant. The absence of the 6k gene reduced virion release from infected cells - also reduced the severity of disease - viral titres in infected mice. Immunisation with the mutant virus protected mice against viraemia not only upon exposure to RRV, but also upon challenge with CHIKV. These findings could lead to the development of safer - more immunogenic alphavirus vectors for vaccine delivery.

44) Autophagy and viral diseases transmitted by Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Carneiro L.A.M., Travassos L.H.
Assunto: Aedes aegypti, Aedes albopictus, autophagy, virus infection
Descritores: Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Microbes and Infection, fev. 2016
ISSN: 1769-714X (electronic),1286-4579
Resumo: Despite a long battle that was started by Oswaldo Cruz more than a century ago, in 1903, Brazil still struggles to fight Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus, the mosquito vectors of dengue virus (DENV), Chikungynya virus (CHIKV) and Zika virus (ZIKV). Dengue fever has been a serious public health problem in Brazil for decades, with recurrent epidemic outbreaks occurring during summers. In 2015, until November, 1,534,932 possible cases were reported to the Ministry of Healthv [1]. More recently, the less studied CHIKV and ZIKV have gained attention because of a dramatic increase in their incidence (around 400% for CHIKV) and the association of ZIKV infection with a 11-fold increase in the number of cases of microcephaly from 2014 to 2015 in northeast Brazil (1761 cases until December 2015) [1]. The symptoms of these three infections are very similar, which complicates the diagnosis. These include fever, headache, nausea, fatigue, and joint pain. In some cases, DENV infection develops into dengue hemorrhagic fever, a life threatening condition characterized by bleeding and decreases in platelet numbers in the blood. As for CHIKV, the most important complication is joint pain, which can last for months.

45) Emerging and changing viral diseases in the new millennium
Autor: Scully C, Samaranayake L P
Assunto: Chikungunya; Ebola; HIV; HPV; Dengue; Herpes; Infections; Mouth; Oral; Virus
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever ; Chikungunya virus - Dengue
Fonte: Oral Diseases, v. 22, n. 3, p. 171-179, 2016
ISSN: 1601-0825
Resumo: Most viral infections encountered in resource-rich countries are relatively trivial - transient with perhaps fever, malaise, myalgia, rash (exanthema) - sometimes mucosal manifestations (enanthema), including oral in some. However, the apparent benignity may be illusory as some viral infections have unexpected consequences - such as the oncogenicity of some herpesviruses - human papillomaviruses. Infections are transmitted from various human or animal vectors, especially by close proximity, - the increasing movements of peoples across the globe, mean that infections hitherto confined largely to the tropics now appear worldwide. Global warming also increases the range of movement of vectors such as mosquitoes. Thus recent decades have seen a most dramatic change with the emergence globally also of new viral infections - notably human immunodeficiency viruses (HIV) - - the appearance of some other dangerous - sometimes lethal infections formerly seen mainly in, - reported from, resource-poor areas especially in parts of Asia, Latin America - Africa. This study offers a brief update of the most salient new aspects of the important viral infections, especially those with known orofacial manifestations or other implications for oral health care.

46) First detection of autochthonous Zika virus transmission in a HIV-infected patient in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Calvet G.A., Filippis A.M.B., Mendonça M.C.L., Sequeira P.C., Siqueira A.M., Veloso V.G., Nogueira R.M., Brasil P.
Assunto: Arbovirus, Human immunodeficiency virus infected patient, Human immunodeficiency virus infection (drug therapy, drug therapy), RNA virus infection, virus transmission, Zika virus, Zika virus infection
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Cell ; Zika virus - Phylogenesis ; Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Clinical examination ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Rash maculopapular
Fonte: Journal of Clinical Virology, v. 74, p. 1-3, jan. 2016
ISSN: 1873-5967 (electronic),1386-6532
Resumo: Since May 2015, Brazil's Ministry of Health has reported autochthonous transmission of Zika virus (ZIKV) in some states of the country. Simultaneous circulation of Dengue, Chikungunya and ZIKV in the country hinder both the diagnosis and the therapeutic approach of patients seeking care with acute febrile illnesses especially in patients with comorbidities. The association between HIV infection and endemic diseases has been described especially in tropical regions with varying levels of complications, although there has been no report of ZIKV in HIV-infected patients. We report the first autochthonous case of laboratory confirmed ZIKV infection in a HIV-infected patient in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. He evolved with only mild symptoms and recovered well without major laboratory abnormalities. Phylogenetic analysis of the ZIKV detected in the patient sera clustered within the Asian clade. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that Zika virus co-infection is reported in a HIV-infected patient.

47) Correction for Okabayashi et al., detection of Chikungunya virus antigen by a novel rapid immunochromatographic test
Autor: Okabayashi Tamaki, Sasaki Tadahiro, Masrinoul Promsin, Chantawat Nantarat, Yoksan Sutee, Nitatpattana Narong, Chusri Sarunyou, Morales Vargas Ronald E, Grandadam Marc, Brey Paul T, Soegijanto Soegeng, Mulyantno Kris Cahyo, Churrotin Siti, Kotaki Tomohiro, Faye Oumar, Faye Ousmane, Sow Abdourahmane, Sall Amadou Alpha, Puiprom Orapim, Chaichana Panjaporn, Kurosu Takeshi, Kato Seiji, Kosaka Mieko, Ramasoota Pongrama, Ikuta Kazuyoshi
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Infectious diseases ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Vaccine ; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever
Fonte: Journal of Clinical Microbiology, v. 54, n. 4, p. 1173-1174, 2016
ISSN: 1098-660X
Resumo:

48) Zika virus associated with microcephaly.
Autor: Mlakar Jernej,Korva Misa,Tul Nataša,Popovi? Mara,Poljšak-Prijatelj Mateja,Mraz Jerica,Kolenc Marko,Resman Rus Katarina,Vesnaver Vipotnik Tina,Fabjan Vodušek Vesna,Vizjak Alenka,Pižem Jože,Petrovec Miroslav,Avši? Županc Tatjana
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Cytopathology ; Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Genome ; Zika virus - Pathogenesis ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Inflammation ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - RT-PCR ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Immunology ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: The New England Journal of Medicine, v. 374, n. 10, p. 951-958, 2016
ISSN: 1533-4406
Resumo: A widespread epidemic of Zika virus (ZIKV) infection was reported in 2015 in South and Central America and the Caribbean. A major concern associated with this infection is the apparent increased incidence of microcephaly in fetuses born to mothers infected with ZIKV. In this report, we describe the case of an expectant mother who had a febrile illness with rash at the end of the first trimester of pregnancy while she was living in Brazil. Ultrasonography performed at 29 weeks of gestation revealed microcephaly with calcifications in the fetal brain and placenta. After the mother requested termination of the pregnancy, a fetal autopsy was performed. Micrencephaly (an abnormally small brain) was observed, with almost complete agyria, hydrocephalus, and multifocal dystrophic calcifications in the cortex and subcortical white matter, with associated cortical displacement and mild focal inflammation. ZIKV was found in the fetal brain tissue on reverse-transcriptase-polymerase-chain-reaction (RT-PCR) assay, with consistent findings on electron microscopy. The complete genome of ZIKV was recovered from the fetal brain.

49) First detection of autochthonous Zika virus transmission in a HIV-infected patient in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
Autor: Calvet Guilherme A, Filippis Ana Maria B, Mendonça Marcos Cesar L, Sequeira Patricia C, Siqueira Andre M, Veloso Valdilea G, Nogueira Rita M, Brasil Patrícia
Assunto: Arbovirus; Brazil; HIV; ZIKV; Zika
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Arbovirus ; Chikungunya virus - Infectious diseases ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Transmission ; Chikungunya virus - Dengue
Fonte: Journal of Clinical Virology, v. 74, p. 1-3, 2016
ISSN: 1873-5967
Resumo: Since May 2015, Brazil's Ministry of Health has reported autochthonous transmission of Zika virus (ZIKV) in some states of the country. Simultaneous circulation of Dengue, Chikungunya - ZIKV in the country hinder both the diagnosis - the therapeutic approach of patients seeking care with acute febrile illnesses especially in patients with comorbidities. The association between HIV infection - endemic diseases has been described especially in tropical regions with varying levels of complications, although there has been no report of ZIKV in HIV-infected patients. We report the first autochthonous case of laboratory confirmed ZIKV infection in a HIV-infected patient in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. He evolved with only mild symptoms - recovered well without major laboratory abnormalities. Phylogenetic analysis of the ZIKV detected in the patient sera clustered within the Asian clade. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that Zika virus co-infection is reported in a HIV-infected patient.

50) Concurrent malaria and arbovirus infections in Kedougou, southeastern Senegal
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Sow A., Loucoubar C., Diallo D., Faye O., Ndiaye Y., Senghor C.S., Dia A.T., Faye O., Weaver S.C., Diallo M., Malvy D., Sall A.A.
Assunto: malaria, virus infection
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - PCR detection ; Zika virus - RT-PCR ; Zika virus - Chikungunya Fever ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Malaria Journal, v. 15, n. 47, p. 1-7, jan. 2016
ISSN: 1475-2875 (electronic)
Resumo: Background: Malaria is one of the leading causes of acute febrile illness (AFI) in Africa. With the advent of malaria rapid diagnostic tests, misdiagnosis and co-morbidity with other diseases has been highlighted by an increasing number of studies. Although arboviral infections and malaria are both vector-borne diseases and often have an overlapping geographic distribution in sub-Saharan Africa, information about their incidence rates and concurrent infections is scarce. Methods: From July 2009 to March 2013 patients from seven healthcare facilities of the Kedougou region presenting with AFI were enrolled and tested for malaria and arboviral infections, i.e., yellow fever (YFV), West Nile (WNV), dengue (DENV), chikungunya (CHIKV), Crimean Congo haemorrhagic fever (CCHFV), Zika (ZIKV), and Rift Valley fever viruses (RVFV). Malaria parasite infections were investigated using thick blood smear (TBS) and rapid diagnostics tests (RDT) while arbovirus infections were tested by IgM antibody detection (ELISA) and RT-PCR assays. Data analysis of single or concurrent malaria and arbovirus was performed using R software. Results: A total of 13,845 patients, including 7387 with malaria and 41 with acute arbovirus infections (12 YFV, nine ZIKV, 16 CHIKV, three DENV, and one RVFV) were enrolled. Among the arbovirus-infected patients, 48.7 % (20/41) were co-infected with malaria parasites at the following frequencies: CHIKV 18.7 % (3/16), YFV 58.3 % (7/12), ZIKV 88.9 % (8/9), DENV 33.3 % (1/3), and RVF 100 % (1/1). Fever ?40 °C was the only sign or symptom significantly associated with dual malaria parasite/arbovirus infection. Conclusions: Concurrent malaria parasite and arbovirus infections were detected in the Kedougou region from 2009 to 2013 and need to be further documented, including among asymptomatic individuals, to assess its epidemiological and clinical impact.

51) Forecasting Chikungunya spread in the Americas via data-driven empirical approaches
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Escobar, Luis E.; Qiao, Huijie; Peterson, A. Townsend
Assunto: Epidemic; Transmission; Disease model; Vector-borne; Passenger flow
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Infectious diseases ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Parasites & Vectors, v. 9, n. 112, 2016
ISSN: 1756-3305
Resumo: Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is endemic to Africa and Asia, but the Asian genotype invaded the Americas in 2013. The fast increase of human infections in the American epidemic emphasized the urgency of developing detailed predictions of case numbers and the potential geographic spread of this disease.Methods: We developed a simple model incorporating cases generated locally and cases imported from other countries, and forecasted transmission hotspots at the level of countries and at finer scales, in terms of ecological features.Results: By late January 2015, >1.2 M CHIKV cases were reported from the Americas, with country-level prevalences between nil and more than 20 %. In the early stages of the epidemic, exponential growth in case numbers was common; later, however, poor and uneven reporting became more common, in a phenomenon we term "surveillance fatigue." Economic activity of countries was not associated with prevalence, but diverse social factors may be linked to surveillance effort and reporting.Conclusions: Our model predictions were initially quite inaccurate, but improved markedly as more data accumulated within the Americas. The data-driven methodology explored in this study provides an opportunity to generate descriptive and predictive information on spread of emerging diseases in the short-term under simple models based on open-access tools and data that can inform early-warning systems and public health intelligence.

52) Cheating evolution: engineering gene drives to manipulate the fate of wild populations
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Champer, Jackson; Buchman, Anna; Akbari, Omar S
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Cell ; Zika virus - Genome ; Zika virus - Immune response ; Zika virus - Molecular structure ; Zika virus - DNA ; Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - Proteins ; Zika virus - Antibodies ; Zika virus - Immune response ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zuka virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Molecular methods ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Sexual ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Chikungunya Fever ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Nature Reviews. Genetics, v. 17, n. 3, p. 146-159, 2016.
ISSN: 1471-0056
Resumo: Engineered gene drives -- the process of stimulating the biased inheritance of specific genes -- have the potential to enable the spread of desirable genes throughout wild populations or to suppress harmful species, and may be particularly useful for the control of vector-borne diseases such as malaria. Although several types of selfish genetic elements exist in nature, few have been successfully engineered in the laboratory thus far. With the discovery of RNA-guided CRISPR-Cas9 (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats-CRISPR-associated 9) nucleases, which can be utilized to create, streamline and improve synthetic gene drives, this is rapidly changing. Here, we discuss the different types of engineered gene drives and their potential applications, as well as current policies regarding the safety and regulation of gene drives for the manipulation of wild populations.

53) Human MicroRNA miR-532-5p Exhibits Antiviral Activity against West Nile Virus via Suppression of Host Genes SESTD1 and TAB3 Required for Virus Replication
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Slonchak, Andrii; Shannon, Rory P.; Pali, Gabor; Khromykh, Alexander A.
Assunto: Nf-Kappa-B; Dengue Virus; Cellular Microrna; Kunjin Virus; Target Prediction; Rna Interference; Mammalian-Cells; Expression Data; Aedes-Aegypti; Viral Genome
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - Genome ; Aedes aegypti - RNA ; Aedes aegypti - Viral infections ; Aedes aegypti - Virus
Fonte: Journal of Virology, v. 90, n. 5, p. 2388-2402, 2016
ISSN: 0022-538X
Resumo: West Nile virus (WNV) is a mosquito-transmitted flavivirus that naturally circulates between mosquitos and birds but can also infect humans, causing severe neurological disease. The early host response to WNV infection in vertebrates primarily relies on the type I interferon pathway; however, recent studies suggest that microRNAs (miRNAs) may also play a notable role. In this study, we assessed the role of host miRNAs in response to WNV infection in human cells. We employed small RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) analysis to determine changes in the expression of host miRNAs in HEK293 cells infected with an Australian strain of WNV, Kunjin (WNVKUN), and identified a number of host miRNAs differentially expressed in response to infection. Three of these miRNAs were confirmed to be significantly upregulated in infected cells by quantitative reverse transcription (qRT)-PCR and Northern blot analyses, and one of them, miR-532-5p, exhibited a significant antiviral effect against WNVKUN infection. We have demonstrated that miR-532-5p targets and downregulates expression of the host genes SESTD1 and TAB3 in human cells. Small interfering RNA (siRNA) depletion studies showed that both SESTD1 and TAB3 were required for efficient WNVKUN replication. We also demonstrated upregulation of mir-532-5p expression and a corresponding decrease in the expression of its targets, SESTD1 and TAB3, in the brains of WNVKUN-infected mice. Our results show that upregulation of miR-532-5p and subsequent suppression of the SESTD1 and TAB3 genes represent a host antiviral response aimed at limiting WNVKUN infection and highlight the important role of miRNAs in controlling RNA virus infections in mammalian hosts.IMPORTANCEWest Nile virus (WNV) is a significant viral pathogen that poses a considerable threat to human health across the globe. There is no specific treatment or licensed Vaccine available for WNV, and deeper insight into how the virus interacts with the host is required to facilitate their development. In this study, we addressed the role of host microRNAs (miRNAs) in antiviral response to WNV in human cells. We identified miR-532-5p as a novel antiviral miRNA and showed that it is upregulated in response to WNV infection and suppresses the expression of the host genes TAB3 and SESTD1 required for WNV replication. Our results show that upregulation of miR-532-5p and subsequent suppression of the SESTD1 and TAB3 genes represent an antiviral response aimed at limiting WNV infection and highlight the important role of miRNAs in controlling virus infections in mammalian hosts.

54) Comparative genomic analysis of pre-epidemic and epidemic Zika virus strains for virological factors potentially associated with the rapidly expanding epidemic.
Autor: Zhu Zheng,Chan Jasper Fuk-Woo,Tee Kah-Meng,Choi Garnet Kwan-Yue,Lau Susanna Kar-Pui,Woo Patrick Chiu-Yat,Tse Herman,Yuen Kwok-Yung
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Genome ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Immunology
Fonte: Emerging Microbes & Infections, v. 16, n. 5, p. e22, 2016
ISSN: 2222-1751
Resumo: Less than 20 sporadic cases of human Zika virus (ZIKV) infection were reported in Africa and Asia before 2007, but large outbreaks involving up to 73% of the populations on the Pacific islands have started since 2007, and spread to the Americas in 2014. Moreover, the clinical manifestation of ZIKV infection has apparently changed, as evident by increasing reports of neurological complications, such as Guillain-Barré syndrome in adults and congenital anomalies in neonates. We comprehensively compared the genome sequences of pre-epidemic and epidemic ZIKV strains with complete genome or complete polyprotein sequences available in GenBank. Besides the reported phylogenetic clustering of the epidemic strains with the Asian lineage, we found that the topology of phylogenetic tree of all coding regions is the same except that of the non-structural 2B (NS2B) coding region. This finding was confirmed by bootscan analysis and multiple sequence alignment, which suggested the presence of a fragment of genetic recombination at NS2B with that of Spondweni virus. Moreover, the representative epidemic strain possesses one large bulge of nine bases instead of an external loop on the first stem-loop structure at the 3'-untranslated region just distal to the stop codon of the NS5 in the 1947 pre-epidemic prototype strain. Fifteen amino acid substitutions are found in the epidemic strains when compared with the pre-epidemic strains. As mutations in other flaviviruses can be associated with changes in virulence, replication efficiency, antigenic epitopes and host tropism, further studies would be important to ascertain the biological significance of these genomic changes.

55) External quality assessment studies for laboratory performance of molecular and serological diagnosis of Chikungunya virus infection
Autor: Jacobsen Sonja, Patel Pranav, Schmidt-Chanasit Jonas, Leparc-Goffart Isabelle, Teichmann Anette, Zeller Herve, Niedrig Matthias
Assunto: CHIK; Chikungunya; Diagnosis; EQA; Molecular; Proficiency test; Quality control; Serology
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Arbovirus ; Chikungunya virus - Serology ; Chikungunya virus - Molecular methods ; Chikungunya virus - Serological diagnosis ; Chikungunya virus - Serology ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Molecular screening ; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever
Fonte: Journal of Clinical Virology, v. 76, p. 55-65, 2016
ISSN: 1873-5967
Resumo: Since the re-emergence of Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) in Reunion in 2005 - the recent outbreak in the Caribbean isl-s with an expansion to the Americas the CHIK diagnostic became very important. We evaluate the performance of laboratories regarding molecular - serological diagnostic of CHIK worldwide. A panel of 12 samples for molecular - 13 samples for serology were provided to 60 laboratories in 40 countries for evaluating the sensitivity - specificity of molecular - serology testing. The panel for molecular diagnostic testing was analysed by 56 laboratories returning 60 data sets of results whereas the 56 - 60 data sets were returned for IgG - IgM diagnostic from the participating laboratories. Twenty-three from 60 data sets performed optimal, 7 acceptable - 30 sets of results require improvement. From 50 data sets only one laboratory shows an optimal performance for IgM detection, followed by 9 data sets with acceptable - the rest need for improvement. From 46 IgG serology data sets 20 provide an optimal, 2 an acceptable - 24 require improvement performance. The evaluation of some of the diagnostic performances allows linking the quality of results to the in-house methods or commercial assays used. The external quality assurance for CHIK diagnostics provides a good overview on the laboratory performance regarding sensitivity - specificity for the molecular - serology diagnostic required for the quick - reliable analysis of suspected CHIK patients. Nearly half of the laboratories have to improve their diagnostic profile to achieve a better performance.

56) Zika virus: diagnostics for an emerging pandemic threat.
Autor: Waggoner Jesse J,Pinsky Benjamin A
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Cytopathology ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Dengue
Fonte: Journal of Clinical Microbiology, v. 54, n. 4, p. 860-867, 2016
ISSN: 1098-660X
Resumo: Zika virus (ZIKV) is an Aedes mosquito-borne flavivirus that emerged in Brazil in 2015 and then rapidly spread throughout the tropical and subtropical Americas. Based on clinical criteria alone, ZIKV cannot be reliably distinguished from infections with other pathogens that cause an undifferentiated systemic febrile illness, including infections with two common arboviruses, dengue virus and chikungunya virus. This review details the methods that are available to diagnose ZIKV infection.

57) Chikungunya virus sequences across the first epidemic in Nicaragua, 2014-2015
Autor: Wang Chunling, Saborio Saira, Gresh Lionel, Eswarappa Meghana, Wu Diane, Fire Andrew, Parameswaran Poornima, Balmaseda Angel, Harris Eva
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Cytopathology ; Chikungunya virus - Infectious diseases ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Epidemic ; Chikungunya virus - Public health
Fonte: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, v. 94, n. 2, p. 400-403, 2016
ISSN: 1476-1645
Resumo: Chikungunya is caused by the mosquito-borne arthrogenic alphavirus, chikungunya virus (CHIKV). Chikungunya was introduced into the Americas in late 2013 - Nicaragua in mid-2014. Here, we sequenced five imported - 30 autochthonous Nicaraguan CHIKV from cases identified in the first epidemic in the country between August 2014 - April 2015. One full-length - two partial genomic sequences were obtained by deep sequencing; Sanger methodology yielded 33 E1 sequences from five imported - 28 autochthonous cases. Phylogenetic analysis indicates that Nicaraguan CHIKV all belonged to the Asian genotype, Caribbean clade. Moreover, E1 gene sequences revealed accumulation of mutations in later months of the epidemic, including four silent mutations in 11 autochthonous cases - three non-synonymous mutations in three autochthonous cases. No mutations contributing to increased transmissibility by Aedes albopictus were identified in the E1 gene. This represents the most comprehensive set of CHIKV sequences available from the Americas to date.

58) Zika virus in the Americas: early epidemiological and genetic findings.
Autor: Faria Nuno Rodrigues,Azevedo Raimunda do Socorro da Silva,Kraemer Moritz U G,Souza Renato,Cunha Mariana Sequetin,Hill Sarah C,Thézé Julien,Bonsall Michael B,Bowden Thomas A,Rissanen Ilona,Rocco Iray Maria,Nogueira Juliana Silva,Maeda Adriana Yurika,Vasami Fernanda Giseli da Silva,Macedo Fernando Luiz de Lima,Suzuki Akemi,Rodrigues Sueli Guerreiro,Cruz Ana Cecilia Ribeiro,Nunes Bruno Tardeli,Medeiros Daniele Barbosa de Almeida,Rodrigues Daniela Sueli Guerreiro,Nunes Queiroz Alice Louize,Silva Eliana Vieira Pinto da,Henriques Daniele Freitas,Travassos da Rosa Elisabeth Salbe,de Oliveira Consuelo Silva,Martins Livia Caricio,Vasconcelos Helena Baldez,Casseb Livia Medeiros Neves,Simith Darlene de Brito,Messina Jane P,Abade Leandro,Lourenço José,Alcantara Luiz Carlos Junior,Lima Maricélia Maia de,Giovanetti Marta,Hay Simon I,de Oliveira Rodrigo Santos,Lemos Poliana da Silva,Oliveira Layanna Freitas de,de Lima Clayton Pereira Silva,da Silva Sandro Patroca,Vasconcelos Janaina Mota de,Franco Luciano,Cardoso Jedson Ferreira,Vianez-Júnior João Lídio da Silva Gonçalves,Mir Daiana,Bello Gonzalo,Delatorre Edson,Khan Kamran,Creatore Marisa,Coelho Giovanini Evelim,de Oliveira Wanderson Kleber,Tesh Robert,Pybus Oliver G,Nunes Marcio R T,Vasconcelos Pedro F C
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Cytopathology ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Epidemic ;Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Science, 2016
ISSN: 1095-9203
Resumo: Brazil has experienced an unprecedented epidemic of Zika virus (ZIKV), with ~30,000 cases reported to date. ZIKV was first detected in Brazil in May 2015 and cases of microcephaly potentially associated with ZIKV infection were identified in November 2015. Using next generation sequencing we generated seven Brazilian ZIKV genomes, sampled from four self-limited cases, one blood donor, one fatal adult case, and one newborn with microcephaly and congenital malformations. Phylogenetic and molecular clock analyses show a single introduction of ZIKV into the Americas, estimated to have occurred between May-Dec 2013, more than 12 months prior to the detection of ZIKV in Brazil. The estimated date of origin coincides with an increase in air passengers to Brazil from ZIKV endemic areas, and with reported outbreaks in Pacific Islands. ZIKV genomes from Brazil are phylogenetically interspersed with those from other South American and Caribbean countries. Mapping mutations onto existing structural models revealed the context of viral amino acid changes present in the outbreak lineage; however no shared amino acid changes were found among the three currently available virus genomes from microcephaly cases. Municipality-level incidence data indicate that reports of suspected microcephaly in Brazil best correlate with ZIKV incidence around week 17 of pregnancy, although this does not demonstrate causation. Our genetic description and analysis of ZIKV isolates in Brazil provide a baseline for future studies of the evolution and molecular epidemiology in the Americas of this emerging virus.

59) Curcumin and Boswellia serrata gum resin extract inhibit chikungunya and vesicular stomatitis virus infections in vitro
Autor: von Rhein Christine, Weidner Tatjana, Henß Lisa, Martin Judith, Weber Christopher, Sliva Katja, Schnierle Barbara S
Assunto: Boswellic acid; Chikungunya virus; Curcumin; Traditional medicine; Vesicular stomatitis virus
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Vaccine ; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever
Fonte: Antiviral Research, v. 125, p. 51-57, 2016
ISSN: 1872-9096
Resumo: Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a mosquito-transmitted alphavirus that causes chikungunya fever - has infected millions of people mainly in developing countries. The associated disease is characterized by rash, high fever, - severe arthritis that can persist for years. CHIKV has adapted to Aedes albopictus, which also inhabits temperate regions including Europe - the United States of America. CHIKV has recently caused large outbreaks in Latin America. No treatment or licensed CHIKV vaccine exists. Traditional medicines are known to have anti-viral effects; therefore, we examined whether curcumin or Boswellia serrata gum resin extract have antiviral activity against CHIKV. Both compounds blocked entry of CHIKV Env-pseudotyped lentiviral vectors - inhibited CHIKV infection in vitro. In addition, vesicular stomatitis virus vector particles - viral infections were also inhibited to the same extent, indicating a broad antiviral activity. Although the bioavailability of these compounds is rather poor, they might be used as a lead structure to develop more effective antiviral drugs or might be used topically to prevent CHIKV spread in the skin after mosquito bites.

60) The reemergence of Zika virus: a review on pathogenesis, clinical manifestations, diagnosis, and treatment.
Autor: Shuaib Waqas,Stanazai Hashim,Abazid Ahmad G,Mattar Ahmed A
Assunto: Brazil, Chikungunya, Dengue, Microcephaly, Zika
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Pathogenesis ; Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Chikungunya Fever ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: The American Journal of Medicine, 2016
ISSN: 1555-7162
Resumo: Zika virus (ZKV) is an arbovirus of the Flaviviridae family, which includes West Nile, Dengue Fever, Chikungunya Virus, Yellow Fever, and Japanese encephalitis virus. It is transmitted by the Aedes genus of mosquitoes. Prior to 2015, ZKV outbreaks occurred in areas of Africa, the Pacific Islands and Southeast Asia. The current large outbreak, which began in Brazil, has also emerged throughout a large part of South/Central America, a number of islands in the Caribbean, including Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, and Mexico. A sudden rise in the numbers of infants reported born with microcephaly in Brazil, and the detection of the single-stranded positive RNA virus in the amniotic fluid of affected newborns, has captured medical, mainstream media, and global political attention, causing considerable concern in a post-Ebola global community considerably more focused on the threat of internationally transmissible diseases. The goal of this article is to provide an overview of ZKV for clinicians, with the emphasis on pathogenesis, clinical manifestations, diagnosis, and treatment/preventive measures.

61) Clinical attack rate of chikungunya in a cohort of nicaraguan children
Autor: Balmaseda Angel, Gordon Aubree, Gresh Lionel, Ojeda Sergio, Saborio Saira, Tellez Yolanda, Sanchez Nery, Kuan Guillermina, Harris Eva
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Infectious diseases ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Transmission ; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever ; Chikungunya virus - Dengue ; Chikungunya virus - Epidemiology ; Chikungunya virus - Public health
Fonte: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, v. 94, n. 2, p. 397-399, 2016
ISSN: 1476-1645
Resumo: Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) was recently introduced into the Americas. In Nicaragua, the first endogenous transmission of CHIKV was recognized in September 2014. We used an ongoing dengue cohort study of children aged 2-14 years in Managua, Nicaragua, to document the attack rate of symptomatic chikungunya in a presumably naive population. From September 2014 through March 2015, the overall clinical attack rate of laboratory-confirmed CHIKV infection was 2.9% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.3%, 3.4%). The attack rate was greater in children ? 8 years of age (4.1%; 95% CI: 3.2%, 5.1%) than in those < 8 years of age (1.5%; 95% CI: 0.9%, 2.1%). The mean age of CHIKV cases presenting with typical chikungunya symptoms was 9.8 years, compared with 7.8 years for cases presenting with undifferentiated fever (P = 0.04). Our data suggest that the clinical attack rate in children may underestimate the true burden of disease as some children, especially young children, may experience more atypical symptoms (e.g., undifferentiated fever).

62) Immunological evidence of Zika virus transmission in Thailand
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Wikan N., Suputtamongkol Y., Yoksan S., Smith D.R., Auewarakul P.
Assunto: virus transmission
Descritores: Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Molecular methods ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Chikungunya Fever ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine, v. 9, n. 2, p. 141–144, feb. 2016
ISSN: 1995-7645
Resumo: Objective: To identify immunological evidence of Zika virus transmission in Thailand. Methods: To undertake a preliminary serosurvey of possible exposure to Zika virus, 21 serum samples from cohort of acute undifferentiated fever patients were examined for immunoreactivity to Zika, Dengue, Japanese encephalitis and Chikungunya envelope antigens by Western blot analysis. Results: Twenty of the 21 serum samples showed immunoreactivity to at least one of the antigens, with seven samples showing immunoreactivity to all antigens. Of particular note, two serum samples showed immunoreactivity only to Zika envelope antigen, with no immunoreactivity to other envelope antigens. Conclusions: This study presents the first evidence of Zika virus transmission in Thailand, although as yet the relationship between transmission and possible cases of Zika fever in Thailand requires further investigation.

63) Inactivation of Zika virus in plasma with amotosalen and ultraviolet A illumination
Autor: Aubry Maite, Richard Vaea, Green Jennifer, Broult Julien, Musso Didier
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Arbovirus ; Chikungunya virus - Cell ; Chikungunya virus - RNA ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Transmission ; Chikungunya virus - Dengue
Fonte: Transfusion, v. 56, n. 1, p. 33-40, 2016
ISSN: 1537-2995
Resumo: Zika virus (ZIKV) is an arthropod-borne virus (arbovirus) transmitted by mosquitoes. The potential for ZIKV transmission through blood transfusion was demonstrated during the ZIKV outbreak that occurred in French Polynesia from October 2013 to April 2014. Pathogen inactivation of blood products is a proactive strategy that provides the potential to reduce transfusion-transmitted diseases. Inactivation of arboviruses by amotosalen - ultraviolet A (UVA) illumination was previously demonstrated for chikungunya, West Nile, - dengue viruses. We report here the efficiency of this process for ZIKV inactivation of human plasma. Plasma units were spiked with ZIKV. Viral titers - RNA loads were measured in plasma before - after amotosalen - UVA photochemical treatment. The mean ZIKV titers - RNA loads in plasma before inactivation were respectively 6.57 log TCID50 /mL - 10.25 log copies/mL. After inactivation, the mean ZIKV RNA loads was 9.51 log copies/mL, but cell cultures inoculated with inactivated plasma did not result in infected cells - did not produce any replicative virus after one passage, nor detectable viral RNA from the second passage. In this study we demonstrate that amotosalen combined with UVA light inactivates ZIKV in fresh-frozen plasma. This inactivation process is of particular interest to prevent plasma transfusion-transmitted ZIKV infections in areas such as French Polynesia, where several arboviruses are cocirculating.

64) The chasm between public health and reproductive research: what history tells us about Zika virus.
Autor: Burd Irina,Griffin Diane
Assunto: Mother-to-child transmission, Sexual transmission virus in seminal fluid, Zika
Descritores: Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Pathogenesis ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Sexual ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Immunology ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Journal of Assisted Reproduction and Genetics, v. 33, n. 4, p. 439-440, 2016
ISSN: 1573-7330
Resumo: Zika transmission from mother to fetus and its possible sexual transmission have become a media focus in the past months as a major public health concern. While mother-to-fetus transmission, fetal neurologic manifestations or sexual transmission have never been documented for this virus before, other viruses that belong to the same family are very well known to reproductive health workers, clinicians, and researchers. As a member of Flaviviridae family, including hepatitis C and bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), Zika's pathogenesis may have some parallels with these infections which may pose future questions for public health and research. Vertical transmission of hepatitis C virus from mother to child is known to occur in up to 10 % of pregnancies. BVDV, a member of Pestivirus genus of Flaviviridae family is not known to be transmitted to humans but is known for its vertical transmission in cattle. BVDV infection at different stages of gestation may lead to a spectrum of adverse pregnancy outcomes, including pregnancy loss and neurologic manifestations (including deformations such as hydrocephalus and microcephaly) in the offspring. Similar to hepatitis C, which is a virus of Hepacivirus genus, BVDV is capable of persistent infection, meaning that virus may stay in mother and future generations of calves may be infected as well, which may, in turn, result in persistence of infection in offspring. Would this be a case with Zika virus? Along with mother-to-fetus transmission, sexual transmission is a concerning implication for Zika virus. Would woman become a persistent career or male be able to persistently carry virus with its sperm is yet unknown; yet, there is a concern for the reservoir of infection. Animal models of the disease are urgently needed not only to demonstrate the mother-to-fetus transmission and confirm the fetal neurologic manifestations but also to address the effects of virus on life-long host's immunity and reproductive health. Along those lines, women desiring pregnancies who are identified to travel, have a partner traveling to, or living in the areas of Zika infections should be encouraged to have a preconception consultation with maternal-fetal medicine.

65) Clinical evaluation of a single-reaction real-time RT-PCR for pan-dengue and chikungunya virus detection
Autor: Waggoner Jesse J, Ballesteros Gabriela, Gresh Lionel, Mohamed-Hadley Alisha, Tellez Yolanda, Sahoo Malaya K, Abeynayake Janaki, Balmaseda Angel, Harris Eva, Pinsky Benjamin A
Assunto: Chikungunya virus; Dengue virus; Molecular diagnostics; Multiplex real-time RT-PCR
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Cytopathology ; Chikungunya virus - Genome ; Chikungunya virus - Infectious diseases ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya virus - PCR detection ; Chikungunya virus - Real Time PCR ; Chikungunya virus - RT-PCR ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Dengue ; Chikungunya virus - Public health
Fonte: Journal of Clinical Virology, v. 78, p. 57-61, 2016
ISSN: 1873-5967
Resumo: Dengue virus (DENV) - chikungunya virus (CHIKV) now co-circulate throughout tropical regions of the world, with billions of people living at risk of infection. The differentiation of these infections is important for epidemiologic surveillance as well as clinical care, though widely-used molecular diagnostics for DENV - CHIKV require the performance of two to four separate PCR reactions for detection. In the current study, we sought to develop - evaluate a single-reaction, multiplex real-time RT-PCR (rRT-PCR) for the detection - differentiation of DENV - CHIKV (the pan-DENV-CHIKV rRT-PCR). From an alignment of all available CHIKV complete genome sequences in GenBank, a new CHIKV rRT-PCR was designed for use in multiplex with a previously described assay for pan-DENV detection. Analytical evaluation was performed in accordance with published recommendations, - the pan-DENV-CHIKV rRT-PCR was clinically compared to reference molecular diagnostics for DENV - CHIKV using 182 serum samples from suspected cases in Managua, Nicaragua. The pan-DENV-CHIKV rRT-PCR had a dynamic range extending from 7.0 to 2.0 log10copies/?L for each DENV serotype - CHIKV, - the lower limits of 95% detection were 7.9-37.4copies/?L. The pan-DENV-CHIKV rRT-PCR detected DENV in 81 patients compared to 75 using a reference, hemi-nested DENV RT-PCR, - it demonstrated perfect agreement with a reference CHIKV rRT-PCR (54 positive samples). The single-reaction, multiplex format of the pan-DENV-CHIKV rRT-PCR, combined with sensitive detection of both viruses, has the potential to improve detection while decreasing testing costs - streamlining molecular workflow.

66) Zika virus outbreak: reproductive health and rights in Latin America.
Autor: Roa Mónica
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: The Lancet, v. 387, n. 10021, p. 843, 2016
ISSN: 1474-547X
Resumo:

67) Characterization of RyDEN (C19orf66) as an interferon-stimulated cellular inhibitor against Dengue Virus replication
Autor: Suzuki Youichi, Chin Wei-Xin, Han Qi'En, Ichiyama Koji, Lee Ching Hua, Eyo Zhi Wen, Ebina Hirotaka, Takahashi Hirotaka, Takahashi Chikako, Tan Beng Hui, Hishiki Takayuki, Ohba Kenji, Matsuyama Toshifumi, Koyanagi Yoshio, Tan Yee-Joo, Sawasaki Tatsuya, Chu Justin Jang Hann, Vasudevan Subhash G, Sano Kouichi, Yamamoto Naoki
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Cell ; Chikungunya virus - Immune response ; Chikungunya virus - Pathogenesis ; Chikungunya virus - Protein synthesis ; Chikungunya virus - Proteins ; Chikungunya virus - RNA ; Chikungunya virus - Immune response ; Chikungunya virus - Infectious diseases ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Vaccine ; Chikungunya virus - Dengue
Fonte: PLoS Pathogens, v. 12, n. 1, p. e1005357, 2016
ISSN: 1553-7374
Resumo: Dengue virus (DENV) is one of the most important arthropod-borne pathogens that cause life-threatening diseases in humans. However, no vaccine or specific antiviral is available for dengue. As seen in other RNA viruses, the innate immune system plays a key role in controlling DENV infection - disease outcome. Although the interferon (IFN) response, which is central to host protective immunity, has been reported to limit DENV replication, the molecular details of how DENV infection is modulated by IFN treatment are elusive. In this study, by employing a gain-of-function screen using a type I IFN-treated cell-derived cDNA library, we identified a previously uncharacterized gene, C19orf66, as an IFN-stimulated gene (ISG) that inhibits DENV replication, which we named Repressor of yield of DENV (RyDEN). Overexpression - gene knockdown experiments revealed that expression of RyDEN confers resistance to all serotypes of DENV in human cells. RyDEN expression also limited the replication of hepatitis C virus, Kunjin virus, Chikungunya virus, herpes simplex virus type 1, - human adenovirus. Importantly, RyDEN was considered to be a crucial effector molecule in the IFN-mediated anti-DENV response. When affinity purification-mass spectrometry analysis was performed, RyDEN was revealed to form a complex with cellular mRNA-binding proteins, poly(A)-binding protein cytoplasmic 1 (PABPC1), - La motif-related protein 1 (LARP1). Interestingly, PABPC1 - LARP1 were found to be positive modulators of DENV replication. Since RyDEN influenced intracellular events on DENV replication -, suppression of protein synthesis from DENV-based reporter construct RNA was also observed in RyDEN-expressing cells, our data suggest that RyDEN is likely to interfere with the translation of DENV via interaction with viral RNA - cellular mRNA-binding proteins, resulting in the inhibition of virus replication in infected cells.

68) Inactivation of Zika virus in plasma with amotosalen and ultraviolet A illumination
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Aubry M., Richard V., Green J., Broult J., Musso D.
Assunto: Arbovirus, ultraviolet A radiation, virus inactivation, Zika virus
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Cell ; Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Dengue
Fonte: Transfusion, v. 56, n. 1, p. 33-40, jan. 2016
ISSN: 1537-2995 (electronic),0041-1132
Resumo: BACKGROUND Zika virus (ZIKV) is an arthropod-borne virus (arbovirus) transmitted by mosquitoes. The potential for ZIKV transmission through blood transfusion was demonstrated during the ZIKV outbreak that occurred in French Polynesia from October 2013 to April 2014. Pathogen inactivation of blood products is a proactive strategy that provides the potential to reduce transfusion-transmitted diseases. Inactivation of arboviruses by amotosalen and ultraviolet A (UVA) illumination was previously demonstrated for chikungunya, West Nile, and dengue viruses. We report here the efficiency of this process for ZIKV inactivation of human plasma. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS Plasma units were spiked with ZIKV. Viral titers and RNA loads were measured in plasma before and after amotosalen and UVA photochemical treatment. RESULTS The mean ZIKV titers and RNA loads in plasma before inactivation were respectively 6.57 log TCID(50)/mL and 10.25 log copies/mL. After inactivation, the mean ZIKV RNA loads was 9.51 log copies/mL, but cell cultures inoculated with inactivated plasma did not result in infected cells and did not produce any replicative virus after one passage, nor detectable viral RNA from the second passage. CONCLUSION In this study we demonstrate that amotosalen combined with UVA light inactivates ZIKV in fresh-frozen plasma. This inactivation process is of particular interest to prevent plasma transfusion-transmitted ZIKV infections in areas such as French Polynesia, where several arboviruses are cocirculating.

69) Chikungunya fever in Japan imported from the Caribbean Islands
Autor: Imai Kazuo, Nakayama Eri, Maeda Takuya, Mikita Kei, Kobayashi Yukiko, Mitarai Aoi, Honma Yasuko, Miyake Satoru, Kaku Koki, Miyahira Yasushi, Kawana Akihiko
Assunto: Chikungunya virus; Caribbean; Japan; Chikungunya fever
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Antibodies ; Chikungunya virus - Infectious diseases ; Chikungunya virus - Serology ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya virus - Serology ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever
Fonte: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases, v. 69, n. 2, p. 151-153, 2016
ISSN: 1884-2836
Resumo: A 53-year-old Japanese woman who was working as a volunteer in the Commonwealth of Dominica in the Caribbean isl-s presented with a high-grade fever - severe incapacitating generalized arthralgia. The Asian genotype of the chikungunya virus was confirmed using reverse transcription-PCR - serology, based on the presence of a specific neutralization titer - immunoglobulin M antibodies. She was diagnosed with post-chikungunya chronic arthritis based on persistence of her polyarthritis for 3 months - the presence of rheumatoid factor, immunoglobulin G-rheumatoid factor, - matrix metalloproteinase-3. Chikungunya virus should be considered as a causative pathogen in travelers returning from Caribbean isl-s. Clinicians should consider chikungunya fever in the differential diagnosis of patients who complain of chronic arthritis - have a history of travel to an endemic area.

70) Scientists probe zika link to birth defects
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Hayden, Erika Check
Assunto: Zika virus, Studies, Medical research, Birth defects
Descritores: Zika virus - Molecular structure ; Zika virus - Antibodies ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Nature, v. 530, n. 7589, p. 142-143, 2016.
ISSN: 0028-0836
Resumo: Public-health authorities are investigating whether the Zika virus has caused an apparent surge in the number of infants born with microcephaly, or abnormally small heads, in at least seven countries. Work now under way includes case-control studies to compare rates of Zika infection in babies who are born with microcephaly and in those without it, as well as genetic sequencing of the virus and efforts to develop a molecular diagnostic test for Zika infection.

71) Impact of Immunoglobulin Therapy in Pediatric Disease: a Review of Immune Mechanisms.
Autor: Wong Priscilla H.; White Kevin M.
Assunto: Autoimmune; Immunomodulation; Inflammatory diseases; Intravenous immunoglobulin therapy; Pediatric diseases
Descritores: Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Immune response ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Pathogenesis ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Antibodies ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Autoimmunity ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Infectious diseases ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Inflammation ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Immunology
Fonte: Clinical Reviews in Allergy & Immunology, v. 51, n. 3, p. 303-314, 2016
ISSN: 1559-0267
Resumo: Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) provides replacement therapy in immunodeficiency and immunomodulatory therapy in inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. This paper describes the immune mechanisms underlying six major non-primary immunodeficiency pediatric diseases and the diverse immunomodulatory functions of IVIG therapy. In Kawasaki disease, IVIG plays a major, proven, and effective role in decreasing aneurysm formation, which represents an aberrant inflammatory response to an infectious trigger in a genetically predisposed individual. In immune thrombocytopenia, IVIG targets the underlying increased platelet destruction and decreased platelet production. Although theoretically promising, IVIG shows no clear clinical benefit in the prophylaxis and treatment of neonatal sepsis. Limitations in research design combined with the unique neonatal immunologic environment offer explanations for this finding. Inflammation from aberrant immune activation underlies the myelinotoxic effects of Guillain-Barré syndrome. HIV-1 exerts a broad range of immunologic effects and was found to decrease serious bacterial infections in the pre-highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART) era, although its practical relevance in the post-HAART era has waned. Clinical and experimental data support the role of immune mechanisms in the pathogenesis of childhood epilepsy. IVIG exerts anti-epileptic effects through targeting upregulated cytokine pathways and antibodies thought to contribute to epilepsy. Applications in six additional pediatric diseases including pediatric asthma, atopic dermatitis, cystic fibrosis, pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with streptococcal infection (PANDAS), autism, and transplantation will also be briefly reviewed. From autoimmunity to immunodeficiency, a dynamic immunologic basis underlies major pediatric diseases and highlights the broad potential of IVIG therapy.

72) Zika virus and pregnancy: a review of the literature and clinical considerations.
Autor: Marrs Caroline,Olson Gayle,Saade George,Hankins Gary,Wen Tony,Patel Janak,Weaver Scott
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Cytopathology ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Immunology ; Zika virus - Microcephaly
Fonte: American Journal of Perinatology, 2016
ISSN: 1098-8785
Resumo: The latest Zika virus (ZIKV) outbreak has reached epidemic proportions as it spreads throughout South and Central America. In November 2015, the Brazilian Ministry of Health reported a 20-fold increase in the number of cases of neonatal microcephaly, which corresponds geographically and temporally to the ZIKV outbreak. Case reports have provided some evidence of a causal link between maternal ZIKV infection, fetal microcephaly, and intracranial calcifications. The sparse data regarding ZIKV in pregnancy come solely from case reports and personal communications, and recommendations for management of ZIKV exposure during pregnancy are rapidly evolving. Our objective is to review and synthesize the current literature regarding ZIKV as it pertains to pregnancy and provide some assistance to clinicians who may have to manage a pregnant patient with potential exposure to ZIKV. We will also explore certain aspects of related viruses in pregnancy in hopes to shed light on this little-known topic.

73) Chikungunya and Dengue virus infections during pregnancy: seroprevalence, seroincidence and maternal-fetal transmission, southern Thailand, 2009-2010
Autor: Laoprasopwattana K, Suntharasaj T, Petmanee P, Suddeaugrai O, Geater A
Assunto: CHIK; Chikungunya; Dengue viral infection; Seroprevalence
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Cytopathology ; Chikungunya virus - Flaviviridae ; Chikungunya virus - Pathogenesis ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Transmission ; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever ; Chikungunya virus - Dengue ; Chikungunya virus - Epidemic ; Chikungunya virus - Epidemiology ; Chikungunya virus - Public health
Fonte: Epidemiology & Infection, v. 144, n. 2, p. 381-388, 2016
ISSN: 1469-4409
Resumo: Limited information is available on the seroprevalence of chikungunya virus (CHIKV) infection - maternal-fetal transmission incidence of CHIKV - dengue virus (DENV) infections during the 2008-2009 CHIKV outbreak in southern Thail-. A community-based post-epidemic seroprevalence study was conducted in parturient women admitted to the Thepa District Hospital in Songkhla Province, Thail-, for delivery from November 2009 to May 2010. The women were tested for chikungunya (CHIK) IgM/IgG - dengue (DEN) IgM/IgG. Cord blood samples were also tested for CHIK IgM or DEN IgM in women who tested positive for CHIK IgM or DEN IgM, respectively. The seroprevalence of CHIKV infection (CHIK IgM or IgG positive) was 227/319 (71·2%) with pre-outbreak seroprevalence (IgM-/IgG+) of 43·6% - the seroprevalence of DENV infection was 288/319 (90·3%). Complications during pregnancy, newborn outcomes - congenital anomalies were not different in those who had recent, remote or no CHIKV infections. None of the newborns whose mothers were CHIK or DEN IgM positive had cord blood positive for both CHIK - DEN IgM. In conclusion, both CHIKV - DENV are endemic in southern Thail-; during the recent CHIKV outbreak CHIK seroprevalence increased from 43·6% to 71·2%.

74) Simultaneous outbreaks of dengue, chikungunya and Zika virus infections: diagnosis challenge in a returning traveller with nonspecific febrile illness.
Autor: Moulin E,Selby K,Cherpillod P,Kaiser L,Boillat-Blanco N
Assunto: Chikungunya, Zika, dengue, diagnostic algorithm, outbreak
Descritores: Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Dengue
Fonte: New Microbes and New Infections, v. 11, p. 6-7, 2016
ISSN: 2052-2975
Resumo: Zika virus is an emerging flavivirus that is following the path of dengue and chikungunya. The three Aedes-borne viruses cause simultaneous outbreaks with similar clinical manifestations which represents a diagnostic challenge in ill returning travellers. We report the first Zika virus infection case imported to Switzerland and present a diagnostic algorithm.

75) Bovine lactoferrin activity against chikungunya and zika viruses
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Carvalho, Carlos A. M. ; Casseb, Samir M. M. ; Gonçalves, Rafael B. ; Silva, Eliana V. P. ; Gomes, Andre M. O. ; Vasconcelos, Pedro F. C.
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya Virus - Arbovirus ; Chikungunya Virus - Viral infections
Fonte: BiorXiv Beta, 2016
ISSN:
Resumo: Chikungunya (CHIKV) and Zika (ZIKV) viruses are two arboviruses which have recently broken their sylvatic isolation and gone into a rampant spreading among humans in some urban areas of the world, specially in Latin America. Given the huge burden that Chikungunya and Zika fevers impose to public health in the affected countries and the lack of effective interventions against them, the aim of this work was to evaluate the antiviral potential of bovine lactoferrin (bLf) - an iron-binding glycoprotein with broad-spectrum antimicrobial properties - in both CHIKV and ZIKV infections. The general antiviral activity of bLf was assessed by plaque assays, and the inhibitory effects of the protein on specific stages of virus infecion was evaluated by immunofluorescence and nucleic acid quantification assays. Our data show that bLf exerts a dose-dependent strong inhibitory effect on the infection of Vero cells by the aforementioned arboviruses, reducing their infection efficiency in up to nearly 80%, with no significant cytotoxicity, and such antiviral activity occurs at the levels of binding and replication of the virus particles. Taken together, these findings reveal that bLf antimicrobial properties are extendable to CHIKV and ZIKV, underlining a generic inhibition mechanism that can be explored to develop a potential strategy against their infections

76) Zika fever.
Autor: Martínez de Salazar Pablo,Suy Anna,Sánchez-Montalvá Adrián,Rodó Carlota,Salvador Fernando,Molina Israel
Assunto: Flavivirus, Microcefalia, Microencephaly, Virus Zika, Zika virus
Descritores: Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiologia Clinica, v. 34, n. 4, p. 247-252, 2016
ISSN: 1578-1852
Resumo: Zika fever is an arboviral systemic disease that has recently become a public health challenge of global concern after its spread through the Americas. This review highlights the current understanding on Zika virus epidemiology, its routes of transmission, clinical manifestations, diagnostic tests, and the current management, prevention and control strategies. It also delves the association between zika infection and complications, such as microencephaly or Guillem-Barré syndrome.

77) Zika virus and neurological disease-approaches to the unknown
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Solomon T., Baylis M., Brown D.
Assunto: neurologic disease, virus, virus infection
Descritores: Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: The Lancet Infectious Diseases, fev. 2016
ISSN: 1474-4457 (electronic),1473-3099
Resumo:

78) WHO reveals its shopping list for weapons against Zika.
Autor: Maurice John
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus – Flaviviridae ; Zika virus – Pathogenesis ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - RNA vírus ; Zika virus – Transmission ; Zika virus – Vaccine ; Zika virus – Epidemiology ; Zika virus – Immunology ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Lancet, v. 387, n. 10020, p. 733, 2016
ISSN: 1474-547X
Resumo: 0

79) Fetal infection by zika virus in the third trimester – report of 2 cases
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Souza, Antonio Soares de ; Dias, Cristiane Moraes ; Braga, Fernanda Del Campo Braojos ; Terzian, Ana Carolina Bernardes ; Estofolete, Cássia Fernanda ; Oliani, Antonio Hélio ; Oliveira, Gustavo Henrique ; Mattos, Cinara Cássia Brandão de ; Mattos, Luiz Carlos de ; Nogueira, Maurício Lacerda ; Vaz-Oliani, Denise Cristina Mós
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Infectious diseases
Fonte: Clinical Infectious Diseases, 2016
ISSN: 1537-6591
Resumo: Zika virus infection acquired during pregnancy was associated with congenital microcephaly. We describe two cases of ZIKV infection in the 36th week of pregnancy whose fetuses had preserved head circumference at birth and findings of subependymal cysts and lenticulostriate vasculopathy in postnatal imaging. These represent the first signs of congenital brain injury acquired due to ZIKV in the third trimester

80) Maintaining a safe blood suply in an era of emerging pathogens
Autor: Marks Peter W, Epstein Jay S, Borio Luciana
Assunto: Blood safety; Donor screening tests; Emerging pathogens; Pathogen-reduction; Zika virus
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Infectious diseases ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Dengue ; Chikungunya virus - Public health
Fonte: The Journal of Infectious Diseases, v. 213, n. 11, p. 1676-1677, 2016
ISSN: 1537-6613
Resumo: Coming shortly after outbreaks of dengue - chikungunya virus in related locations, the recent outbreak of Zika virus in the southern part of the Western Hemisphere is yet another reminder that infectious pathogens continue to emerge rapidly - can adversely impact the public health, including the safety of the blood suply. In response to Zika virus, public health measures that rely largely on donor deferral - sourcing of blood from non-outbreak areas until a blood donor screening test becomes available have been implemented to address the safety of the blood suply in the United States. However, a more universal approach to assuring blood safety in the setting of rapidly emerging infectious diseases is needed.

81) Characterization of RyDEN (C19orf66) as an interferon-stimulated cellular inhibitor against Dengue Virus replication
Autor: Suzuki Youichi, Chin Wei-Xin, Han Qi'En, Ichiyama Koji, Lee Ching Hua, Eyo Zhi Wen, Ebina Hirotaka, Takahashi Hirotaka, Takahashi Chikako, Tan Beng Hui, Hishiki Takayuki, Ohba Kenji, Matsuyama Toshifumi, Koyanagi Yoshio, Tan Yee-Joo, Sawasaki Tatsuya, Chu Justin Jang Hann, Vasudevan Subhash G, Sano Kouichi, Yamamoto Naoki
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Cell ; Chikungunya virus - Immune response ; Chikungunya virus - Pathogenesis ; Chikungunya virus - Protein synthesis ; Chikungunya virus - Proteins ; Chikungunya virus - RNA ; Chikungunya virus - Immune response ; Chikungunya virus - Infectious diseases ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Vaccine ; Chikungunya virus - Dengue
Fonte: PLoS Pathogens, v. 12, n. 1, p. e1005357, 2016
ISSN: 1553-7374
Resumo: Dengue virus (DENV) is one of the most important arthropod-borne pathogens that cause life-threatening diseases in humans. However, no vaccine or specific antiviral is available for dengue. As seen in other RNA viruses, the innate immune system plays a key role in controlling DENV infection - disease outcome. Although the interferon (IFN) response, which is central to host protective immunity, has been reported to limit DENV replication, the molecular details of how DENV infection is modulated by IFN treatment are elusive. In this study, by employing a gain-of-function screen using a type I IFN-treated cell-derived cDNA library, we identified a previously uncharacterized gene, C19orf66, as an IFN-stimulated gene (ISG) that inhibits DENV replication, which we named Repressor of yield of DENV (RyDEN). Overexpression - gene knockdown experiments revealed that expression of RyDEN confers resistance to all serotypes of DENV in human cells. RyDEN expression also limited the replication of hepatitis C virus, Kunjin virus, Chikungunya virus, herpes simplex virus type 1, - human adenovirus. Importantly, RyDEN was considered to be a crucial effector molecule in the IFN-mediated anti-DENV response. When affinity purification-mass spectrometry analysis was performed, RyDEN was revealed to form a complex with cellular mRNA-binding proteins, poly(A)-binding protein cytoplasmic 1 (PABPC1), - La motif-related protein 1 (LARP1). Interestingly, PABPC1 - LARP1 were found to be positive modulators of DENV replication. Since RyDEN influenced intracellular events on DENV replication -, suppression of protein synthesis from DENV-based reporter construct RNA was also observed in RyDEN-expressing cells, our data suggest that RyDEN is likely to interfere with the translation of DENV via interaction with viral RNA - cellular mRNA-binding proteins, resulting in the inhibition of virus replication in infected cells.

82) The emergence of zika virus as a global health security threat: A review and a consensus statement of the INDUSEM Joint working Group (JWG)
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Sikka V., Chattu V.K., Popli R.K., Galwankar S.C., Kelkar D., Sawicki S.G., Stawicki S.P., Papadimos T.J.
Assunto: Flavivirus infection (diagnosis, epidemiology, prevention), Zika virus infection (diagnosis, epidemiology, prevention)
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Immunology ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Rash maculopapular ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Journal of Global Infectious Diseases, v. 8, n. 1, p. 3-15, jan. 2016
ISSN: 0974-8245 (electronic),0974-777X
Resumo: The Zika virus (ZIKV), first discovered in 1947, has emerged as a global public health threat over the last decade, with the accelerated geographic spread of the virus noted during the last 5 years. The World Health Organization (WHO) predicts that millions of cases of ZIKV are likely to occur in the Americas during the next 12 months. These projections, in conjunction with suspected Zika-associated increase in newborn microcephaly cases, prompted WHO to declare public health emergency of international concern. ZIKV-associated illness is characterized by an incubation period of 3-12 days. Most patients remain asymptomatic (i.e., ~80%) after contracting the virus. When symptomatic, clinical presentation is usually mild and consists of a self-limiting febrile illness that lasts approximately 2-7 days. Among common clinical manifestations are fever, arthralgia, conjunctivitis, myalgia, headache, and maculopapular rash. Hospitalization and complication rates are low, with fatalities being extremely rare. Newborn microcephaly, the most devastating and insidious complication associated with the ZIKV, has been described in the offspring of women who became infected while pregnant. Much remains to be elucidated about the timing of ZIKV infection in the context of the temporal progression of pregnancy, the corresponding in utero fetal development stage(s), and the risk of microcephaly. Without further knowledge of the pathophysiology involved, the true risk of ZIKV to the unborn remains difficult to quantify and remediate. Accurate, portable, and inexpensive point-of-care testing is required to better identify cases and manage the current and future outbreaks of ZIKV, including optimization of preventive approaches and the identification of more effective risk reduction strategies. In addition, much more work needs to be done to produce an effective vaccine. Given the rapid geographic spread of ZIKV in recent years, a coordinated local, regional, and global effort is needed to generate sufficient resources and political traction to effectively halt and contain further expansion of the current outbreak.

83) Traveler's Diarrhea
Autor: Giddings Stanley L,Stevens A Michal,Leung Daniel T
Assunto: Antibiotic prophylaxis; Diarrhea; Epidemiology; Probiotics; Risk factors; Travel
Descritores: Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Cytopathology ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Infectious diseases ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Epidemiology ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Immunology
Fonte: The Medical Clinics of North America, v. 100, n. 2, p. 317-330, 2016
ISSN: 1557-9859
Resumo: Traveler's diarrhea (TD) is the most common travel-related illness, and it can have a significant impact on the traveler. Pretravel consultation provides an excellent opportunity for the clinician to counsel the traveler and discuss strategies such as food and water hygiene, vaccinations, and medications for prophylaxis or self-treatment that may decrease the incidence and impact of TD. Postinfectious sequelae, such as postinfectious irritable bowel syndrome, reactive arthritis, and Guillain-Barre syndrome, may develop weeks or months after return.

84) Zika virus detection in urine from patients with Guillain-Barré syndrome on Martinique, january 2016.
Autor: Rozé Benoît,Najioullah Fatiha,Fergé Jean-Louis,Apetse Kossivi,Brouste Yannick,Cesaire Raymond,Fagour Cédric,Fagour Laurence,Hochedez Patrick,Jeannin Séverine,Joux Julien,Mehdaoui Hossein,Valentino Ruddy,Signate Aïssatou,Cabié André,
Assunto: Martinique, emerging or re-emerging diseases, outbreaks, vector-borne infections, viral infections
Descritores: Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Viral infections
Fonte: EuroSurveillance, v. 21, n. 9, 2016
ISSN: 1560-7917
Resumo: We report two cases of Guillain-Barré syndrome who had concomitant Zika virus viruria. This viruria persisted for longer than 15 days after symptom onset. The cases occurred on Martinique in January 2016, at the beginning of the Zika virus outbreak. Awareness of this possible neurological complication of ZikV infection is needed.

85) Rare encounter of unilateral facial nerve palsy in an adolescent with Guillain-Barré syndrome.
Autor: Iqbal Mehtab; Sharma Parnika; Charadva Creana; Prasad Manish
Assunto:
Descritores: Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Antibodies
Fonte: BMJ Case Reports, 2016
ISSN: 1757-790X
Resumo: Unilateral facial nerve palsy is rarely encountered in Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS). We report a case of an adolescent girl who presented with peripheral ascending weakness, preceded by Campylobacter jejuni infection. After treatment with intravenous immunoglobulin, the peripheral weakness improved. Electro-diagnostic testing confirmed axonal dysfunction and the patient was positive for antiganglioside antibodies. However, the patient developed unilateral left-sided facial weakness. She was managed with further intravenous immunoglobulin and intensive physiotherapy. The outcome for facial palsy was very good, with almost complete resolution after 2 weeks.

86) First complete genome sequence of zika virus (Flaviviridae, Flavivirus) from an autochthonous transmission in Brazil.
Autor: Cunha Mariana Sequetin,Esposito Danillo Lucas Alves,Rocco Iray Maria,Maeda Adriana Yurika,Vasami Fernanda Gisele Silva,Nogueira Juliana Silva,de Souza Renato Pereira,Suzuki Akemi,Addas-Carvalho Marcelo,Barjas-Castro Maria de Lourdes,Resende Mariângela Ribeiro,Stucchi Raquel Silveira Bello,Boin Ilka de Fátima Santana Ferreira,Katz Gizelda,Angerami Rodrigo Nogueira,da Fonseca Benedito Antonio Lopes
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Genome ; Zika virus - Proteins ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Epidemiology
Fonte: Genome Announcements, v. 4, n. 2, 2016
ISSN: 2169-8287
Resumo: We report here the genome sequence of Zika virus, strain ZikaSPH2015, containing all structural and nonstructural proteins flanked by the 5' and 3' untranslated region. It was isolated in São Paulo state, Brazil, in 2015, from a patient who received a blood transfusion from an asymptomatic donor at the time of donation.

87) Glaucoma and congenital Zika syndrome
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Freitas, Bruno de Paula; Ko, ; Khouri, Ricardo; Mayoral, Monica; Henrique, Daniele Freitas; Maia, Maurício; Belfort Jr., Rubens
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Viral infections
Fonte: Ophthalmology, 2016
ISSN: 0161-6420
Resumo:

88) Zika virus spreads to new areas: region of the Americas, May 2015-January 2016
Autor: Hennessey, Morgan; Fischer, Marc; Staples, J. Erin
Assunto: Micronesia
Descritores: Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - RT-PCR ; Zika virus - Antibodies ; Zika virus - Biochemistry ; Zika virus - Cell ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - Viral infections
Fonte: Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, v. 65, n. 3, p. 55-58, 2016
ISSN: 0149-2195
Resumo:

89) Zika virus infection in French Polynesia
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Jouannic J.-M., Friszer S., Leparc-Goffart I., Garel C., Eyrolle-Guignot D.
Assunto: French Polynesia, virus infection
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus
Fonte: The Lancet, v. 387, n. 10023, p. 1051–1052, mar. 2016
ISSN: 1474-547X (electronic),0140-6736
Resumo:

90) Zika virus and microcephaly in Brazil: A scientific agenda
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Barreto M.L., Barral-Netto M., Stabeli R., Almeida-Filho N., Vasconcelos P.F.C., Teixeira M., Buss P., Gadelha P.E.
Assunto: Brazil, microcephaly, virus
Descritores: Zika virus - Biochemistry ; Zika virus - Immunology ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Microcephaly;
Fonte: The Lancet, v. 387, n. 10022, p. 919–921, mar. 2016
ISSN: 1474-547X (electronic),0140-6736
Resumo:

91) A survey of malaria and some arboviral infections among suspected febrile patients visiting a health centre in Simawa, Ogun State, Nigeria
Autor: Ayorinde Adenola F, Oyeyiga Ayorinde M, Nosegbe Nwakaego O, Folarin Onikepe A
Assunto: Chikungunya; Dengue; Febrile; Malaria; Plasmodium falciparum; Plasmodium vivax
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Antibodies ; Chikungunya virus - Infectious diseases ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever ; Chikungunya virus - Dengue ; Chikungunya virus - Public health
Fonte: Journal of Infection and Public Health, v. 9, n. 1, p. 52-59, 2016
ISSN: 1876-035X
Resumo: Most febrile patients are often misdiagnosed with malaria due to similar symptoms, such as fever shared by malaria - certain arboviral infections. This study surveyed the incidence of malaria, chikungunya - dengue infections among a number of suspected febrile patients visiting Simawa Health Centre, Ogun State, Nigeria. Venous blood samples were obtained from 60 febrile patients (age 3-70 years) visiting the centre between April - May 2014. The rapid diagnostic test (RDT) was used to detect the presence of chikungunya (CHK) antibodies (IgM), dengue (DEN) virus - antibodies (NS1, IgM - IgG) - malaria parasites (Plasmodium falciparum - Plasmodium vivax). Malarial confirmatory tests were by microscopy - nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using the polymorphic region of Glutamate-Rich Protein (GLURP) gene. The complexity of P. falciparum infection in the community also determined by the use of nested PCR. These three mosquito-borne infections were observed in 63% (38) of the patients. The prevalence of CHK, DEN - malarial infections singularly were 11%, 0% - 63%, respectively, whereas malaria with either CHK or DEN infections were 24% (9) - 3% (1), respectively. No subjects were positive for CHK - DEN co-infection. Malarial microscopic confirmation was in 94% (32) of the malaria RDT-positive samples, 50% (17) were successfully analysed by nested PCR - the mean multiplicity of infection was 1.6 (1-3 clones). One patient sample harboured both P. falciparum - P. vivax. The study reports the presence of some arboviral infections having similar symptoms with malaria at Simawa, Ogun State. The proper diagnosis of infectious diseases is important for controlling them.

92) Zika virus infections in three travellers returning from South America and the Caribbean respectively, to Montpellier, France, December 2015 to January 2016
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Maria A.T., Maquart M., Makinson A., Flusin O., Segondy M., Leparc-Goffart I., Le Moing V., Foulongne V.
Assunto: Flavivirus infection (diagnosis), travel, zika virus infection (diagnosis)
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Serology ; Zika virus - Serological diagnosis ; Zika virus - Chikungunya Fever ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Rash maculopapular ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Eurosurveillance, v. 21, n. 6, feb. 2016
ISSN: 1560-7917 (electronic),1025-496X
Resumo: We report three unrelated cases of Zika virus infection in patients returning from Martinique, Brazil and Colombia respectively, to Montpellier, France. They developed symptoms compatible with a mosquito- borne disease, and serological and molecular investigations indicated a recent Zika virus infection. Considering the recent warning for the likely teratogenicity of Zika virus and the presence of competent mosquito vectors in southern France, these cases highlight the need for awareness of physicians and laboratories in Europe.

93) Zika Virus Infection Among U.S. Pregnant Travelers - August 2015-February 2016.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Meaney-Delman, Dana, Hills, Susan L., Williams, Charnetta, Galang, Romeo R., Iyengar, Preetha, Hennenfent, Andrew K., Rabe, Ingrid B., Panella, Amanda, Oduyebo, Titilope, Honein, Margaret A., Zaki, Sherif, Lindsey, Nicole, Lehman, Jennifer A., Kwit, Natalie, Bertolli, Jeanne, Ellington, Sascha, Igbinosa, Irogue, Minta, Anna A., Petersen, Emily E., Mead, Paul
Assunto: Zika Virus Epidemic, 2015-, Pregnant women - Travel, Pregnancy, Zika virus infections, Microcephaly, Miscarriage
Descritores: Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Zika feverZika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: MMWR: Morbidity & Mortality Weekly Report, v. 65, n. 8, p. 211-214, 2016
ISSN: 1492195
Resumo: After reports of microcephaly and other adverse pregnancy outcomes in infants of mothers infected with Zika virus during pregnancy, CDC issued a travel alert on January 15, 2016, advising pregnant women to consider postponing travel to areas with active transmission of Zika virus. On January 19, CDC released interim guidelines for U.S. health care providers caring for pregnant women with travel to an affected area (1), and an update was released on February 5 (2). As of February 17, CDC had received reports of nine pregnant travelers with laboratory-confirmed Zika virus disease; 10 additional reports of Zika virus disease among pregnant women are currently under investigation. No Zika virus-related hospitalizations or deaths among pregnant women were reported. Pregnancy outcomes among the nine confirmed cases included two early pregnancy losses, two elective terminations, and three live births (two apparently healthy infants and one infant with severe microcephaly); two pregnancies (approximately 18 weeks' and 34 weeks' gestation) are continuing without known complications. Confirmed cases of Zika virus infection were reported among women who had traveled to one or more of the following nine areas with ongoing local transmission of Zika virus: American Samoa, Brazil, El Salvador, Guatemala, Haiti, Honduras, Mexico, Puerto Rico, and Samoa. This report summarizes findings from the nine women with confirmed Zika virus infection during pregnancy, including case reports for four women with various clinical outcomes. U.S. health care providers caring for pregnant women with possible Zika virus exposure during pregnancy should follow CDC guidelines for patient evaluation and management (1,2). Zika virus disease is a nationally notifiable condition. CDC has developed a voluntary registry to collect information about U.S. pregnant women with confirmed Zika virus infection and their infants. Information about the registry is in preparation and will be available on the CDC website.

94) Maintaining a safe blood supply in an era of emerging pathogens.
Autor: Marks Peter W,Epstein Jay S,Borio Luciana
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: The Journal of Infectious Diseases, 2016
ISSN: 1537-6613
Resumo: Coming shortly after outbreaks of dengue and chikungunya virus in related locations, the recent outbreak of Zika virus in the southern part of the Western Hemisphere is yet another reminder that infectious pathogens continue to emerge rapidly and can adversely impact the public health, including the safety of the blood supply. In response to Zika virus, public health measures that rely largely on donor deferral and sourcing of blood from non-outbreak areas until a blood donor screening test becomes available have been implemented to address the safety of the blood supply in the United States. However, a more universal approach to assuring blood safety in the setting of rapidly emerging infectious diseases is needed.

95) Small RNA Profiling in Dengue Virus 2-Infected Aedes Mosquito Cells Reveals Viral piRNAs and Novel Host miRNAs
Autor: Miesen Pascal, Ivens Alasdair, Buck Amy H, van Rij Ronald P
Assunto:
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Arbovirus ; Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - DNA ; Aedes aegypti - Flaviviridae ; Aedes aegypti - Genome ; Aedes aegypti - Proteins ; Aedes aegypti - RNA ; Aedes aegypti - Viral infections ; Aedes aegypti - virus ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue
Fonte: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, v. 10, n. 2, p. e0004452, 2016
ISSN: 1935-2735
Resumo: In Aedes mosquitoes, infections with arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) trigger or modulate the expression of various classes of viral and host-derived small RNAs, including small interfering RNAs (siRNAs), PIWI interacting RNAs (piRNAs), and microRNAs (miRNAs). Viral siRNAs are at the core of the antiviral RNA interference machinery, one of the key pathways that limit virus replication in invertebrates. Besides siRNAs, Aedes mosquitoes and cells derived from these insects produce arbovirus-derived piRNAs, the best studied examples being viruses from the Togaviridae or Bunyaviridae families. Host miRNAs modulate the expression of a large number of genes and their levels may change in response to viral infections. In addition, some viruses, mostly with a DNA genome, express their own miRNAs to regulate host and viral gene expression. Here, we perform a comprehensive analysis of both viral and host-derived small RNAs in Aedes aegypti Aag2 cells infected with dengue virus 2 (DENV), a member of the Flaviviridae family. Aag2 cells are competent in producing all three types of small RNAs and provide a powerful tool to explore the crosstalk between arboviral infection and the distinct RNA silencing pathways. Interestingly, besides the well-characterized DENV-derived siRNAs, a specific population of viral piRNAs was identified in infected Aag2 cells. Knockdown of Piwi5, Ago3 and, to a lesser extent, Piwi6 results in reduction of vpiRNA levels, providing the first genetic evidence that Aedes PIWI proteins produce DENV-derived small RNAs. In contrast, we do not find convincing evidence for the production of virus-derived miRNAs. Neither do we find that host miRNA expression is strongly changed upon DENV2 infection. Finally, our deep-sequencing analyses detect 30 novel Aedes miRNAs, complementing the repertoire of regulatory small RNAs in this important vector species.

96) Longitudinal analysis of natural killer cells in Dengue virus-infected patients in comparison to Chikungunya and Chikungunya/Dengue virus-infected patients
Autor: Petitdemange Caroline, Wauquier Nadia, Devilliers Hervé, Yssel Hans, Mombo Illich, Caron Mélanie, Nkoghé Dieudonné, Debré Patrice, Leroy Eric, Vieillard Vincent
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Arbovirus ; Chikungunya virus - Cell ; Chikungunya virus - Immune response ; Chikungunya virus - Immune response ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Dengue ; Chikungunya virus - Epidemic
Fonte: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, v. 10, n. 3, p. e0004499, 2016
ISSN: 1935-2735
Resumo: Dengue virus (DENV) is the most prominent arbovirus worldwide, causing major epidemics in South-East Asia, South America - Africa. In 2010, a major DENV-2 outbreak occurred in Gabon with cases of patients co-infected with chikungunya virus (CHIKV). Although the innate immune response is thought to be of primordial importance in the development - outcome of arbovirus-associated pathologies, our knowledge of the role of natural killer (NK) cells during DENV-2 infection is in its infancy. We performed the first extensive comparative longitudinal characterization of NK cells in patients infected by DENV-2, CHIKV or both viruses. Hierarchical clustering - principal component analyses were performed to discriminate between CHIKV - DENV-2 infected patients. We observed that both activation - differentiation of NK cells are induced during the acute phase of infection by DENV-2 - CHIKV. Combinatorial analysis however, revealed that both arboviruses induced two different signatures of NK-cell responses, with CHIKV more associated with terminal differentiation, - DENV-2 with inhibitory KIRs. We show also that intracellular production of interferon-? (IFN-?) by NK cells is strongly stimulated in acute DENV-2 infection, compared to CHIKV. Although specific differences were observed between CHIKV - DENV-2 infections, the significant remodeling of NK cell populations observed here suggests their potential roles in the control of both infections.

97) Zika virus and pregnancy: a review of the literature and clinical considerations
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Marrs, Caroline; Olson, Gayle; Saade, George; Hankins, Gary; Wen, Tony; Patel, Janak; Weaver, Scott
Assunto: Zika virus; Pregnancy; Fetus; Transmission; Microcephaly
Descritores: Zika Virus - Cytopathology ; Zika Virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika Virus - Viral infections ; Zika Virus - RNA virus ; Zika Virus - Epidemic ; Zika Virus - Immunology ; Zika Virus - Microcephaly
Fonte: American Journal of Perinatology, v. 33, n. 7, p. 625-639, 2016.
ISSN: 1098-8785
Resumo: The latest Zika virus (ZIKV) outbreak has reached epidemic proportions as it spreads throughout South and Central America. In November 2015, the Brazilian Ministry of Health reported a 20-fold increase in the number of cases of neonatal microcephaly, which corresponds geographically and temporally to the ZIKV outbreak. Case reports have provided some evidence of a causal link between maternal ZIKV infection, fetal microcephaly, and intracranial calcifications. The sparse data regarding ZIKV in pregnancy come solely from case reports and personal communications, and recommendations for management of ZIKV exposure during pregnancy are rapidly evolving. Our objective is to review and synthesize the current literature regarding ZIKV as it pertains to pregnancy and provide some assistance to clinicians who may have to manage a pregnant patient with potential exposure to ZIKV. We will also explore certain aspects of related viruses in pregnancy in hopes to shed light on this little-known topic.

98) Revision to CDC's Zika Travel Notices: Minimal Likelihood for Mosquito-Borne Zika Virus Transmission at Elevations Above 2,000 Meters.
Autor: Cetron Martin
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Microcephaly
Fonte: Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, v. 65, n. 10, p. 267-268, 2016
ISSN: 1545-861X
Resumo: Since May 2015, when Zika virus, a flavivirus transmitted primarily by Aedes aegypti mosquitoes, was reported in Brazil, the virus has rapidly spread across the Region of the Americas and the Caribbean. The association between maternal Zika virus infection and adverse fetal and reproductive outcomes, including microcephaly, prompted CDC to issue a Level 2 alert travel notice* for the 37 countries and U.S. territories (at the national and territorial level) that have reported recent Zika virus transmission as of March 11, 2016. In addition to mosquito bite precautions for all travelers, CDC advises that pregnant women postpone travel to affected countries and U.S. territories. Within a nation's borders, ecologic characteristics, which determine the distribution of mosquito vectors, can vary considerably. CDC conducted a spatial analysis, focusing on the probability of occurrence of Ae. aegypti, to support the demarcation for subnational travel alerts. Based on results of this analysis, travel that is limited to elevations higher than 2,000 m (6,562 ft) above sea level is considered to have minimal (approximately 1%) likelihood for mosquito-borne Zika virus transmission, even within countries reporting active transmission. Women who are pregnant should avoid travel to elevations <2,000 m in countries with active Zika virus transmission.

99) Zika virus in the dock.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: The Lancet Infectious Diseases, null, The Lancet Infectious Diseases
Assunto: Zika virus infections, Microcephaly, Molecular diagnosis, Cross reactions (Immunology), Public health, Brazil
Descritores: Zika virus - Immunology ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Lancet Infectious Diseases, v. 16, n.3, p. 265, 2016
ISSN: 14733099
Resumo:

100) Zika fever imported from Thailand to Japan, and diagnosed by PCR in the urines.
Autor: Shinohara Koh,Kutsuna Satoshi,Takasaki Tomohiko,Moi Meng Ling,Ikeda Makiko,Kotaki Akira,Yamamoto Kei,Fujiya Yoshihiro,Mawatari Momoko,Takeshita Nozomi,Hayakawa Kayoko,Kanagawa Shuzo,Kato Yasuyuki,Ohmagari Norio
Assunto: Flaviviridae, Mosquito-borne disease, Zika fever
Descritores: Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Journal of Travel Medicine, v. 23, n. 1, 2016
ISSN: 1708-8305
Resumo: In July 2014, a Japanese traveller returning from Thailand was investigated for fever, headache, rash and conjunctivitis. Zika virus RNA was detected in his urine sample by real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Serological tests showed cross reactivity of IgM against the dengue virus. Zika fever could be misdiagnosed or missed and should be considered in febrile patients with a rash, especially those returning from Thailand.

101) Zika virus: Time to move from case reports to case control
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Musso D., Baud D.
Assunto: virus
Descritores: Zika virus - Infectious diseases
Fonte: The Lancet Infectious Diseases, fev. 2016
ISSN: 1474-4457 (electronic),1473-3099
Resumo:

102) Zika virus infection in a traveller returning from the Maldives, June 2015
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Korhonen E.M., Huhtamo E., Smura T., Kallio-Kokko H., Raassina M., Vapalahti O.
Assunto: virus infection (diagnosis), zika virus infection (diagnosis)
Descritores: Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Phylogenesis ; Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - Antibodies ; Zika virus - Immunology ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - RT-PCR ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Immunology ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Eurosurveillance, v. 21, n. 2, jan. 2016
ISSN: 1560-7917 (electronic),1025-496X
Resumo: We report a Zika virus (ZIKV) infection in a patient with fever and rash after returning to Finland from Maldives, June 2015. The patient had dengue virus (DENV) IgG and IgM antibodies but pan-flavivirus RT-PCR and subsequent sequencing showed presence of ZIKV RNA in urine. Recent association of ZIKV with microcephaly highlights the need for laboratory differentiation of ZIKV from DENV infection and the circulation of ZIKV in areas outside its currently known distribution range.

103) The Risk of Dengue Virus Transmission in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania during an Epidemic Period of 2014
Autor: Mboera Leonard E G,Mweya Clement N,Rumisha Susan F,Tungu Patrick K,Stanley Grades,Makange Mariam R,Misinzo Gerald,De Nardo Pasquale,Vairo Francesco,Oriyo Ndekya M
Assunto:
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Genome ; Aedes aegypti - Infectious diseases ; Aedes aegypti - Viral infections ; Aedes aegypti - Real Time PCR ; Aedes aegypti - virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Epidemic
Fonte: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, v. 10, n. 1, p. e0004313, 2016
ISSN: 1935-2735
Resumo: In 2010, 2012, 2013 and 2014 dengue outbreaks have been reported in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. However, there is no comprehensive data on the risk of transmission of dengue in the country. The objective of this study was to assess the risk of transmission of dengue in Dar es Salaam during the 2014 epidemic. This cross-sectional study was conducted in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania during the dengue outbreak of 2014. The study involved Ilala, Kinondoni and Temeke districts. Adult mosquitoes were collected using carbon dioxide-propane powered Mosquito Magnet Liberty Plus traps. In each household compound, water-holding containers were examined for mosquito larvae and pupae. Dengue virus infection of mosquitoes was determined using real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Partial amplification and sequencing of dengue virus genome in infected mosquitoes was performed. A total of 1,000 adult mosquitoes were collected. Over half (59.9%) of the adult mosquitoes were collected in Kinondoni. Aedes aegypti accounted for 17.2% of the mosquitoes of which 90.6% were from Kinondoni. Of a total of 796 houses inspected, 38.3% had water-holding containers in their premises. Kinondoni had the largest proportion of water-holding containers (57.7%), followed by Temeke (31.4%) and Ilala (23.4%). The most common breeding containers for the Aedes mosquitoes were discarded plastic containers and tires. High Aedes infestation indices were observed for all districts and sites, with a house index of 18.1% in Ilala, 25.5% in Temeke and 35.3% in Kinondoni. The respective container indices were 77.4%, 65.2% and 80.2%. Of the reared larvae and pupae, 5,250 adult mosquitoes emerged, of which 61.9% were Ae. aegypti. Overall, 27 (8.18) of the 330 pools of Ae. aegypti were positive for dengue virus. On average, the overall maximum likelihood estimate (MLE) indicates pooled infection rate of 8.49 per 1,000 mosquitoes (95%CI = 5.72-12.16). There was no significant difference in pooled infection rates between the districts. Dengue viruses in the tested mosquitoes clustered into serotype 2 cosmopolitan genotype. Ae. aegypti is the main vector of dengue in Dar es Salaam and breeds mainly in medium size plastic containers and tires. The Aedes house indices were high, indicating that the three districts were at high risk of dengue transmission. The 2014 dengue outbreak was caused by Dengue virus serotype 2. The high mosquito larval and pupal indices in the area require intensification of vector surveillance along with source reduction and health education.

104) Identification of Zika virus vectors and implications for control
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Ayres C.F.J.
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Infectious diseases
Fonte: The Lancet Infectious Diseases, v. 16, n. 3, p. 278-279, mar. 2016
ISSN: 1474-4457 (electronic),1473-3099
Resumo:

105) Zika virus infection, the recent menace of the Aedes mosquito
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Bajpai, Smrati; Nadkar, Milind Y.
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Microcephaly
Fonte: Journal of The Association of Physicians of India, v. 64, p. 42-45, 2016.
ISSN: 0004-5772
Resumo: Mosquito-borne infections and viral outbreaks have bewildered physicians and population at large from time to time, there seems to be a constant cat and mouse race between the medical fraternity and these mosquito menaces. Zika virus and its vector Aedes aegyti are currently bothering the world population, this infection has affected pregnant women causing microcephaly in their new-borns and also has caused GBS-like manifestations in affected individuals. Currently the outbreak is concentrated in the countries of South American continent, but the omnipresence of its vector has made the world community cautious about the potential of its spread; thus the great emphasis is on prevention and vector control strategies to counter Zika virus attack. Consequently, Ministry of Health, Government of India has also taken cognizance of this and issued guidelines to tackle this problem.

106) Outbreak of Zika virus disease in the Americas and the association with microcephaly, congenital malformations and Guillain-Barré syndrome.
Autor: Ladhani Shamez N,O'Connor Catherine,Kirkbride Hilary,Brooks Tim,Morgan Dilys
Assunto: Brazil, Guillain-Barre syndrome, Zika virus, microcephaly, trave
Descritores: Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Archives of Disease in Childhood, p. 1-3, 2016
ISSN: 1468-2044
Resumo:

107) Zika virus and neurologic autoimmunity: the putative role of gangliosides
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Anaya, Juan-Manuel; Ramirez-Santana, Carolina; Salgado-Castaneda, Ignacio; Chang, Christopher; Ansari, Aftab; Gershwin, M. Eric
Assunto: Autoimmunity; Gangliosides; Guillain-Barré syndrome; Microcephaly; Zika virus
Descritores: Zika Virus - Cell ; Zika Virus - Cytopathology ; Zika Virus - Autoimmunity ; Zika Virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika Virus - Viral infections ; Zika Virus - RNA virus ; Zika Virus - Transmission ; Zika Virus - Immunology ; Zika Virus - Microcephaly
Fonte: BMC Medicine, v. 14, n. 49, 2016.
ISSN: 1741-7015
Resumo: An increasing number of severe neurological complications associated with Zika virus (ZIKV), chiefly Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) and primary microcephaly, have led the World Health Organization to declare a global health emergency. Molecular mimicry between glycolipids and surface molecules of infectious agents explain most of the cases of GBS preceded by infection, while a direct toxicity of ZIKV on neural cells has been raised as the main mechanism by which ZIKV induces microcephaly. Gangliosides are crucial in brain development, and their expression correlates with neurogenesis, synaptogenesis, synaptic transmission, and cell proliferation. Targeting the autoimmune response to gangliosides may represent an underexploited opportunity to examine the increased incidence of neurological complications related to ZIKV infection.

108) Investigation into an outbreak of dengue-like illness in Pernambuco, Brazil, revealed a cocirculation of zika, chikungunya, and dengue virus type 1.
Autor: Pessôa Rodrigo,Patriota João Veras,Lourdes de Souza Maria de,Felix Alvina Clara,Mamede Nubia,Sanabani Sabri S
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Cytopathology ; Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - Antibodies ; Zika virus - Real Time PCR ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Molecular screening ; Zika virus - Dengue
Fonte: Medicine, v. 95, n. 12, 2016
ISSN: 1536-5964
Resumo: In April 2015, an outbreak of dengue-like illness occurred in Tuparetama, a small city in the northeast region of Brazil; this outbreak was characterized by its fast expansion. An investigation was initiated to identify the viral etiologies and advise the health authorities on implementing control measures to contain the outbreak. This is the first report of this outbreak in the northeast, even though a few cases were documented earlier in a neighboring city.Plasma samples were obtained from 77 suspected dengue patients attending the main hospital in the city. Laboratory assays, such as real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, virus cDNA sequencing, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, were employed to identify the infecting virus and molecular phylogenetic analysis was performed to define the circulating viral genotypes.RNA of Zika virus (ZIKV) and Dengue virus (DENV) or IgM antibodies (Abs) to DENV or chikungunya (CHIKV) were detected in 40 of the 77 plasma samples (51.9%). DENV was found in 9 patients (11.7%), ZIKV was found in 31 patients (40.2%), CHIKV in 1 patient (1.3%), and coinfection of DENV and ZIKV was detected in 2 patients (2.6%). The phylogenetic analysis of 2 available partial DENV and 14 ZIKV sequences revealed the identities of genotype 1 and the Asiatic lineage, respectively.Consistent with recent reports from the same region, our results showed that the ongoing outbreak is caused by ZIKV, DENV, and CHIKV. This emphasizes the need for a routine and differential diagnosis of arboviruses in patients with dengue-like illness. Coordinated efforts are necessary to contain the outbreak. Continued surveillance will be important to assess the effectiveness of current and future prevention strategies.

109) Comparative genomic analysis of pre-epidemic and epidemic zika virus strains for virological factors potentially associated with the rapidly expanding epidemic
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Zhu, Zheng; Chan, Jasper Fuk-Woo; Tee, Kah-Meng; Choi, Garnet Kwan-Yue; Lau, Susanna Kar-Pui; Woo, Patrick Chiu-Yat; Tse, Herman; Yuen, Kwok-Yung
Assunto: Arbovirus; Flavivirus; Genome; Microcephaly; Mosquito; Mutation; Virus; Zika
Descritores: Zika Virus - Genome ; Zika Virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika Virus - Viral infections ; Zika Virus - RNA virus ; Zika Virus - Epidemic ; Zika Virus - Immunology
Fonte: Emerging Microbes & Infections, v. 5, n. e22, 2016.
ISSN: 2222-1751
Resumo: Less than 20 sporadic cases of human Zika virus (ZIKV) infection were reported in Africa and Asia before 2007, but large outbreaks involving up to 73% of the populations on the Pacific islands have started since 2007, and spread to the Americas in 2014. Moreover, the clinical manifestation of ZIKV infection has apparently changed, as evident by increasing reports of neurological complications, such as Guillain-Barré syndrome in adults and congenital anomalies in neonates. We comprehensively compared the genome sequences of pre-epidemic and epidemic ZIKV strains with complete genome or complete polyprotein sequences available in GenBank. Besides the reported phylogenetic clustering of the epidemic strains with the Asian lineage, we found that the topology of phylogenetic tree of all coding regions is the same except that of the non-structural 2B (NS2B) coding region. This finding was confirmed by bootscan analysis and multiple sequence alignment, which suggested the presence of a fragment of genetic recombination at NS2B with that of Spondweni virus. Moreover, the representative epidemic strain possesses one large bulge of nine bases instead of an external loop on the first stem-loop structure at the 3'-untranslated region just distal to the stop codon of the NS5 in the 1947 pre-epidemic prototype strain. Fifteen amino acid substitutions are found in the epidemic strains when compared with the pre-epidemic strains. As mutations in other flaviviruses can be associated with changes in virulence, replication efficiency, antigenic epitopes and host tropism, further studies would be important to ascertain the biological significance of these genomic changes.

110) A report on the outbreak of Zika virus on Easter Island, South Pacific,2014
Autor: Tognarelli J., Ulloa S., Villagra E., Lagos J., Aguayo C., Fasce R., Parra B., Mora J., Becerra N., Lagos N., Vera L., Olivares B., Vilches M., Fernández J.
Assunto: Easter Island; Outbreak; South Pacific; Zika Virus; Zikv
Descritores: Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - PCR detection ; Zika virus - Transmission
Fonte: Archives of Virology, v. 161, n. 3, p. 665-668,2016.
ISSN: 3048608
Resumo: Zika virus (ZIKV) is an emerging mosquito-borne flavivirus circulating in Asia and Africa. In2013, a large outbreak was reported on the archipelago of French Polynesia. In this study, we report the detection and molecular characterization of Zika virus for the first time in Chile from an outbreak among the inhabitants of Easter Island. A total of 89 samples from patients suspected of having ZIKV infection were collected between the period from January to May,2014. Molecular diagnosis of the virus was performed by RT-PCR followed by the sequencing of the region containing the NS5 gene. A comparison of the viral nucleic acid sequence with those of other strains of ZIKA virus was performed using the MEGA software. Fifty-one samples were found positive for ZIKV by RT-PCR analysis. Further analysis of the NS5 gene revealed that the ZIKV strains identified in Easter Island were most closely related to those found in French Polynesia (99.8 to 99.9 % nt and 100 % aa sequence identity). These results strongly suggest that the transmission pathway leading to the introduction of Zika virus on Easter Island has its origin in French Polynesia. ©2015, Springer-Verlag Wien.

111) Revision to CDC's Zika Travel Notices: Minimal Likelihood for Mosquito-Borne Zika Virus Transmission at Elevations Above 2,000 Meters
Autor: Cetron Martin
Assunto:
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Infectious diseases ; Aedes aegypti - Viral infections ; Aedes aegypti - virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Microcephaly
Fonte: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, v. 65, n. 10, p. 267-268, 2016
ISSN: 1545-861X
Resumo: Since May 2015, when Zika virus, a flavivirus transmitted primarily by Aedes aegypti mosquitoes, was reported in Brazil, the virus has rapidly spread across the Region of the Americas and the Caribbean. The association between maternal Zika virus infection and adverse fetal and reproductive outcomes, including microcephaly, prompted CDC to issue a Level 2 alert travel notice* for the 37 countries and U.S. territories (at the national and territorial level) that have reported recent Zika virus transmission as of March 11, 2016. In addition to mosquito bite precautions for all travelers, CDC advises that pregnant women postpone travel to affected countries and U.S. territories. Within a nation's borders, ecologic characteristics, which determine the distribution of mosquito vectors, can vary considerably. CDC conducted a spatial analysis, focusing on the probability of occurrence of Ae. aegypti, to support the demarcation for subnational travel alerts. Based on results of this analysis, travel that is limited to elevations higher than 2,000 m (6,562 ft) above sea level is considered to have minimal (approximately 1%) likelihood for mosquito-borne Zika virus transmission, even within countries reporting active transmission. Women who are pregnant should avoid travel to elevations <2,000 m in countries with active Zika virus transmission.

112) European Commission Horizon 2020 programme call for vaccine development research into malaria and neglected infectious diseases, including Zika virus
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor:
Assunto: drug design, Flaviviridae, health program, Horizon 2020, malaria, Zika virus
Descritores: Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Microcephaly
Fonte: Eurosurveillance, v. 21, n. 6, feb. 2016
ISSN: 1560-7917 (electronic),1025-496X
Resumo:

113) Zika virus in the dock
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor:
Assunto: virus
Descritores: Zika virus - Infectious diseases
Fonte: The Lancet Infectious Diseases, v. 16, n. 3, p. 265, mar. 2016
ISSN: 1474-4457 (electronic),1473-3099
Resumo:

114) Zika Virus Spreads to New Areas - Region of the Americas, May 2015-January 2016
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Hennessey M., Fischer M., Staples J.E.
Assunto: virus, Western Hemisphere
Descritores: Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Transmission
Fonte: American Journal of Transplantation, v. 16, n. 3, p. 1031-1034, mar. 2016
ISSN: 1600-6143 (electronic),1600-6135
Resumo: Zika virus, a mosquito-borne flavivirus that has been spreading throughout the Americas, has the potential for causing severe neurological impairment and the possibility of donor-related transmission events, so it is important to consider when counseling recipients on travel plans and evaluating donors, especially those with neurologic syndromes of unknown etiology.

115) Rapid spread of zika virus in the Americas - implications for public health preparedness for mass gatherings at the 2016 Brazil Olympic Games
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Petersen, Eskild; Wilson, Mary E.; Touch, Sok; McCloskey, Brian; Mwaba, Peter; Bates, Matthew; Dar, Osman; Mattes, Frank; Kidd, Mike; Ippolito, Giuseppe; Azhar, Esam I.; Zumla, Alimuddin
Assunto: Arboviruses; Brazil; Mass gatherings; Olympics; Sporting events; Zika virus ; Awareness; Clinical feature; Congenital malformation; Diagnostic procedure; Disease surveillance; Epidemic; Epidemiological monitoring; Health hazard; Human; Human activities; Microcephaly; Neurologic disease; Neurological complication; Nonhuman; Prophylaxis; Public health campaign; Review; Risk reduction; Social interaction; Social participation; Sporting event; Virus; Virus transmission; Western Hemisphere; World Health Organization
Descritores: Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: International Journal of Infectious Diseases, v. 44, p. 11-15, 2016.
ISSN: 1878-3511
Resumo: Mass gatherings at major international sporting events put millions of international travelers and local host-country residents at risk of acquiring infectious diseases, including locally endemic infectious diseases. The mosquito-borne Zika virus (ZIKV) has recently aroused global attention due to its rapid spread since its first detection in May 2015 in Brazil to 22 other countries and other territories in the Americas. The ZIKV outbreak in Brazil, has also been associated with a significant rise in the number of babies born with microcephaly and neurological disorders, and has been declared a 'Global Emergency by the World Health Organization. This explosive spread of ZIKV in Brazil poses challenges for public health preparedness and surveillance for the Olympics and Paralympics which are due to be held in Rio De Janeiro in August, 2016. We review the epidemiology and clinical features of the current ZIKV outbreak in Brazil, highlight knowledge gaps, and review the public health implications of the current ZIKV outbreak in the Americas. We highlight the urgent need for a coordinated collaborative response for prevention and spread of infectious diseases with epidemic potential at mass gatherings events.

116) Authors' reply: diagnostic challenges to be considered regarding Zika virus in the context of the presence of the vector Aedes albopictus in Europe
Autor: Venturi Giulietta,Zammarchi Lorenzo,Fortuna Claudia,Remoli Maria Elena,Benedetti Eleonora,Fiorentini Cristiano,Trotta Michele,Rizzo Caterina,Mantella Antonia,Rezza Giovanni,Bartoloni Alessandro
Assunto: Europe, Italy, PNRT, Zika, arboviruses
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Viral infections ;
Fonte: EuroSurveillance, v. 21, n. 10, 2016
ISSN: 1560-7917
Resumo:

117) Temporal genetic stability of Stegomyia aegypti (= Aedes aegypti) populations
Autor: Gloria-Soria A,Kellner D A,Brown J E,Gonzalez-Acosta C,Kamgang B,Lutwama J,Powell J R
Assunto: Chikungunya; Stegomyia (Aedes) aegypti; Dengue; Population stability; Temporal dynamics; Yellow fever
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Viral infections ; Aedes aegypti - virus ; Aedes aegypti - Vaccine ; Aedes aegypti - Chikungunya Fever ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue
Fonte: Medical and Veterinary Entomology, v. 30, n. 2, p. 235-240, 2016
ISSN: 1365-2915
Resumo: The mosquito Stegomyia aegypti (= Aedes aegypti) (Diptera: Culicidae) is the primary vector of viruses that cause yellow fever, dengue and Chikungunya fever. In the absence of effective vaccines, the reduction of these diseases relies on vector control strategies. The success of these strategies is tightly linked to the population dynamics of target populations. In the present study, 14 collections from St. aegypti populations separated by periods of 1-13 years were analysed to determine their temporal genetic stability. Although temporal structure is discernible in most populations, the degree of temporal differentiation is dependent on the population and does not obscure the geographic structure of the various populations. The results suggest that performing detailed studies in the years prior to and after population reduction- or modification-based control interventions at each target field site may be useful in assessing the probability of success.

118) Zika virus and microcephaly: is the correlation, causal or coincidental?
Autor: Liuzzi Giuseppina,Puro Vincenzo,Vairo Francesco,Nicastri Emanuele,Capobianchi Maria Rosaria,Di Caro Antonino,Piacentini Mauro,Zumla Alimuddin,Ippolito Giuseppe
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Microcephaly
Fonte: The New Microbiologica, v. 39, n. 2, 2016
ISSN: 1121-7138
Resumo:

119) Post-licensure surveillance of quadrivalent inactivated influenza (IIV4) vaccine in the United States, Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS), July 1, 2013-May 31, 2015.
Autor: Haber Penina.; Moro Pedro L.; Lewis Paige; Woo Emily Jane; Jankosky Christopher; Cano Maria
Assunto: Post-licensure surveillance, Quadrivalent inactivated influenza vaccines, Vaccine safety
Descritores: Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Infectious diseases ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Virus ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Vaccine ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Epidemiology
Fonte: Vaccine, 2016
ISSN: 1873-2518
Resumo: Quadrivalent inactivated influenza vaccines (IIV4) were first available for use during 2013-14 influenza season for individuals aged ?6 months. IIV4 is designed to protect against four different flu viruses; two influenza A viruses and two influenza B viruses. We searched the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS) for US reports after IIV4 and trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine (IIV3) from 7/1/2013-5/31/2015. Medical records were requested for non-manufacturer reports classified as serious (i.e. death, hospitalization, prolonged hospitalization, life-threatening illness, permanent disability). The review included automated data analysis, clinical review of all serious reports, reports of special interest, and empirical Bayesian data mining. VAERS received 1,838 IIV4 reports; 512 (28%) in persons aged 6 months-17 years of which 42 (8.2%) were serious reports; 1,265 (69%) in persons aged >18 years of which 84 (6.6%) were serious reports; two in children <6 months and 59 in persons of unknown age. Injection site erythema (24%), fever (14%) and injection site swelling (17%) were the most frequent adverse events among persons aged 6 months-17 years, while injection site pain (16%), pain (15%) and pain in extremity (13%) were the most frequent among persons aged 18-64 years given the vaccine alone. Among non-death serious reports, injection site reactions, constitutional symptoms, Guillain-Barré syndrome, seizures, and anaphylaxis were the most frequently reported adverse events. Data mining detected disproportional reporting for incorrect vaccine administration with no associated adverse events. Adverse events following IIV4 reported to VAERS were similar to those following IIV3. In our review of VAERS reports, IIV4 had a similar safety profile to IIV3. Most of the reported AEs were non-serious. Our findings are consistent with data from pre-licensure studies of IIV4.

120) Pseudotyping viral vectors with emerging virus envelope proteins
Autor: Steffen Imke, Simmons Graham
Assunto: Pseudotypes; Lentiviral vectors; Rhabdoviral vectors; Emerging viruses; Enveloped viruses; Serology; Drug screening
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Proteins ; Chikungunya virus - Serology ; Chikungunya virus - Serology ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus
Fonte: Current Gene Therapy, v. 16, n. 1, p. 47-55, 2016
ISSN: 1875-5631
Resumo: Previously unidentified viruses, such as Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus, continue to emerge - threaten populations, while powerful new techniques have identified many new human - animal viruses. Similarly, existing viruses, from Ebola virus to chikungunya virus, are reemerging - spreading to new geographical regions. These viruses often pose a challenge for researchers to study due to their highly pathogenic nature. Lentiviral - rhabdoviral pseudotypes are excellent tools for studying enveloped viruses - have contributed to many recent advances in areas such as receptor usage, viral entry - serology. In particular, pseudotypes allow the safe study of unknown or highly pathogenic viruses. They also allow the initial characterization of aspects of infection such as cellular tropism for difficult to culture viruses. In this review we will introduce various pseudotyping systems for emerging viruses, including chikungunya virus, Ebola virus, SARS - MERS coronaviruses - Nipah virus, as well as their use in diverse studies including drug screening - antibody neutralization. We will also discuss the limitations - potential caveats using pseudotypes.

121) Zika could infect 4 million; U.S. impact likely small
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Sullivan, Michele G.
Assunto: Health and medicine
Descritores: Zika Virus - Infectious disease
Fonte: Internal Medicine News , v. 49, n. 3, p. 6, 2016
ISSN:
Resumo:

122) Four emerging arboviral diseases in North America: Jamestown Canyon, Powassan, chikungunya, and Zika virus diseases
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Pastula D.M., Smith D.E., Beckham J.D., Tyler K.L.
Assunto: chikungunya, North America, virus infection
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Repellent ; Zika virus - Vaccine
Fonte: Journal of NeuroVirology, p. 1-4, feb. 2016
ISSN: 1538-2443 (electronic),1355-0284
Resumo: Arthropod-borne viruses, or arboviruses, are viruses that are transmitted through the bites of mosquitoes, ticks, or sandflies. There are numerous arboviruses throughout the world capable of causing human disease spanning different viral families and genera. Recently, Jamestown Canyon, Powassan, chikungunya, and Zika viruses have emerged as increasingly important arboviruses that can cause human disease in North America. Unfortunately, there are currently no proven disease-modifying therapies for these arboviral diseases, so treatment is largely supportive. Given there are also no commercially available vaccines for these four arboviral infections, prevention is the key. To prevent mosquito or tick bites that might result in one of these arboviral diseases, people should wear long-sleeved shirts and pants while outside if feasible, apply insect repellant when going outdoors, using window screens or air conditioning to keep mosquitoes outside, and perform tick checks after being in wooded or brushy outdoor areas.

123) Zika Virus Infection and Stillbirths: A Case of Hydrops Fetalis, Hydranencephaly and Fetal Demise.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Sarno, Manoel, Sacramento, Gielson A., Khouri, Ricardo, do Rosário, Mateus S., Costa, Federico, Archanjo, Gracinda, Santos, Luciane A., Jr.Nery, Nivison, Vasilakis, Nikos, Ko, Albert I., de Almeida, Antonio R. P.
Assunto: Zika virus infections, Hydrops fetalis, Microcephaly, Fetal growth retardation, Ultrasonic imaging, Case studies
Descritores: Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, v. 10, n. 2, p. 1-5, 2016
ISSN: 19352727
Resumo: Background: The rapid spread of Zika virus in the Americas and current outbreak of microcephaly in Brazil has raised attention to the possible deleterious effects that the virus may have on fetuses. Methodology/Principal Findings: We report a case of a 20-year-old pregnant woman who was referred to our service after a large Zika virus outbreak in the city of Salvador, Brazil with an ultrasound examination that showed intrauterine growth retardation of the fetus at the 18th gestational week. Ultrasound examinations in the 2nd and 3rd trimesters demonstrated severe microcephaly, hydranencephaly, intracranial calcifications and destructive lesions of posterior fossa, in addition to hydrothorax, ascites and subcutaneous edema. An induced labor was performed at the 32nd gestational week due to fetal demise and delivered a female fetus. ZIKV-specific real-time polymerase chain reaction amplification products were obtained from extracts of cerebral cortex, medulla oblongata and cerebrospinal and amniotic fluid, while extracts of heart, lung, liver, vitreous body of the eye and placenta did not yield detectable products. Conclusions/Significance: This case report provides evidence that in addition to microcephaly, there may be a link between Zika virus infection and hydrops fetalis and fetal demise. Given the recent spread of the virus, systematic investigation of spontaneous abortions and stillbirths may be warranted to evaluate the risk that ZIKV infection imparts on these outcomes.

124) Interim guidelines for prevention of sexual transmission of zika virus - United States, 2016
Autor: Oster, Alexandra M.; Brooks, John T.; Stryker, Jo Ellen; Kachur, Rachel E.; Mead, Paul; Pesik, Nicki T.; Petersen, Lyle R.
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Immunology ; Zika virus - Immunopathology ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Sexual ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Viral infections
Fonte: Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, v. 65, n. 5, p. 120-121, 2016.
ISSN: 0149-2195
Resumo:

125) Zika Virus Associated with Microcephaly.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Mlakar, Jernej, Korva, Misa, Tul, Nataša, Popovi?, Mara, PoIjšak-Prijatelj, Mateja, Mraz, Jerica, Kolenc, Marko, Rus, Katarina Resman, Vipotnik, Tina Vesnaver, Vodušek, Vesna Fabjan, Vizjak, Alenka, Pižem, Jože, Petrovec, Miroslav, Županc, Tatjana Avšid, Poljšak-Prijatelj, Mateja, Resman Rus, Katarina, Vesnaver Vipotnik, Tina, Fabjan Vodušek, Vesna, Avši? Županc, Tatjana
Assunto: Zika Virus Epidemic, 2015-, Zika virus, Microcephaly, Ultrasonic imaging, Reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, Electron microscopy
Descritores: Zika virus - Genome ; Zika virus - Immunology ; Zika virus - Inflammation ; Zika virus - RT-PCR ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Microcephaly
Fonte: New England Journal of Medicine, v. 374, n. 10, p. 951-958, 2016
ISSN: 284793
Resumo: A widespread epidemic of Zika virus (ZIKV) infection was reported in 2015 in South and Central America and the Caribbean. A major concern associated with this infection is the apparent increased incidence of microcephaly in fetuses born to mothers infected with ZIKV. In this report, we describe the case of an expectant mother who had a febrile illness with rash at the end of the first trimester of pregnancy while she was living in Brazil. Ultrasonography performed at 29 weeks of gestation revealed microcephaly with calcifications in the fetal brain and placenta. After the mother requested termination of the pregnancy, a fetal autopsy was performed. Micrencephaly (an abnormally small brain) was observed, with almost complete agyria, hydrocephalus, and multifocal dystrophic calcifications in the cortex and subcortical white matter, with associated cortical displacement and mild focal inflammation. ZIKV was found in the fetal brain tissue on reverse-transcriptase-polymerase-chain-reaction (RT-PCR) assay, with consistent findings on electron microscopy. The complete genome of ZIKV was recovered from the fetal brain.

126) Study of viremic profile in febrile specimens of chikungunya in Bandung, Indonesia
Autor: Riswari S F, Ma'roef C N, Djauhari H, Kosasih H, Perkasa A, Yudhaputri F A, Artika I M, Williams M, van der Ven A, Myint K S, Alisjahbana B, Ledermann J P, Powers A M, Jaya U A
Assunto: Chikungunya; Indonesia; Infection kinetics; Viremia profile
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Cell ; Chikungunya virus - RNA ; Chikungunya virus - Infectious diseases ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya virus - RT-PCR ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Transmission ; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever ; Chikungunya virus - Dengue ; Chikungunya virus - Public health
Fonte: Journal of Clinical Virology, v. 74, p. 61-65, 2016
ISSN: 1873-5967
Resumo: Data regarding the viremia profile of chikungunya virus (CHIKV) infected patients especially during the pre-febrile period is limited. To obtain virological kinetic data on CHIKV infections. A two-week community observation for dengue transmission was conducted in B-ung, Indonesia, from 2005 to 2009. Acute specimens from non-dengue febrile patients were screened by pan-alphavirus conventional RT-PCR. The positives were confirmed for CHIKV RNA by a specific RT-PCR followed by sequencing. Simultaneously these specimens were also cultured in Vero cells - tested for anti-CHIK IgM MAC-ELISA. All the available serial specimens,including the pre-febrile specimens, from confirmed CHIK cases, were tested by virus isolation, RT-PCR, qRT-PCR, - CHIK IgM ELISA. There were five laboratory confirmed CHIK cases identified - studied. Among these, viremia was determined to extend from as early as 6 days prior to until 13 days post fever onset. Quantitative RT-PCR showed viremia peaked at or near onset of illness. In this study, individuals were identified with viremia prior to fever onset - extending beyond the febrile phase. This extended viremic phase has the potential to impact transmission dynamics - thus the public health response to CHIK outbreaks.

127) Zika virus: diagnostics for an emerging pandemic threat
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Waggoner, Jesse J.; Pinsky, Benjamin A.
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika Virus - Arbovirus ; Zika Virus - Cytopathology ; Zika Virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika Virus - Viral infections ; Zika Virus - RNA virus ; Zika Virus - Dengue
Fonte: Journal of Clinical Microbiology, v. 54, n. 4, p. 860-867, 2016.
ISSN: 1098-660X
Resumo: Zika virus (ZIKV) is an Aedes mosquito-borne flavivirus that emerged in Brazil in 2015 and then rapidly spread throughout the tropical and subtropical Americas. Based on clinical criteria alone, ZIKV cannot be reliably distinguished from infections with other pathogens that cause an undifferentiated systemic febrile illness, including infections with two common arboviruses, dengue virus and chikungunya virus. This review details the methods that are available to diagnose ZIKV infection.

128) Proving Zika link to birth defects poses huge challenge.
Autor: Check Hayden Erika
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Cytopathology ; Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Pathogenesis ; Zika virus - Proteins ; Zika virus - Antibodies ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Immunology ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Nature, v. 530, n. 7589, p. 142-143, 2016
ISSN: 1476-4687
Resumo:

129) A report on the outbreak of Zika virus on Easter Island, South Pacific, 2014
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Tognarelli, J.; Ulloa, S.; Villagra, E.; Lagos, J.; Aguayo, C.; Fasce, R.; Parra, B.; Mora, J.; Becerra, N.; Lagos, N.; Vera, L.; Olivares, B.; Vilches, M.; Fernandez, J.
Assunto: Zika virus; Outbreak; ZIKV
Descritores: Zika Virus - Viral infections ; Zika Virus - PCR detection ; Zika Virus - RT-PCR ; Zika Virus - RNA virus ; Zika Virus - Transmission
Fonte: Archives of Virology, v. 161, n. 3, p. 665-668, 2016.
ISSN: 0304-8608
Resumo: Zika virus (ZIKV) is an emerging mosquito-borne flavivirus circulating in Asia and Africa. In 2013, a large outbreak was reported on the archipelago of French Polynesia. In this study, we report the detection and molecular characterization of Zika virus for the first time in Chile from an outbreak among the inhabitants of Easter Island. A total of 89 samples from patients suspected of having ZIKV infection were collected between the period from January to May, 2014. Molecular diagnosis of the virus was performed by RT-PCR followed by the sequencing of the region containing the NS5 gene. A comparison of the viral nucleic acid sequence with those of other strains of ZIKA virus was performed using the MEGA software. Fifty-one samples were found positive for ZIKV by RT-PCR analysis. Further analysis of the NS5 gene revealed that the ZIKV strains identified in Easter Island were most closely related to those found in French Polynesia (99.8 to 99.9 % nt and 100 % aa sequence identity). These results strongly suggest that the transmission pathway leading to the introduction of Zika virus on Easter Island has its origin in French Polynesia.

130) Zika virus: management of infection and risk.
Autor: Ahmad Shazaad S Y,Amin Tejal N,Ustianowski Andrew
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Viral infections
Fonte: British Medical Association, 2016
ISSN: 1756-1833
Resumo:

131) Zika virus detection in urine from patients with Guillain-Barré syndrome on Martinique, January 2016
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Rozé, Benoît; Najioullah, Fatiha; Fergé, Jean-Louis; Apetse, Kossivi; Brouste, Yannick; Cesaire, Raymond; Fagour, Cédric; Fagour, Laurence; Hochedez, Patrick; Jeannin, Séverine; Joux, Julien; Mehdaoui, Hossein; Valentino, Ruddy; Signate, Aïssatou; Cabié, André
Assunto: Martinique, emerging or re-emerging diseases, outbreaks, vector-borne infections, viral infections
Descritores: Zika Virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika Virus - Viral infections ; Zika Virus - RNA virus
Fonte: Eurosurveillance, v. 21, n. 9, 2016.
ISSN: 1560-7917
Resumo: We report two cases of Guillain-Barré syndrome who had concomitant Zika virus viruria. This viruria persisted for longer than 15 days after symptom onset. The cases occurred on Martinique in January 2016, at the beginning of the Zika virus outbreak. Awareness of this possible neurological complication of ZikV infection is needed.

132) The Zika outbreak of the 21st century.
Autor: Chang Christopher,Ortiz Kristina,Ansari Aftab,Gershwin M Eric
Assunto: Aedes aegypti, Arborvirus, Autophagy, Centrosome, Dengue, Flavivirus, Glycosylation, Guillain-Barre, Microcephaly, Mosquitoes, Pandemic, Sexual transmission, Zika fever
Descritores: Zika virus - Cytopathology ; Zika virus - Sexual ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Chikungunya Fever ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Immunology ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Rash maculopapular ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Journal of Autoimmunity, v. 68, p. 1-13, 2016
ISSN: 1095-9157
Resumo: The Zika virus outbreak has captivated the attention of the global audience and information has spread rapidly and wildly through the internet and other media channels. This virus was first identified in 1947, when it was isolated from a sentinel rhesus monkey placed by British scientists working at the Yellow Fever Research Laboratory located in the Zika forest area of Uganda, hence its name, and is transmitted primarily by the mosquito vector, Aedes aegypti. The fact that the rhesus macaque is an Asian species being placed in an African forest brings to mind the possibility of rapid adaptation of the virus from an African to Asian species, an issue that has not been considered. Whether such adaptation has played any role in acquiring pathogenicity due to cross species transmission remains to be identified. The first human infection was described in Nigeria in 1954, with only scattered reports of about a dozen human infections identified over a 50-year period. It was not until 2007 that Zika virus raised its ugly head with infections noted in three-quarters of the population on the tiny island of Yap located between the Philippines and Papua New Guinea in the western Pacific Ocean, followed by a major outbreak in French Polynesia in 2013. The virus remained confined to a narrow equatorial band in Africa and Asia until 2014 when it began to spread eastward, first toward Oceania and then to South America. Since then, millions of infected individuals have been identified in Brazil, Colombia, Venezuela, including 25 additional countries in the Americas. While the symptoms associated with Zika virus infection are generally mild, consisting of fever, maculopapular rash, arthralgia and conjunctivitis, there have been reports of more severe reactions that are associated with neurological complications. In pregnant women, fetal neurological complications include brain damage and microcephaly, while in adults there have been several cases of virus-associated Guillain-Barre syndrome. The virus was until recently believed to only be transmitted via mosquitoes. But when the Zika virus was isolated from the semen specimens from a patient in Texas, this provided the basis for the recent report of possible sexual transmission of the Zika virus. Due to the neurological complications, various vectors for infection as well as the rapid spread throughout the globe, it has prompted the World Health Organization to issue a global health emergency. Various governmental organizations have recommended that pregnant women do not travel to countries where the virus is epidemic, and within the countries affected by the virus, recommendations were provided for women of childbearing age to delay pregnancy. The overall public health impact of these above findings highlights the need for a rapid but specific diagnostic test for blood banks worldwide to identify those infected and for the counseling of women who are pregnant or contemplating pregnancy. As of this date, there are neither commercially licensed diagnostic tests nor a vaccine. Because cross-reactivity of the Zika virus with dengue and Chikungunya virus is common, it may pose difficulty in being able to quickly develop such tests and vaccines. So far the most effective public health measures include controlling the mosquito populations via insecticides and preventing humans from direct exposure to mosquitoes.

133) Zika virus: history, emergence, biology, and prospects for control
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Weaver, Scott C.; Costa, Federico; Garcia-Blanco, Mariano A.; Ko, Albert I.; Ribeiro, Guilherme S.; Saade, George; Shi, Pei-Yong; Vasilakis, Nikos
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika Virus - Biochemistry ; Zika Virus - Cytopathology ; Zika Virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika Virus - Viral infections ; Zika Virus - RNA virus ; Zika Virus - Transmission ; Zika Virus - Vaccine ; Zika Virus - Dengue ; Zika Virus - Epidemic ; Zika Virus - Epidemiology ; Zika Virus - Immunology ; Zika Virus - Microcephaly ; Zika Virus - Public health ; Zika Virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Antiviral Research, v. 130, p. 69-80, 2016.
ISSN: 1872-9096
Resumo: Zika virus (ZIKV), a previously obscure flavivirus closely related to dengue, West Nile, Japanese encephalitis and yellow fever viruses, has emerged explosively since 2007 to cause a series of epidemics in Micronesia, the South Pacific, and most recently the Americas. After its putative evolution in sub-Saharan Africa, ZIKV spread in the distant past to Asia and has probably emerged on multiple occasions into urban transmission cycles involving Aedes (Stegomyia) spp. mosquitoes and human amplification hosts, accompanied by a relatively mild dengue-like illness. The unprecedented numbers of people infected during recent outbreaks in the South Pacific and the Americas may have resulted in enough ZIKV infections to notice relatively rare congenital microcephaly and Guillain-Barré syndromes. Another hypothesis is that phenotypic changes in Asian lineage ZIKV strains led to these disease outcomes. Here, we review potential strategies to control the ongoing outbreak through vector-centric approaches as well as the prospects for the development of vaccines and therapeutics.

134) Association between Zika virus and microcephaly in French Polynesia, 2013-15: a retrospective study
Autor: Cauchemez Simon,Besnard Marianne,Bompard Priscillia,Dub Timothée,Guillemette-Artur Prisca,Eyrolle-Guignot Dominique,Salje Henrik,Van Kerkhove Maria D,Abadie Véronique,Garel Catherine,Fontanet Arnaud,Mallet Henri-Pierre
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Lancet, 2016
ISSN: 1474-547X
Resumo: The emergence of Zika virus in the Americas has coincided with increased reports of babies born with microcephaly. On Feb 1, 2016, WHO declared the suspected link between Zika virus and microcephaly to be a Public Health Emergency of International Concern. This association, however, has not been precisely quantified. We retrospectively analysed data from a Zika virus outbreak in French Polynesia, which was the largest documented outbreak before that in the Americas. We used serological and surveillance data to estimate the probability of infection with Zika virus for each week of the epidemic and searched medical records to identify all cases of microcephaly from September, 2013, to July, 2015. Simple models were used to assess periods of risk in pregnancy when Zika virus might increase the risk of microcephaly and estimate the associated risk. The Zika virus outbreak began in October, 2013, and ended in April, 2014, and 66% (95% CI 62-70) of the general population were infected. Of the eight microcephaly cases identified during the 23-month study period, seven (88%) occurred in the 4-month period March 1 to July 10, 2014. The timing of these cases was best explained by a period of risk in the first trimester of pregnancy. In this model, the baseline prevalence of microcephaly was two cases (95% CI 0-8) per 10 000 neonates, and the risk of microcephaly associated with Zika virus infection was 95 cases (34-191) per 10 000 women infected in the first trimester. We could not rule out an increased risk of microcephaly from infection in other trimesters, but models that excluded the first trimester were not supported by the data. Our findings provide a quantitative estimate of the risk of microcephaly in fetuses and neonates whose mothers are infected with Zika virus. Labex-IBEID, NIH-MIDAS, AXA Research fund, EU-PREDEMICS.

135) Zika fever and congenital zika syndrome: an unexpected emerging arboviral disease
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Chan, Jasper F W; Choi, Garnet K Y; Yip, Cyril C Y; Cheng, Vincent C C; Yuen, Kwok-Yung
Assunto: Zika; Virus; Flavivirus; Arbovirus; Microcephaly; Aedes; Mosquito
Descritores: Zika Virus - Arbovirus ; Zika Virus - Genome ; Zika Virus - Pathogenesis ; Zika Virus - RNA ; Zika Virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika Virus - Viral infections ; Zika Virus - RNA virus ; Zika Virus - Sexual ; Zika Virus - Transmission ; Zika Virus - Vaccine ; Zika Virus - Dengue ; Zika Virus - Epidemic ; Zika Virus - Epidemiology ; Zika Virus - Immunology ; Zika Virus - Microcephaly ; Zika Virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Journal of Infection, v. 72, n. 5, p. 507-524, 2016.
ISSN: 1532-2742
Resumo: Unlike its mosquito-borne relatives, such as dengue, West Nile, and Japanese encephalitis viruses, which can cause severe human diseases, Zika virus (ZIKV) has emerged from obscurity by its association with a suspected congenital Zika syndrome", while causing asymptomatic or mild exanthematous febrile infections which are dengue- or rubella-like in infected individuals. Despite having been discovered in Uganda for almost 60 years, <20 human cases were reported before 2007. The massive epidemics in the Pacific islands associated with the ZIKV Asian lineage in 2007 and 2013 were followed by explosive outbreaks in Latin America in 2015. Although increased mosquito breeding associated with the El Niño effect superimposed on global warming is suspected, genetic changes in its RNA virus genome may have led to better adaptation to mosquitoes, other animal reservoirs, and human. We reviewed the epidemiology, clinical manifestation, virology, pathogenesis, laboratory diagnosis, management, and prevention of this emerging infection. Laboratory diagnosis can be confounded by cross-reactivity with other circulating flaviviruses. Besides mosquito bite and transplacental transmission, the risk of other potential routes of transmission by transfusion, transplantation, sexual activity, breastfeeding, respiratory droplet, and animal bite is discussed. Epidemic control requires adequate clearance of mosquito breeding grounds, personal protection against mosquito bite, and hopefully a safe and effective vaccine."

136) Check before you travel: Zika virus - another emerging global health threat.
Autor: Scully C,Robinson A
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Transmission
Fonte: British Dental Journal, v. 220, n. 5, p. 265-267, 2016
ISSN: 1476-5373
Resumo: We now know that mosquitoes can transmit arboviruses such as the Zika virus (ZIKV) which is pandemic in Latin America. In order to avoid infection it is advised to avoid mosquitoes, but ZIKV can also be transmitted through blood donation, perinatally and sexually and has been detected in urine and saliva. Prevention against mosquito bites (particularly daytime bites) is best offered by avoiding mosquitoes and bites. To prevent the risk of transmission of ZIKV, standard infection control of all recent travellers to Zika affected areas should be conducted during dental care. This article will discuss how healthcare workers could contract diseases especially whilst working in the tropics or subtropics due to disease vectors such as mosquitoes and suggests prevention measures for this group.

137) Investigation into an outbreak of dengue-like illness in Pernambuco, Brazil, revealed a cocirculation of zika, chikungunya, and dengue virus type 1
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Pessôa, Rodrigo; Patriota, João Veras; Lourdes de Souza, Maria de; Felix, Alvina Clara; Mamede, Nubia; Sanabani, Sabri S.
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika Virus - Arbovirus ; Zika Virus - Cytopathology ; Zika Virus - RNA ; Zika Virus - Antibodies ; Zika Virus - Real Time PCR ; Zika Virus - RNA virus ; Zika Virus - Molecular screening ; Zika Virus - Dengue
Fonte: Medicine, v. 95, n. 12, 2016.
ISSN: 1536-5964
Resumo: In April 2015, an outbreak of dengue-like illness occurred in Tuparetama, a small city in the northeast region of Brazil; this outbreak was characterized by its fast expansion. An investigation was initiated to identify the viral etiologies and advise the health authorities on implementing control measures to contain the outbreak. This is the first report of this outbreak in the northeast, even though a few cases were documented earlier in a neighboring city.Plasma samples were obtained from 77 suspected dengue patients attending the main hospital in the city. Laboratory assays, such as real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, virus cDNA sequencing, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, were employed to identify the infecting virus and molecular phylogenetic analysis was performed to define the circulating viral genotypes.RNA of Zika virus (ZIKV) and Dengue virus (DENV) or IgM antibodies (Abs) to DENV or chikungunya (CHIKV) were detected in 40 of the 77 plasma samples (51.9%). DENV was found in 9 patients (11.7%), ZIKV was found in 31 patients (40.2%), CHIKV in 1 patient (1.3%), and coinfection of DENV and ZIKV was detected in 2 patients (2.6%). The phylogenetic analysis of 2 available partial DENV and 14 ZIKV sequences revealed the identities of genotype 1 and the Asiatic lineage, respectively.Consistent with recent reports from the same region, our results showed that the ongoing outbreak is caused by ZIKV, DENV, and CHIKV. This emphasizes the need for a routine and differential diagnosis of arboviruses in patients with dengue-like illness. Coordinated efforts are necessary to contain the outbreak. Continued surveillance will be important to assess the effectiveness of current and future prevention strategies.

138) Update: interim guidelines for health care providers caring for pregnant women and women of reproductive age with possible Zika Virus exposure - United States, 2016
Autor: Oduyebo, Titilope; Petersen, Emily E.; Rasmussen, Sonja A.; Mead, Paul S.; Meaney-Delman, Dana; Renquist, Christina M.; Ellington, Sascha R.; Fischer, Marc; Staples, J. Erin; Powers, Ann M.; Villanueva, Julie; Galang, Romeo R.; Dieke, Ada; Munoz, Jorge L.; Honein, Margaret A.; Jamieson, Denise J.
Assunto: Infection; Antibody
Descritores: Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Antibodies ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Viral infections
Fonte: Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, v. 65, n. 5, p. 122-127, 2016
ISSN: 0149-2195
Resumo:

139) Infection disease surveillance update.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Zwizwai, Ruth
Assunto: Zika Virus Epidemic, Communicable diseases, Guillan-Barre syndrome, Microcephaly, Public health, Vaccination
Descritores: Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public healthZika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Lancet Infectious Diseases, v. 16, n. 3, p. 299, 2016
ISSN: 14733099
Resumo:

140) A new reportable disease is born: Taiwan Centers for Disease Control's response to emerging Zika virus infection
Autor: Huang Angela Song-En,Shu Pei-Yun,Yang Chin-Hui
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Journal of the Formosan Medical Association, v. 115, n. 4, p. 223-225, 2016
ISSN: 0929-6646
Resumo: Zika virus infection, usually a mild disease transmitted through the bite of Aedes mosquitos, has been reported to be possibly associated with microcephaly and neurologic complications. Taiwan's first imported case of Zika virus infection was found through fever screening at airport entry in January 2016. No virus was isolated from patient's blood taken during acute illness; however, PCR products showed that the virus was of Asian lineage closely related to virus from Cambodia. To prevent Zika virus from spreading in Taiwan, the Taiwan Centers for Disease Control has strengthened efforts in quarantine and surveillance, increased Zika virus infection diagnostic capacity, implemented healthcare system preparedness plans, and enhanced vector control program through community mobilization and education. Besides the first imported case, no additional cases of Zika virus infection have been identified. Furthermore, no significant increase in the number of microcephaly or Guillain- Barré Syndrome has been observed in Taiwan. To date, there have been no autochthonous transmissions of Zika virus infection.

141) Zika virus infection, associated microcephaly, and low yellow fever vaccination coverage in Brazil: is there any causal link?
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Cavalcanti, Luciano Pamplona de Góes; Tauil, Pedro Luiz; Alencar, Carlos Henrique; Oliveira, Wanderson; Teixeira, Mauro Martins; Heukelbach, Jorg
Assunto: Zika ; Brazil ; Epidemiology
Descritores: Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: The Journal of Infection in Developing Countries, v. 10, n. 6, p. 563-566, 2016
ISSN: 1972-2680
Resumo: Since the end of 2014, Zika virus (ZIKV) infection has been rapidly spreading in Brazil. To analyze the possible association of yellow fever vaccine with a protective effect against ZIKV-related microcephaly, the following spatial analyses were performed, using Brazilian municipalities as units: i) yellow fever vaccination coverage in Brazilian municipalities in individuals aged 15-49; ii) reported cases of microcephaly by municipality; and iii) confirmed cases of microcephaly related to ZIKV, by municipality. SaTScan software was used to identify clusters of municipalities for high risk of microcephaly. There were seven significant high risk clusters of confirmed microcephaly cases, with four of them located in the Northeast where yellow fever vaccination rates were the lowest. The clusters harbored only 2.9% of the total population of Brazil, but 15.2% of confirmed cases of microcephaly. We hypothesize that pregnant women in regions with high yellow fever vaccination coverage may pose their offspring to lower risk for development of microcephaly. There is an urgent need for systematic studies to confirm the possible link between low yellow fever vaccination coverage, Zika virus infection and microcephaly

142) Rapid Spread of Zika Virus in The Americas - Implications for Public Health Preparedness for Mass Gatherings at the 2016 Brazil Olympic Games
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Petersen E., Wilson M.E., Touch S., McCloskey B., Mwaba P., Bates M., Dar O., Mattes F., Kidd M., Ippolito G., Azhar E.I., Zumla A.
Assunto: human activities, public health campaign, sporting event, virus, Zika virus
Descritores: Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health ;
Fonte: International Journal of Infectious Diseases, v. 44, p. 11-15, mar. 2016
ISSN: 1878-3511 (electronic),1201-9712
Resumo: Mass gatherings at major international sporting events put millions of international travelers and local host-country residents at risk of acquiring infectious diseases, including locally endemic infectious diseases. The mosquito-borne Zika virus (ZIKV) has recently aroused global attention due to its rapid spread since its first detection in May 2015 in Brazil to 22 other countries and other territories in the Americas. The ZIKV outbreak in Brazil, has also been associated with a significant rise in the number of babies born with microcephaly and neurological disorders, and has been declared a 'Global Emergency by the World Health Organization. This explosive spread of ZIKV in Brazil poses challenges for public health preparedness and surveillance for the Olympics and Paralympics which are due to be held in Rio De Janeiro in August, 2016. We review the epidemiology and clinical features of the current ZIKV outbreak in Brazil, highlight knowledge gaps, and review the public health implications of the current ZIKV outbreak in the Americas. We highlight the urgent need for a coordinated collaborative response for prevention and spread of infectious diseases with epidemic potential at mass gatherings events.

143) Characterizing the pattern of anomalies in congenital Zika syndrome for pediatric clinicians
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Moore, Cynthia A. ; Staples, J. Erin ; Dobyns, William B. ; Pessoa, André ; Ventura, Camila V. ; Fonseca, Eduardo Borges da ; Ribeiro, Erlane Marques ; Ventura, Liana O. ; Nogueira Neto, Norberto ; Arena, J. Fernando ; Rasmussen, Sonja A.
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Viral infections
Fonte: Jama Pediatrics, 2016
ISSN: 1538-3628
Resumo: Zika virus infection can be prenatally passed from a pregnant woman to her fetus. There is sufficient evidence to conclude that intrauterine Zika virus infection is a cause of microcephaly and serious brain anomalies, but the full spectrum of anomalies has not been delineated. To inform pediatric clinicians who may be called on to evaluate and treat affected infants and children, we review the most recent evidence to better characterize congenital Zika syndrome. We reviewed published reports of congenital anomalies occurring in fetuses or infants with presumed or laboratory-confirmed intrauterine Zika virus infection. We conducted a comprehensive search of the English literature using Medline and EMBASE for Zika from inception through September 30, 2016. Congenital anomalies were considered in the context of the presumed pathogenetic mechanism related to the neurotropic properties of the virus. We conclude that congenital Zika syndrome is a recognizable pattern of structural anomalies and functional disabilities secondary to central and, perhaps, peripheral nervous system damage. Although many of the components of this syndrome, such as cognitive, sensory, and motor disabilities, are shared by other congenital infections, there are 5 features that are rarely seen with other congenital infections or are unique to congenital Zika virus infection: (1) severe microcephaly with partially collapsed skull; (2) thin cerebral cortices with subcortical calcifications; (3) macular scarring and focal pigmentary retinal mottling; (4) congenital contractures; and (5) marked early hypertonia and symptoms of extrapyramidal involvement. Although the full spectrum of adverse reproductive outcomes caused by Zika virus infection is not yet etermined, a distinctive phenotype—the congenital Zika syndrome—has emerged. Recognition of this phenotype by clinicians for infants and children can help ensure appropriate etiologic evaluation and comprehensive clinical investigation to define the range of anomalies in an affected infant as well as determine essential follow-up and ongoing care

144) False positive dengue NS1 antigen test in a traveller with an acute zika virus infection imported into Switzerland
Autor: Gyurech, Danielle; Schilling, Julian; Schmidt-Chanasit, Jonas; Cassinotti, Pascal; Kaeppeli, Franz; Dobec, Marinko
Assunto: Zika virus; Dengue virus; False positive NS1 antigen; Traveller; Epidemic; Antibody; IGM
Descritores: Zika virus - Antibodies ; Zika virus - Chikungunya Fever ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Swiss Medical Weekly, v. 146, n. w14296 , 2016.
ISSN: 1424-7860
Resumo: We report the first case of an acute Zika virus infection imported into Switzerland by a traveller returning from Canoa Quebrada, Ceara state, in the north-eastern part of Brazil. Due to a false positive dengue virus NS1 antigen test, IgG-antibody seroconversion and a suggestive clinical picture, an acute dengue fever was initially considered. However, because of lack of specific IgM-antibodies, stationary IgG-antibody titre and a negative dengue virus PCR test result, a dengue virus infection was excluded and a cross-reaction with other, causative flaviviruses was postulated. Based on recent reports of Zika fever cases in the north-eastern parts of Brazil, an acute Zika virus infection was suspected. Because of a lack of commercially available Zika virus diagnostic tests, the case was confirmed in the WHO reference laboratory. As the clinical presentation of Zika virus infection can be confused with dengue fever and chikungunya fever, and because of possible public health implications, all patients returning from affected areas should be additionally tested for Zika virus. This case illustrates the urgent medical need for a broadly available assay capable of differentiating Zika from Dengue infections.

145) Zika virus in the Americas: early epidemiological and genetic findings
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Faria, Nuno Rodrigues; Azevedo, Raimunda do Socorro da Silva; Kraemer, Moritz U G; Souza, Renato; Cunha, Mariana Sequetin; Hill, Sarah C; Thézé, Julien; Bonsall, Michael B; Bowden, Thomas A; Rissanen, Ilona; Rocco, Iray Maria; Nogueira, Juliana Silva; Maeda, Adriana Yurika; Vasami, Fernanda Giseli da Silva; Macedo, Fernando Luiz de Lima; Suzuki, Akemi; Rodrigues, Sueli Guerreiro; Cruz, Ana Cecilia Ribeiro; Nunes, Bruno Tardeli; Medeiro,s Daniele Barbosa de Almeida; Rodrigues, Daniela Sueli Guerreiro; Nunes Queiroz, Alice Louize; Silva, Eliana Vieira Pinto da; Henriques, Daniele Freitas; Travassos da Rosa, Elisabeth Salbe; de Oliveira, Consuelo Silva; Martins, Livia Caricio; Vasconcelos, Helena Baldez; Casseb, Livia Medeiros Neves; Simith, Darlene de Brito; Messina, Jane P; Abade, Leandro; Lourenço, José; Alcantara, Luiz Carlos Junior; Lima, Maricélia Maia de; Giovanetti, Marta; Hay, Simon I; de Oliveira, Rodrigo Santos; Lemos, Poliana da Silva; Oliveira, Layanna Freitas de; de Lima, Clayton Pereira Silva; da Silva, Sandro Patroca; Vasconcelos, Janaina Mota de; Franco, Luciano; Cardoso, Jedson Ferreira; Vianez-Júnior, João Lídio da Silva Gonçalves; Mir, Daiana; Bello, Gonzalo; Delatorre, Edson; Khan, Kamran; Creatore, Marisa; Coelho, Giovanini Evelim; de Oliveira, Wanderson Kleber; Tesh, Robert; Pybus, Oliver G; Nunes, Marcio R T; Vasconcelos, Pedro F C
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika Virus - Cytopathology ; Zika Virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika Virus - Viral infections ; Zika Virus - RNA virus ; Zika Virus - Epidemic ; Zika Virus - Epidemiology ; Zika Virus - Microcephaly ; Zika Virus - Public health
Fonte: Science, v. 352, n. 6283, p. 345-349, 2016.
ISSN: 1095-9203
Resumo: Brazil has experienced an unprecedented epidemic of Zika virus (ZIKV), with ~30,000 cases reported to date. ZIKV was first detected in Brazil in May 2015 and cases of microcephaly potentially associated with ZIKV infection were identified in November 2015. Using next generation sequencing we generated seven Brazilian ZIKV genomes, sampled from four self-limited cases, one blood donor, one fatal adult case, and one newborn with microcephaly and congenital malformations. Phylogenetic and molecular clock analyses show a single introduction of ZIKV into the Americas, estimated to have occurred between May-Dec 2013, more than 12 months prior to the detection of ZIKV in Brazil. The estimated date of origin coincides with an increase in air passengers to Brazil from ZIKV endemic areas, and with reported outbreaks in Pacific Islands. ZIKV genomes from Brazil are phylogenetically interspersed with those from other South American and Caribbean countries. Mapping mutations onto existing structural models revealed the context of viral amino acid changes present in the outbreak lineage; however no shared amino acid changes were found among the three currently available virus genomes from microcephaly cases. Municipality-level incidence data indicate that reports of suspected microcephaly in Brazil best correlate with ZIKV incidence around week 17 of pregnancy, although this does not demonstrate causation. Our genetic description and analysis of ZIKV isolates in Brazil provide a baseline for future studies of the evolution and molecular epidemiology in the Americas of this emerging virus.

146) Utilising additional sources of information on microcephaly.
Autor: Byass Peter,Wilder-Smith Annelies
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Pathogenesis ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Lancet, v. 387, n. 10022, p. 940-941, 2016
ISSN: 1474-547X
Resumo:

147) Systems vaccinology informs influenza vaccine immunogenicity.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: García­Sastre, Adolfo
Assunto: Virus diseases - Vaccination, Influenza - Vaccination, Viral vaccines, Zika virus infections, Nipah virus
Descritores: Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus and Viral infections ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, v. 113, n. 7, p. 1689-1691, 2016
ISSN: 10916490
Resumo: The author comments on how modern vaccines help controlling viral infections such as Zika, Nipah, and Hendra. Topics discussed include development of egg-grown inactivated influenza virus vaccines, how systems vaccinology help understand the influenza virus vaccines' immunogenicity, and immunological reasons associated with failure or success of vaccines.

148) Guillain-Barré Syndrome outbreak associated with zika virus infection in French Polynesia: a case-control study.
Autor: Cao-Lormeau Van-Mai,Blake Alexandre,Mons Sandrine,Lastère Stéphane,Roche Claudine,Vanhomwegen Jessica,Dub Timothée,Baudouin Laure,Teissier Anita,Larre Philippe,Vial Anne-Laure,Decam Christophe,Choumet Valérie,Halstead Susan K,Willison Hugh J,Musset Lucile,Manuguerra Jean-Claude,Despres Philippe,Fournier Emmanuel,Mallet Henri-Pierre,Musso Didier,Fontanet Arnaud,Neil Jean,Ghawché Frédéric
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Antibodies ; Zika virus - Autoimmunity ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Inflammation ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - RT-PCR ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - ImmunologyZika virus - Antibodies ; Zika virus - Autoimmunity ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Inflammation ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - RT-PCR ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - ImmunologyZika virus - Antibodies ; Zika virus - Autoimmunity ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Inflammation ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - RT-PCR ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - ImmunologyZika virus - Antibodies ; Zika virus - Autoimmunity ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Inflammation ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - RT-PCR ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - ImmunologyZika virus - Antibodies ; Zika virus - Autoimmunity ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Inflammation ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - RT-PCR ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - ImmunologyZika virus - Antibodies ; Zika virus - Autoimmunity ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Inflammation ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - RT-PCR ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - ImmunologyZika virus - Antibodies ; Zika virus - Autoimmunity ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Inflammation ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - RT-PCR ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - ImmunologyZika virus - Antibodies ; Zika virus - Autoimmunity ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Inflammation ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - RT-PCR ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - ImmunologyZika virus - Antibodies ; Zika virus - Autoimmunity ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Inflammation ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - RT-PCR ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - ImmunologyZika virus - Antibodies ; Zika virus - Autoimmunity ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Inflammation ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - RT-PCR ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - ImmunologyZika virus - Antibodies ; Zika virus - Autoimmunity ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Inflammation ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - RT-PCR ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Immunology
Fonte: The Lancet, v. 387, n. 10027, p. 1531-1539, 2016
ISSN: 1474-547X
Resumo: Between October, 2013, and April, 2014, French Polynesia experienced the largest Zika virus outbreak ever described at that time. During the same period, an increase in Guillain-Barré syndrome was reported, suggesting a possible association between Zika virus and Guillain-Barré syndrome. We aimed to assess the role of Zika virus and dengue virus infection in developing Guillain-Barré syndrome. In this case-control study, cases were patients with Guillain-Barré syndrome diagnosed at the Centre Hospitalier de Polynésie Française (Papeete, Tahiti, French Polynesia) during the outbreak period. Controls were age-matched, sex-matched, and residence-matched patients who presented at the hospital with a non-febrile illness (control group 1; n=98) and age-matched patients with acute Zika virus disease and no neurological symptoms (control group 2; n=70). Virological investigations included RT-PCR for Zika virus, and both microsphere immunofluorescent and seroneutralisation assays for Zika virus and dengue virus. Anti-glycolipid reactivity was studied in patients with Guillain-Barré syndrome using both ELISA and combinatorial microarrays. 42 patients were diagnosed with Guillain-Barré syndrome during the study period. 41 (98%) patients with Guillain-Barré syndrome had anti-Zika virus IgM or IgG, and all (100%) had neutralising antibodies against Zika virus compared with 54 (56%) of 98 in control group 1 (p<0·0001). 39 (93%) patients with Guillain-Barré syndrome had Zika virus IgM and 37 (88%) had experienced a transient illness in a median of 6 days (IQR 4-10) before the onset of neurological symptoms, suggesting recent Zika virus infection. Patients with Guillain-Barré syndrome had electrophysiological findings compatible with acute motor axonal neuropathy (AMAN) type, and had rapid evolution of disease (median duration of the installation and plateau phases was 6 [IQR 4-9] and 4 days [3-10], respectively). 12 (29%) patients required respiratory assistance. No patients died. Anti-glycolipid antibody activity was found in 13 (31%) patients, and notably against GA1 in eight (19%) patients, by ELISA and 19 (46%) of 41 by glycoarray at admission. The typical AMAN-associated anti-ganglioside antibodies were rarely present. Past dengue virus history did not differ significantly between patients with Guillain-Barré syndrome and those in the two control groups (95%, 89%, and 83%, respectively). This is the first study providing evidence for Zika virus infection causing Guillain-Barré syndrome. Because Zika virus is spreading rapidly across the Americas, at risk countries need to prepare for adequate intensive care beds capacity to manage patients with Guillain-Barré syndrome. Labex Integrative Biology of Emerging Infectious Diseases, EU 7th framework program PREDEMICS. and Wellcome Trust.

149) Prolonged shedding of zika virus associated with congenital infection
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Oliveira, Danielle B.L. ; Almeida, Flávia J. ; Durigon, Edison L. ; Mendes, Érica A. ; Braconi, Carla T. ; Marchetti, Ivan
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Viral infections
Fonte: The New England Journal os Medicine, v. 375, p. 1202-1204, 2016
ISSN: 1533-4406
Resumo:

150) Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) muscle satellite cells are targets of salmonid alphavirus infection
Autor: Biacchesi Stéphane, Jouvion Grégory, Mérour Emilie, Boukadiri Abdelhak, Desdouits Marion, Ozden Simona, Huerre Michel, Ceccaldi Pierre-Emmanuel, Brémont Michel
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Cell ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Transmission
Fonte: Veterinary Research, v. 47, n. 1, p. 9, 2016
ISSN: 1297-9716
Resumo: Sleeping disease in rainbow trout is characterized by an abnormal swimming behaviour of the fish which stay on their side at the bottom of the tanks. This sign is due to extensive necrosis - atrophy of red skeletal muscle induced by the sleeping disease virus (SDV), also called salmonid alphavirus 2. Infections of humans with arthritogenic alphaviruses, such as Chikungunya virus (CHIKV), are global causes of debilitating musculoskeletal diseases. The mechanisms by which the virus causes these pathologies are poorly understood due to the restrictive availability of animal models capable of reproducing the full spectrum of the disease. Nevertheless, it has been shown that CHIKV exhibits a particular tropism for muscle stem cells also known as satellite cells. Thus, SDV - its host constitute a relevant model to study in details the virus-induced muscle atrophy, the pathophysiological consequences of the infection of a particular cell-type in the skeletal muscle, - the regeneration of the muscle tissue in survivors together with the possible virus persistence. To study a putative SDV tropism for that particular cell type, we established an in vivo - ex vivo rainbow trout model of SDV-induced atrophy of the skeletal muscle. This experimental model allows reproducing the full panel of clinical signs observed during a natural infection since the transmission of the virus is arthropod-borne independent. The virus tropism in the muscle tissue was studied by immunohistochemistry together with the kinetics of the muscle atrophy, - the muscle regeneration post-infection was observed. In parallel, an ex vivo model of SDV infection of rainbow trout satellite cells was developed - virus replication - persistence in that particular cell type was followed up to 73 days post-infection. These results constitute the first observation of a specific SDV tropism for the muscle satellite cells.

151) First case of imported zika virus infection in Spain
Titulo Alternativo: Primer caso importado de infección por virus zika en España
Autor: Bachiller-Luque, Pablo; Domínguez-Gil González, Marta; Álvarez-Manzanares, Jesús; Vázquez, Ana; De Ory, Fernando; Sánchez-Seco Fariñas, M Paz
Assunto: Zika virus; Flavivirus; Aedes mosquitoes; Arbovirus; Vector-borne diseases
Descritores: Zika Virus - Arbovirus ; Zika Virus - Viral infections ; Zika Virus - RNA virus ; Zika Virus - Microcephaly ; Zika Virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica, v. 34, n. 4, p. 243-246, 2016.
ISSN: 1578-1852
Resumo: We report a case of Zika virus (ZIKV) infection in a patient with diarrhea, fever, synovitis, non-purulent conjunctivitis, and with discreet retro-orbital pain, after returning from Colombia in January 2016. The patient referred several mosquito bites. Presence of ZIKV was detected by PCR (polymerase chain reaction) in plasma. Rapid microbiological diagnosis of ZIKV infection is needed in European countries with circulation of its vector, in order to avoid autochthonous circulation. The recent association of ZIKV infection with abortion and microcephaly, and a Guillain-Barré syndrome highlights the need for laboratory differentiation of ZIKV from other virus infection. Women with potential risk for Zika virus infection who are pregnant or planning to become pregnant must mention that fact during prenatal visits in order to be evaluated and properly monitored.

152) Missing link: animal models to study whether zika causes birth defects
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Becker, Rachel
Assunto: Zika virus, Birth defects, Animals, Models
Descritores: Zika virus - Cell ; Zika virus - Immune response ; Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - Proteins ; Zika virus - Antibodies ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Inflammation ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - RT-PCR ; Zika virus - Sexual ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Chikungunya Fever ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Nature Medicine, v. 22, n. 3, p. 225-227, 2016.
ISSN: 1078-8956
Resumo: When Patricia Pestana Garcez returned home to Brazil to start her new position as an assistant professor at the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro in June, she knew that she would study the neurobiology of brain malformations. But she hadnt yet decided whether to continue her research into microcephaly, a birth defect characterized by an unusually small head and caused by genetic mutation or maternal infection.

153) The Zika outbreak of the 21st century.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Chang, Christopher, Ortiz, Kristina, Ansari, Aftab, Gershwin, M. Eric
Assunto: Zika virus infections, Mosquitoes as carriers of disease, Epidemics, Guillain-Barre syndrome, Microcephaly, Centrosomes, Transmission
Descritores: Zika virus - Autoimmunity ; Zika virus - Immunology ; Zika virus - Sexual ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Rash maculopapular ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Journal of Autoimmunity, v. 68, p. 1-13, 2016
ISSN: 8968411
Resumo: The Zika virus outbreak has captivated the attention of the global audience and information has spread rapidly and wildly through the internet and other media channels. This virus was first identified in 1947, when it was isolated from a sentinel rhesus monkey placed by British scientists working at the Yellow Fever Research Laboratory located in the Zika forest area of Uganda, hence its name, and is transmitted primarily by the mosquito vector, Aedes aegypti . The fact that the rhesus macaque is an Asian species being placed in an African forest brings to mind the possibility of rapid adaptation of the virus from an African to Asian species, an issue that has not been considered. Whether such adaptation has played any role in acquiring pathogenicity due to cross species transmission remains to be identified. The first human infection was described in Nigeria in 1954, with only scattered reports of about a dozen human infections identified over a 50-year period. It was not until 2007 that Zika virus raised its ugly head with infections noted in three-quarters of the population on the tiny island of Yap located between the Philippines and Papua New Guinea in the western Pacific Ocean, followed by a major outbreak in French Polynesia in 2013. The virus remained confined to a narrow equatorial band in Africa and Asia until 2014 when it began to spread eastward, first toward Oceania and then to South America. Since then, millions of infected individuals have been identified in Brazil, Colombia, Venezuela, including 25 additional countries in the Americas. While the symptoms associated with Zika virus infection are generally mild, consisting of fever, maculopapular rash, arthralgia and conjunctivitis, there have been reports of more severe reactions that are associated with neurological complications. In pregnant women, fetal neurological complications include brain damage and microcephaly, while in adults there have been several cases of virus-associated Guillain-Barre syndrome. The virus was until recently believed to only be transmitted via mosquitoes. But when the Zika virus was isolated from the semen specimens from a patient in Texas, this provided the basis for the recent report of possible sexual transmission of the Zika virus. Due to the neurological complications, various vectors for infection as well as the rapid spread throughout the globe, it has prompted the World Health Organization to issue a global health emergency. Various governmental organizations have recommended that pregnant women do not travel to countries where the virus is epidemic, and within the countries affected by the virus, recommendations were provided for women of childbearing age to delay pregnancy. The overall public health impact of these above findings highlights the need for a rapid but specific diagnostic test for blood banks worldwide to identify those infected and for the counseling of women who are pregnant or contemplating pregnancy. As of this date, there are neither commercially licensed diagnostic tests nor a vaccine. Because cross-reactivity of the Zika virus with dengue and Chikungunya virus is common, it may pose difficulty in being able to quickly develop such tests and vaccines. So far the most effective public health measures include controlling the mosquito populations via insecticides and preventing humans from direct exposure to mosquitoes.

154) A report on the outbreak of zika virus on Easter Island, South Pacific, 2014
Autor: Tognarelli, J.; Ulloa, S.; Villagra, E.; Lagos, J.; Aguayo, C.; Fasce, R.; Parra, B.; Mora, J.; Becerra, N.; Lagos, N.; Vera, L.; Olivares, B.; Vilches, M.; Fernandez, J.
Assunto: Easter Island; Outbreak; South Pacific; ZIKV; Zika virus
Descritores: Zika virus - RT-PCR ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Viral infections
Fonte: Archives of Virology, v. 161, n. 3, p. 665-668, 2016.
ISSN: 0304-8608
Resumo: Zika virus (ZIKV) is an emerging mosquito-borne flavivirus circulating in Asia and Africa. In 2013, a large outbreak was reported on the archipelago of French Polynesia. In this study, we report the detection and molecular characterization of Zika virus for the first time in Chile from an outbreak among the inhabitants of Easter Island. A total of 89 samples from patients suspected of having ZIKV infection were collected between the period from January to May, 2014. Molecular diagnosis of the virus was performed by RT-PCR followed by the sequencing of the region containing the NS5 gene. A comparison of the viral nucleic acid sequence with those of other strains of ZIKA virus was performed using the MEGA software. Fifty-one samples were found positive for ZIKV by RT-PCR analysis. Further analysis of the NS5 gene revealed that the ZIKV strains identified in Easter Island were most closely related to those found in French Polynesia (99.8 to 99.9 % nt and 100 % aa sequence identity). These results strongly suggest that the transmission pathway leading to the introduction of Zika virus on Easter Island has its origin in French Polynesia.

155) Zika virus and microcephaly in Brazil: a scientific agenda.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Barreto, Mauricio L., Barral-Netto, Manoel, Stabeli, Rodrigo, Almeida-Filho, Naomar, Vasconcelos, Pedro F. C., Teixeira, Mauro, Buss, Paulo, Gadelha, Paulo E.
Assunto: Zika Virus Epidemic, 2015-, Microcephaly, Strategic planning, Zika virus infections, Diagnosis, Viral vaccines, Public health, Brazil
Descritores: Zika virus - Biochemistry ; Zika virus - Immunology ; Zika virus - Serological diagnosis ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Lancet, v. 387, n. 10022, p. 919-921, 2016
ISSN: 995355
Resumo: The article discusses the components of a strategic plan for the Brazilian government's action regarding the spread of Zika virus infection and the rising incidence of microcephaly. Topics discussed include the development of a reliable and fast serological test for the diagnosis of the infection based on immunology, the development of a vaccine, and the reprogramming of the country's health care system.

156) Zika virus and the risk of imported infection in returned travelers: Implications for clinical care
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Goorhuis A., von Eije K.J., Douma R.A., Rijnberg N., van Vugt M., Stijnis C., Grobusch M.P.
Assunto: infection, travel, virus
Descritores: Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Sexual ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Sexual ; Zika virus - Microcephaly
Fonte: Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease, v. 14, n. 1, p. 13-15, jan–feb. 2016
ISSN: 1873-0442 (electronic),1477-8939
Resumo: Since late 2015, an unprecedented outbreak of Zika virus is spreading quickly across Southern America. The large size of the current outbreak in The Americas will also result in an increase in Zika virus infections among travelers returning from endemic areas.We report five cases of imported Zika virus infection to The Netherlands. Although the clinical course is usually mild, establishing the diagnosis is important, mainly because of the association with congenital microcephaly and the possibility of sexual transmission.

157) 4 facts to know about the Zika virus
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor:
Assunto: Medical practice management; Physicians; Health and medicine; Health care industry
Descritores: Zika Virus - Infectious disease
Fonte: Medical Economics, v. 93, n. 5, p. 23, 2016
ISSN:
Resumo:

158) Long-lasting immune protection and other epidemiological findings after chikungunya emergence in a cambodian rural community, April 2012
Autor: Galatas Beatriz, Ly Sowath, Duong Veasna, Baisley Kathy, Nguon Kunthy, Chan Siam, Huy Rekol, Ly Sovann, Sorn Sopheak, Som Leakhann, Buchy Philippe, Tarantola Arnaud
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Antibodies ; Chikungunya virus - RT-PCR ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever
Fonte: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, v. 10, n. 1, p. e0004281, 2016
ISSN: 1935-2735
Resumo: The East/Central/South African genotype of Chikungunya virus with the E1-A226V mutation emerged in 2011 in Cambodia - spread in 2012. An outbreak of 190 cases was documented in Trapeang Roka, a rural village. We surveyed 425 village residents within 3-4 weeks after the outbreak, - determined the sensitivity - specificity of case definitions - factors associated with infection by CHIKV. Self-reported clinical presentation consisted mostly of fever, rash - arthralgia. The presence of all three clinical signs or symptoms was identified as the most sensitive (67%) - specific (84%) self-reported diagnostic clinical indicator compared to biological confirmation by MAC-ELISA or RT-PCR used as a reference. Having an indoor occupation was associated with lower odds of infection compared with people who remained at home (adjOR 0.32, 95%CI 0.12-0.82). In contrast with findings from outbreaks in other settings, persons aged above 40 years were less at risk of CHIKV infection, likely reflecting immune protection acquired when Chikungunya circulated in Cambodia before the Khmer Rouge regime in 1975. In view of the very particular history of Cambodia, our epidemiological data from Trapeang Roka are the first to support the persistence of CHIKV antibodies over a period of 40 years.

159) Lineamientos técnicos para la prevención, diagnóstico y tratamiento de la infección por virus Zika
Titulo Alternativo: Technical guidelines for the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of Zika virus infection
Autor: Barrera-Cruz, Antonio; Díaz-Ramos, Rita Delia; López-Morales, Ana Belem; Grajales-Muñiz, Concepción; Viniegra-Osorio, Arturo; Zaldívar-Cervera, Jaime Antonio; Arriaga-Dávila, José Jesús
Assunto: Arbovirus infections; Arboviruses; Communicable disease control; Epidemiology; Virus diseases
Descritores: Zika Virus - Arbovirus ; Zika Virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika Virus - Viral infections ; Zika Virus - RNA virus ; Zika Virus - Vaccine ; Zika Virus - Epidemiology ; Zika Virus - Rash maculopapular ; Zika Virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Revista Médica del Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social, v. 54, n. 2, p. 211-224, 2016.
ISSN: 0443-5117
Resumo: Infection Zika virus is an emerging disease in the Americas region, which is caused by Zika virus (ZIKV), an arbovirus of the flavivirus genus. The ZIKV is transmitted by the bite of Aedes mosquitoes, both in urban and jungle area. After the mosquito bite, the disease symptoms usually appear after an incubation period of three to twelve days. The infection may be asymptomatic or presented with fever and not purulent conjunctivitis, headache, myalgia, arthralgia, asthenia, maculopapular rash, edema in lower limbs and, less frequently, retro-orbital pain, anorexia, vomiting, diarrhea or pain abdominal. Symptoms last for 4-7 days and are self-limiting. Neurological and autoimmune complications are rare. Since 2014 it has been detected native circulation of Zika virus in the Americas. So far, there is no specific antiviral treatment or effective vaccine, so it´s giving priority symptomatic and supportive treatment for the acute phase and make an early diagnosis of atypical and severe forms.

160) Mosquito saliva induced cutaneous events augment Chikungunya virus replication and disease progression
Autor: Agarwal Ankita, Joshi Gaurav, Nagar Durga P, Sharma Ajay K, Sukumaran D, Pant Satish C, Parida Man Mohan, Dash Paban Kumar
Assunto: Chikungunya; Cutaneous immune response; Mosquito saliva; Pathogenesis
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Cell ; Chikungunya virus - Immune response ; Chikungunya virus - Pathogenesis ; Chikungunya virus - Cytokines ; Chikungunya virus - Immune response ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus
Fonte: Infection, Genetics and Evolution, v. 40, p. 126-135, 2016
ISSN: 1567-7257
Resumo: Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is transmitted when infected mosquito probes the host skin. While probing, mosquito saliva is expectorated into host skin along with virus which contains cocktail of molecules having anti-hemostatic - immunomodulatory properties. As mosquito saliva is a critical factor during natural arboviral infection, therefore we investigated mosquito saliva induced cutaneous events that modulate CHIKV infection. The effect of mosquito saliva on CHIKV infection was examined through inoculation of suckling mice subcutaneously with either CHIKV alone or uninfected mosquito bite followed by CHIKV. Histopathological evaluation of skin revealed infiltration of transmigrated inflammatory cells. Dermal blood vessels were hyperemic - adnexa showed degenerating lesions. Severe hemorrhage was observed in dermis - hypodermis in mosquito bite+CHIKV group compared to CHIKV group. Analysis of cytokines in skin showed significant downregulation of inflammatory genes like TLR-3, IL-2, IFN-?, TNF-? - IFN-? in mosquito bite+CHIKV group compared to CHIKV group. In contrast, significant upregulation of anti-inflammatory genes like IL-4 - IL-10 was observed. These early events might have been responsible for increased dissemination of CHIKV to serum - peripheral organs as demonstrated through >10-fold higher viremia, antigen localization, cellular infiltration - degenerative changes. Thus mosquito saliva induced early cellular infiltration - associated cytokines augment CHIKV pathogenesis in a mouse model. This mosquito improved CHIKV mouse model simulates the realistic conditions that occur naturally during infected mosquito bite to a host. It will lead to better underst-ing of CHIKV pathobiology - promote the evaluation of novel medical countermeasures against emerging CHIKV.

161) Tropical ophthalmology
Autor: Pleyer U, Klauß V, Wilking H, Nentwich M M
Assunto: Chikungunya fever; Dengue fever; Ebola infection; West Nile virus; Zoonoses
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Infectious diseases; Chikungunya virus - Inflammation; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections; Chikungunya Virus - Virus; Chikungunya virus - Transmission; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever; Chikungunya virus - Dengue
Fonte: Der Ophthalmologe, v. 113, n. 1, p. 35-46, 2016
ISSN: 1433-0423
Resumo: A number of new" (emerging) infections that can also cause inflammatory eye changes are appearing - becoming increasingly important. In the past, diseases such as chikungunya, dengue fever or West Nile virus infections were endemic in tropical regions, but are now exp-ing worldwide - causing significant morbidity - even mortality. "Globalization" - human migration are important factors leading to the import of these infections. Climate changes are probably even more important. Increasing temperatures provide suitable conditions for new vectors, - may lead to autochthonous transmission of infectious pathogens. Diagnosis of these diseases requires not only careful assessment of medical - travel history, but also the application of specific laboratory diagnostic tests. A broad spectrum of ocular involvement has been reported, with frequent posterior segment involvement. Emerging infections should therefore be considered in the differential diagnosis of retinitis, chorioretinitis, retinal vasculitis - optic neuropathy in a patient living in or traveling back from an endemic area. Since these infections are often vector (insect) borne - effective treatments are almost uniformly lacking, prevention is at least as important as prompt diagnosis - initiation of supportive care. Here, we focus on Chikungunya, Dengue fever, Ebola fever, the West Nile virus - Rickettsioses, which frequently demonstrate ocular involvement."

162) First case of imported zika virus infection in Spain.
Autor: Bachiller-Luque Pablo,Domínguez-Gil González Marta,Álvarez-Manzanares Jesús,Vázquez Ana,De Ory Fernando,Sánchez-Seco Fariñas M Paz
Assunto: Aedes mosquitoes, Arbovirus, Enfermedades transmitidas por vectores, Flavivirus, Mosquitos Aedes, Vector-borne diseases, Virus Zika, Zika virus
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiologia Clinica, v. 34, n. 4, p. 243-246, 2016
ISSN: 1578-1852
Resumo: We report a case of Zika virus (ZIKV) infection in a patient with diarrhea, fever, synovitis, non-purulent conjunctivitis, and with discreet retro-orbital pain, after returning from Colombia in January 2016. The patient referred several mosquito bites. Presence of ZIKV was detected by PCR (polymerase chain reaction) in plasma. Rapid microbiological diagnosis of ZIKV infection is needed in European countries with circulation of its vector, in order to avoid autochthonous circulation. The recent association of ZIKV infection with abortion and microcephaly, and a Guillain-Barré syndrome highlights the need for laboratory differentiation of ZIKV from other virus infection. Women with potential risk for Zika virus infection who are pregnant or planning to become pregnant must mention that fact during prenatal visits in order to be evaluated and properly monitored.

163) Rapid molecular detection of Zika virus in urine using the recombinase polymerase amplification assay
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Wahed, Ahmed Abd El ; Sanabani, Sabri S. ; Faye, Oumar ; Pessoa, Rodrigo ; Patriota, Joao-Veras ; Rodrigues-Giorgi, Rodrigues ; Patel, Pranav ; Boehlken-Fascher, Susanne ; Landt, Olfert ; Niedrig, Matthias ; Zanotto, Paolo M. de A. ; Czerny, Claus-Peter ; Sall, Amadou A. ; Weidmann, Manfred
Assunto:
Descritores: ZIKV - Viral infections ; ZIKV - RT-PCR ; ZIKV - PCR detection
Fonte: BiorXiv Beta, 2016
ISSN:
Resumo: Currently detection of Zika virus (ZIKV) in patient samples is done by real-time RT-PCR. Samples collected from rural area are sent to highly equipped laboratories for screening. A rapid point-of-care test is needed to detect the virus, especially at low resource settings. Methodology/Principal Findings: In this report, we describe the development of a reverse transcription isothermal recombinase polymerase amplification (RT-RPA) assay for the identification of ZIKV. RT-RPA assay was portable, sensitive (21 RNA molecules), and rapid (3-15 minutes). No cross-reactivity was detected to other flaviviruses, alphaviruses and arboviruses. Compared to real-time RT-PCR, the diagnostic sensitivity was 92% while the specificity was 100%. Conclusions/Significance: The developed assay is a promising platform for rapid point of need detection of ZIKV in low resource settings and elsewhere (e.g. during mass gathering)

164) Zika virus in the Americas--yet another Arbovirus threat.
Autor: Fauci Anthony S,Morens David M
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Pathogenesis ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Chikungunya Fever ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: The New England Journal of Medicine, v. 374, n. 7, p. 601-604, 2016
ISSN: 1533-4406
Resumo:

165) Zika virus causes testis damage and leads to male infertility in Mice
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Wenqiang, Ma ; Shihua Li ; Shuoqian, Ma ; Lina Jia ; Zhang, Fuchun ; Zhang, Yong ; Zhang, Jingyuan ; Wong, Gary ; Zhang, Shanshan ; Lu, Xuancheng ; Liu, Mei ; Jinghua Yan ; Wei Li ; Chuan Qin ; Daishu Han ; Chengfeng Qin ; Na Wang ; Gao, George
Assunto:
Descritores: ZIKV - Infectious diseases ; ZIKV - Inflammation ; ZIKV - Flaviviridae
Fonte: Cell, v. 167, n. 6, p. 1511-1524
ISSN: 0092-8674
Resumo: Zika virus (ZIKV) persists in the semen of male patients, a first for flavivirus infection. Here, we demonstrate that ZIKV can induce inflammation in the testis and epididymidis, but not in the prostate or seminal vesicle, and can lead to damaged testes after 60 days post-infection in mice. ZIKV induces innate immune responses in Leydig, Sertoli, and epididymal epithelial cells, resulting in the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines/chemokines. However, ZIKV does not induce a rapid and abundant cytokine production in peritubular cell and spermatogonia, suggesting that these cells are vulnerable for ZIKV infection and could be the potential repositories for ZIKV. Our study demonstrates a correlation between ZIKV and testis infection/damage and suggests that ZIKV infection, under certain circumstances, can eventually lead to male infertility

166) Ophthalmological findings in infants with microcephaly and presumable intra-uterus Zika virus infection
Autor: Ventura C.V., Maia M., Ventura B.V., Van Der Linden V., Araújo E.B., Ramos R.C., Rocha M.A.W., Carvalho M.D.C.G., Belfort R., Jr., Ventura L.O.
Assunto: Microcephaly; Ocular Findings; Retina; Vertical Transmission; Zika Virus
Descritores: Zika virus - Serology ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Microcephaly
Fonte: Arquivos Brasileiros de Oftalmologia, v. 79, n. 1, p. 1-3,2016.
ISSN: 42749
Resumo: Purpose: In2015, a twenty-fold increase in the prevalence of microcephaly in Brazil was reported, and the Ministry of Health associated this abnormal prevalence with the maternal-fetal Zika virus (ZIKV) transmission. Methods: We assessed the ophthalmological findings of ten mothers and their infants that had been clinically diagnosed with ZIKV-related microcephaly and presented ocular abnormalities, born from May to December2015. Results: Seven mothers (70.0%) referred symptoms during pregnancy (malaise, rash and arthralgia), of which six (85.7%) were in the first trimester. At the time of exam, no ophthalmological abnormalities were identified in the mothers and they did not report ocular symptoms during pregnancy. Serology was negative in all infants for Toxoplasmosis, Rubella, Cytomegalovirus, Syphilis and Human Immunodeficiency Viruses. Ocular findings included macular alterations (gross pigment mottling and/or chorioretinal atrophy) in fifteen eyes (75.0%), and optic nerve abnormalities (hypoplasia with double-ring sign, pallor, and/or increased cup-to-disk ratio) in nine eyes (45.0%). Conclusions: Patients presented normal anterior segment and important macular and optic nerve abnormalities. Further studies will assess the visual significance of these alterations.

167) The neurotranscriptome of the Aedes aegypti mosquito
Autor: Matthews Benjamin J,McBride Carolyn S,DeGennaro Matthew,Despo Orion,Vosshall Leslie B
Assunto: Mosquito; Aedes aegypti; mRNA-sequencing; De novo genome assembly; Host-seeking behavior; Neural genes; Chemosensory receptors; Ion channels; G protein-coupled receptors; Gonotrophic cycle; Neurogenetics
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Genome ; Aedes aegypti - RNA ; Aedes aegypti - Infectious diseases ; Aedes aegypti - Chikungunya Fever ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue
Fonte: BMC Genomics, v. 17, n. 1, p. 32, 2016
ISSN: 1471-2164
Resumo: A complete genome sequence and the advent of genome editing open up non-traditional model organisms to mechanistic genetic studies. The mosquito Aedes aegypti is an important vector of infectious diseases such as dengue, chikungunya, and yellow fever and has a large and complex genome, which has slowed annotation efforts. We used comprehensive transcriptomic analysis of adult gene expression to improve the genome annotation and to provide a detailed tissue-specific catalogue of neural gene expression at different adult behavioral states. We carried out deep RNA sequencing across all major peripheral male and female sensory tissues, the brain and (female) ovary. Furthermore, we examined gene expression across three important phases of the female reproductive cycle, a remarkable example of behavioral switching in which a female mosquito alternates between obtaining blood-meals from humans and laying eggs. Using genome-guided alignments and de novo transcriptome assembly, our re-annotation includes 572 new putative protein-coding genes and updates to 13.5 and 50.3 % of existing transcripts within coding sequences and untranslated regions, respectively. Using this updated annotation, we detail gene expression in each tissue, identifying large numbers of transcripts regulated by blood-feeding and sexually dimorphic transcripts that may provide clues to the biology of male- and female-specific behaviors, such as mating and blood-feeding, which are areas of intensive study for those interested in vector control. This neurotranscriptome forms a strong foundation for the study of genes in the mosquito nervous system and investigation of sensory-driven behaviors and their regulation. Furthermore, understanding the molecular genetic basis of mosquito chemosensory behavior has important implications for vector control.

168) Zika virus infection: global update on epidemiology and potentially associated clinical manifestations.
Autor:
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Pathogenesis ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Releve? É?pide?miologique Hebdomadaire, v. 91, n. 7, p. 73-81, 2016
ISSN: 0049-8114
Resumo:

169) Description of 13 Infants Born During October 2015–January 2016 With Congenital Zika Virus Infection Without Microcephaly at Birth — Brazil
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Linden, Vanessa van der ; Pessoa, André ; Dobyns, William ; Barkovich, A. James ; Liden Júnior, Hélio van der ; Rolim Filho, Epitacio Leite ; Ribeiro, Erlane Marques ; Leal, Mariana de Carvalho ; Coimbra, Pablo Picasso de Araújo ; Aragão, Maria de Fátima Viana Vasco ; Ventura, Islane Verçosa; Camila ; Ramos, Regina Coeli ; Cruz, Danielle Di Cavalcanti Sousa ; Cordeiro, Marli Tenório ; Mota, Vivian Maria Ribeiro ; Dott, Mary ; Hillard, Christina ; Moore, Cynthia A.
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Viral infections
Fonte: Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, v. 65, n. 47, p. 1343-1348, 2016
ISSN: 0149-2195
Resumo:

170) Zika virus and neurologic autoimmunity: the putative role of gangliosides.
Autor: Anaya Juan-Manuel,Ramirez-Santana Carolina,Salgado-Castaneda Ignacio,Chang Christopher,Ansari Aftab,Gershwin M Eric
Assunto: Autoimmunity, Gangliosides, Guillain-Barré syndrome, Microcephaly, Zika virus
Descritores: Zika virus - Cell ; Zika virus - Cytopathology ; Zika virus - Autoimmunity ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Immunology ; Zika virus - Microcephaly
Fonte: BMC Medicine, v. 14, n. 1, p. 49, 2016
ISSN: 1741-7015
Resumo: An increasing number of severe neurological complications associated with Zika virus (ZIKV), chiefly Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) and primary microcephaly, have led the World Health Organization to declare a global health emergency. Molecular mimicry between glycolipids and surface molecules of infectious agents explain most of the cases of GBS preceded by infection, while a direct toxicity of ZIKV on neural cells has been raised as the main mechanism by which ZIKV induces microcephaly. Gangliosides are crucial in brain development, and their expression correlates with neurogenesis, synaptogenesis, synaptic transmission, and cell proliferation. Targeting the autoimmune response to gangliosides may represent an underexploited opportunity to examine the increased incidence of neurological complications related to ZIKV infection.

171) Zika virus infection and solid organ transplantation: a new challenge
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Nogueira, Mauricio Lacerda ; Estofolete, Cassia Fernanda ; Terzian, Ana Carolina Bernardes ; Vale, Edla Polsinelli Bedin Mascarin do; Cássia, Rita de ; Silva, Renato Ferreira da ; Ramalho, José ; Charpiot, Ida Maria Maximina Fernandes
Assunto:
Descritores: ZIKV - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Viral infections
Fonte: American Journal of Transplantation, 2016
ISSN: 1600-6143
Resumo: Public health concerns exist surrounding the epidemic of the Zika virus (ZIKV) and the rapid growth of transplantation in developing countries, including endemic zones of active arbovirus transmission, as well as travel to such regions by potential organ donors and recipients. Few data exist regarding the clinical characteristics of ZIKV infection in immunocompromised hosts. Laboratory screening protocols for transplantation to differentiate ZIKV infections from other endemic viral diseases and for the detection of possible donor-derived infection have not been stated. The diagnosis of ZIKV infection remains a challenge, fueled by the lack of standardized commercially available diagnostic tests and validated reference diagnostic laboratories, as well as the limited duration of ZIKV viremia. In this small series, ZIKV infection in renal and liver recipients presented without rash, conjunctivitis, or neurological symptoms, and with abnormal graft function, thrombocytopenia, and bacterial superinfection. We report the first case series of ZIKV infection in solid organ recipients, with a description of clinical and laboratory features and therapeutic management.

172) Mefenamic acid in combination with ribavirin shows significant effects in reducing chikungunya virus infection in vitro and in vivo
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Rothan, Hussin A.; Bahrani, Hirbod; Abdulrahman, Ammar Y.; Mohamed, Zulqarnain; Teoh, Teow Chong; Othman, Shatrah; Rashid, Nurshamimi Nor; Rahman, Noorsaadah A.; Yusof, Rohana
Assunto: Chikungunya virus; Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs; Mefenamic acid; Meclofenamic acid; Ribavirin
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Viral infections ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Antiviral Research, v. 127, n. , p. 50-56, 2016
ISSN: 0166-3542
Resumo: Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) infection is a persistent problem worldwide due to efficient adaptation of the viral vectors, Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus mosquitoes. Therefore, the absence of effective anti-CHUN drugs to combat chikungunya outbreaks often leads to a significant impact on public health care. In this study, we investigated the antiviral activity of drugs that are used to alleviate infection symptoms, namely, the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), on the premise that active compounds with potential antiviral and anti-inflammatory activities could be directly subjected for human use to treat CHIKV infections. Amongst the various NSAID compounds, Mefenamic acid (MEFE) and Meclofenamic acid (MECLO) showed considerable antiviral activity against viral replication individually or in combination with the common antiviral drug, Ribavirin (RIBA). The 50% effective concentration (EC50) was estimated to be 13 mu M for MEFE, 18 mu M for MECLO and 10 mu M for RIBA, while MEFE + RIBA (1:1) exhibited an EC50 of 3 mu M, and MECLO + RIBA (1:1) was 5 mu M. Because MEFE is commercially available and its synthesis is easier compared with MECLO, MEFE was selected for further in vivo antiviral activity analysis. Treatment with MEFE + RIBA resulted in a significant reduction of hypertrophic effects by CHIKN on the mouse liver and spleen. Viral titre quantification in the blood of CHIKV-infected mice through the plaque formation assay revealed that treatment with MEFE + RIBA exhibited a 6.5-fold reduction compared with untreated controls. In conclusion, our study demonstrated that MEFE in combination with RIBA exhibited significant anti-CHIKV activity by impairing viral replication in vitro and in vivo. Indeed, this finding may lead to an even broader application of these combinatorial treatments against other viral infections. (C) 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

173) Zika virus : Another call for paradigm shift in disease control strategy
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Banerjee, Amitav
Assunto: Medical practice management; Medical science and research; Physicians; Health and medicine; Health care industry
Descritores: Zika Virus - Infectious disease
Fonte: Medical Journal of Dr. D.Y. Patil University, v. 9, n. 2, p. 288, 2016
ISSN:
Resumo:

174) A comprehensiveeEntomological, serological and molecular study of 2013 Dengue outbreak of Swat, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan
Autor: Khan, Jehangir; Khan, Inamullah; Amin, Ibne
Assunto: Biological surveys; Human diseases; Pest control; Aquatic insects; Disease transmission; Public health; Genomes; Climatic changes; Pest outbreaks; Infection; Dengue; RNA-directed DNA polymerase; Environmental conditions; Larvae; Outbreaks; Dengue virus; Aedes aegypti; Aedes albopictus
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Viral infections ; Aedes aegypti - Molecular methods ; Aedes aegypti - virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Epidemic
Fonte: Plos One, v. 11, n. 2, 2016.
ISSN:
Resumo: Background Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus play a fundamental role in transmission of dengue virus to humans. A single infected Aedes mosquito is capable to act as a reservoir/amplifier host for dengue virus and may cause epidemics via horizontal and vertical modes of dengue virus (DENV) transmission. The present and future dengue development can be clarified by understanding the elements which help the dissemination of dengue transmission. The current study deals with molecular surveillance of dengue in addition to ecological and social context of 2013 dengue epidemics in Swat, Pakistan. Methods Herein, we reported dengue vectors surveillance in domestic and peridomistic containers in public and private places in 7 dengue epidemic-prone sites in District Swat, Pakistan from July to November 2013. Using the Flaviviruses genus-specific reverse transcriptase (RT) semi nested-PCR assay, we screened blood samples (N = 500) of dengue positive patients, 150 adult mosquito pools and 25 larval pools. Results The 34 adult and 7 larval mosquito pools were found positive. The adult positive pools comprised 30 pools of Ae. aegypti and 4 pools of Ae. albopictus, while among the 7 larval pools, 5 pools of Ae. aegypti and 2 pools of Ae. albopictus were positive. The detected putative genomes of dengue virus were of DENV-2 (35% in 14 mosquito pools & 39% in serum) and DENV-3 (65% in 27 mosquito pools & 61% in serum). The higher vector density and dengue transmission rate was recorded in July and August (due to favorable conditions for vector growth). About 37% of Ae. aegpti and 34% Ae. albopictus mosquitoes were collected from stagnant water in drums, followed by drinking water tanks (23% & 26%), tires (20% & 18%) and discarded containers (10% & 6%). Among the surveyed areas, Saidu was heavily affected (26%) by dengue followed by Kanju (20% and Landikas (12%). The maximum infection was observed in the age group of 45 (25%) years and was more in males (55.3%) as compare to females (44.7%). The increase in vector mosquito density and the subsequent viral transmission was determined by a complex interplay of ecological, biological and social factors. Conclusion The suitable environmental conditions and discriminable role of Aedes through trans-ovarial transmission of DENV is indispensable in the recent geographic increase of dengue in Pakistan. Climate change affects the survival and dispersion of vectors as well as the transmission rates of dengue. Control of Aedes mosquitoes (vectors) and elimination of breeding sources must be emphasized and prioritized. Such actions may not only reduce the risk of dengue transmission during epidemics, but also minimize the chances of dengue viruses establishment in new (non endemic) areas of the region.

175) Outbreak of Zika virus disease in the Americas and the association with microcephaly, congenital malformations and Guillain-Barré syndrome.
Autor: Ladhani Shamez N.; O'Connor Catherine; Kirkbride Hilary; Brooks Tim.; Morgan Dilys
Assunto: Brazil, Guillain-Barre syndrome, Zika virus, microcephaly, trave
Descritores: Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Infectious diseases ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Viral infections ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Virus ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Microcephaly ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Public health
Fonte: Archives of Disease in Childhood, 2016
ISSN: 1468-2044
Resumo:

176) Spectre of Ebola haunts Zika response.
Autor: Check Hayden Erika
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Pathogenesis ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Nature, v. 531, n. 7592, p. 19, 2016
ISSN: 1476-4687
Resumo:

177) Alphavirus capsid proteins self-assemble into core-like particles in insect cells: A promising platform for nanoparticle vaccine development
Autor: Hikke Mia C, Geertsema Corinne, Wu Vincen, Metz Stefan W, van Lent Jan W, Vlak Just M, Pijlman Gorben P
Assunto: Alphavirus; Baculovirus expression; Core-like particle; Protein carrier; Subunit vaccine
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Cell ; Chikungunya virus - Proteins ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Vaccine
Fonte: Biotechnology Journal, v. 11, n. 2, p. 266-273, 2016
ISSN: 1860-7314
Resumo: The mosquito-borne chikungunya virus (CHIKV) causes arthritic diseases in humans, whereas the aquatic salmonid alphavirus (SAV) is associated with high mortality in aquaculture of salmon - trout. Using modern biotechnological approaches, promising vaccine c-idates based upon highly immunogenic, enveloped virus-like particles (eVLPs) have been developed. However, the eVLP structure (core, lipid membrane, surface glycoproteins) is more complex than that of non-enveloped, protein-only VLPs, which are structurally - morphologically 'simple'. In order to develop an alternative to alphavirus eVLPs, in this paper we engineered recombinant baculovirus vectors to produce high levels of alphavirus core-like particles (CLPs) in insect cells by expression of the CHIKV - SAV capsid proteins. The CLPs localize in dense nuclear bodies within the infected cell nucleus - are purified through a rapid - scalable protocol involving cell lysis, sonication - low-speed centrifugation steps. Furthermore, an immunogenic epitope from the alphavirus E2 glycoprotein can be successfully fused to the N-terminus of the capsid protein without disrupting the CLP self-assembling properties. We propose that immunogenic epitope-tagged alphavirus CLPs produced in insect cells present a simple - perhaps more stable alternative to alphavirus eVLPs.

178) Rapid and long-term immunity elicited by DNA encoded antibody prophylaxis and DNA vaccination against Chikungunya virus
Autor: Muthumani Karuppiah, Block Peter, Flingai Seleeke, Muruganantham Nagarajan, Chaaithanya Itta Krishna, Tingey Colleen, Wise Megan, Reuschel Emma L, Chung Christopher, Muthumani Abirami, Sarangan Gopalsamy, Srikanth Padma, Khan Amir S, Vijayachari Paluru, Sardesai Niranjan Y, Kim J Joseph, Ugen Kenneth E, Weiner David B
Assunto: DNA plasmid; Chikungunya virus; dMAb; Monoclonal antibody; Passive antibody prophylaxis and therapy
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Cytopathology ; Chikungunya virus - DNA ; Chikungunya virus - Antibodies ; Chikungunya virus - Infectious diseases ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya virus - Molecular methods ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Vaccine
Fonte: The Journal of Infectious Diseases, v. 214, n. 3, p. 369-378, 2016
ISSN: 1537-6613
Resumo: Vaccination - passive antibody therapies are critical for controlling infectious diseases. Passive antibody administration has limitations including the necessity for purification - the delivery of multiple injections required for efficacy. Vaccination is associated with a lag phase before generation of immunity. Novel approaches reported here utilize the benefits of both methods for the rapid generation of effective immunity. An antibody-based prophylaxis/therapy entailing the electroporation-mediated delivery of synthetic plasmids, encoding biologically active anti-Chikungunya virus envelope mAb (designated dMAb), was designed - evaluated for anti-viral efficacy as well as for the ability to overcome shortcomings inherent with conventional active vaccination by a novel passive immune-based strategy. One intramuscular injection of the CHIKV-dMAb produced antibodies in vivo more rapidly than active vaccination with a CHIKV-DNA vaccine. This dMAb neutralized diverse CHIKV clinical isolates - protected mice from viral challenge. Combinations of both afford rapid as well as long-lived protection. We report that a DNA based dMAb strategy induces rapid protection against an emerging viral infection, which can be combined with DNA vaccination providing a uniquely both short term - long-term protection against this emerging infectious disease. These studies have implications for pathogen treatment - control strategies.

179) Thrombocytopenia and subcutaneous bleedings in a patient with Zika virus infection.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Karimi, Ouafae, Goorhuis, Abraham, Schinkel, Janke, Codrington, John, Vreden, Stephen Gerold S., Vermaat, Joost S., Stijnis, Cornelis, Grobusch, Martin Peter
Assunto: Zika virus infections, Thrombocytopenia, Hemorrhage, Travel - Health aspects, Polymerase chain reaction - Diagnostic use, Intravenous immunoglobulins
Descritores: Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Lancet, v. 387, n. 10022, p. 939-940, 2016
ISSN: 995355
Resumo: The article discusses the case of a Netherlands-based patient with Zika virus infection who presented with thrombocytopenia and subcutaneous bleeding. Topics discussed include complaints reported by the patient several days after traveling to Suriname, the results of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analyses, and the management of thrombocytopenia with intravenous immunoglobulins.

180) International Health Regulations, ebola, and emerging infectious diseases in Latin America and the Caribbean
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Espinal, Marcos; Aldighieri, Sylvain; St John, Ronald; Becerra-Posada, Francisco; Etienne, Carissa
Assunto: Ebola virus, Epidemics, Infectious diseases, Public health, Leadership, Disease control
Descritores: Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Head size ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: American Journal of Public Health, v. 106, n. 2, p. 279-282, 2016.
ISSN: 0090-0036
Resumo: The World Health Organization's determination of the Ebola virus disease outbreak as a public health event of international concern prompted nonaffected countries to implement measures to prevent, detect, and manage the introduction of the virus in their territories. The outbreak provided an opportunity to assess the operational implementation of the International Health Regulations' core capacities and health systems' preparedness to handle a potential or confirmed case of Ebola virus disease. A public health framework implemented in Latin America and Caribbean countries encompassing preparatory self-assessments, in-country visits, and follow-up suggests that the region should increase efforts to consolidate and sustain progress on core capacities and health system preparedness to face public health events with national or international repercussions.

181) Zika virus infection damages the testes in mice
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Govero, Jennifer Govero; Esakky, Prabagaran ; Scheaffer, Suzanne M. ; Fernandez, Estefania ; Drury, Andrea ; Paltt, Derek J. ; Gorman, Matthew J. ; Richner, Justin M. ; Caine, Elizabeth A. ; Salazar, Vanessa ; Moley, Kelle H. ; Diamond, Michael S.
Assunto: Viral pathogenesis ; Infection ; Virus-host interactions
Descritores: Zika virus - Viral infections
Fonte: Nature, 2016
ISSN: 0028-0836
Resumo: Zika virus (ZIKV) infection of pregnant women can cause congenital malformations including microcephaly, which has focused global attention on this emerging pathogen1. In addition to transmission by mosquitoes, ZIKV can be detected in the seminal fluid of affected males for extended periods of time and transmitted sexually2. Here, using a mouse-adapted African ZIKV strain (Dakar 41519), we evaluated the consequences of infection in the male reproductive tract of mice. We observed persistence of ZIKV, but not the closely related Dengue virus (DENV), in the testis and epididymis of male mice, and this was associated with tissue injury that caused diminished testosterone and inhibin B levels, and oligospermia. ZIKV preferentially infected spermatogonia, primary spermatocytes, and Sertoli cells in the testis, resulting in cell death and destruction of the seminiferous tubules. Less damage was observed with a contemporary Asian ZIKV strain (H/PF/2013), in part because this virus replicates less efficiently in mice. The extent to which these observations in mice translate to humans remains unclear, but longitudinal studies of sperm function and viability in ZIKV-infected humans seem warranted

182) Chikungunya: epidemiology
Autor: Petersen Lyle R, Powers Ann M
Assunto: Chikungunya; Alphavirus; Mosquito
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever ; Chikungunya virus - Epidemiology ; Chikungunya virus - Public health
Fonte: F1000Research, v. 5, 2016
ISSN: 2046-1402
Resumo: Chikungunya virus is a mosquito-borne alphavirus that causes fever - debilitating joint pains in humans. Joint pains may last months or years. It is vectored primarily by the tropical - sub-tropical mosquito, Aedes aegypti, but is also found to be transmitted by Aedes albopictus, a mosquito species that can also be found in more temperate climates. In recent years, the virus has risen from relative obscurity to become a global public health menace affecting millions of persons throughout the tropical - sub-tropical world -, as such, has also become a frequent cause of travel-associated febrile illness. In this review, we discuss our current underst-ing of the biological - sociological underpinnings of its emergence - its future global outlook.

183) Guillain–Barré Syndrome associated with Zika virus infection in Colombia
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Parra, Beatriz ; Lizarazo, Jairo ; Jiménez-Arango, Jorge A. ; Zea-Vera, Andrés F. ; González-Manrique, Guillermo ; Vargas, José ; Angarita, Jorge A. ; Zuñiga, Gonzalo ; Lopez-Gonzalez, Reydmar; Beltran ; Cindy L. ; Rizcala, Karen H. ; Morales, Maria T. ; Pacheco, Oscar ; Ospina, Martha L. Ospina ; Kumae, Anupama Kumar ; Cornblath, David R. ; Muñoz, Laura S. ; Osorio, Lyda ; Barreras, Paula ; Pardo, Carlos A.
Assunto:
Descritores: ZIKV - Infectious diseases ; ZIKV - Inflammation ; ZIKV - Flaviviridae ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - virus
Fonte: The New England Journal os Medicine, v. 375, p. 1513-1523, 2016
ISSN: 1533-4406
Resumo: Zika virus (ZIKV), a mosquito-borne RNA flavivirus, has caused a major outbreak in the Americas that began in 2014.1 ZIKV infection manifests as a self-limited febrile syndrome associated with rash, conjunctivitis, and arthralgias.2-4 In 2013 and 2014, an increase in the number of cases of the Guillain–Barré syndrome was observed during an outbreak of ZIKV infection in French Polynesia.5,6 Recently, clusters of the Guillain–Barré syndrome and microcephaly have been spatially and temporally related to the current outbreak of ZIKV infection in the Americas.7 In Colombia, the government reported the first autochthonous case of ZIKV infection in October 2015.8 In December 2015, the Colombian Instituto Nacional de Salud (INS) documented an unusual number of cases of the Guillain–Barré syndrome in the Caribbean and the northeastern regions of Colombia. By January 2016, the outbreak of ZIKV infection had spread to most regions of Colombia. Concomitantly, an increase in the number of neuroinflammatory disorders was reported.7 Here, we describe an observational clinical and virologic study of the Guillain–Barré syndrome cases that were evaluated in the context of the ZIKV outbreak in Colombia, which further supports the association between ZIKV infection and the Guillain–Barré syndrome — in particular, the acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (AIDP) form of the syndrome

184) Detection and sequencing of Zika virus from amniotic fluid of fetuses with microcephaly in Brazil: A case study
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Calvet G., Aguiar R.S., Melo A.S.O., Sampaio S.A., de Filippis I., Fabri A., Araujo E.S.M., de Sequeira P.C., de Mendonça M.C.L., de Oliveira L., Tschoeke D.A., Schrago C.G., Thompson F.L., Brasil P., dos Santos F.B., Nogueira R.M.R., Tanuri A., de Filippis A.M.B.
Assunto: amnion fluid, Brazil, microcephaly, virus
Descritores: Zika virus - Cell ; Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Genome ; Zika virus - Pathogenesis ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - PCR detection ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Chikungunya Fever ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: The Lancet Infectious Diseases, 2016
ISSN: 1474-4457 (electronic),1473-3099
Resumo: Background: The incidence of microcephaly in Brazil in 2015 was 20 times higher than in previous years. Congenital microcephaly is associated with genetic factors and several causative agents. Epidemiological data suggest that microcephaly cases in Brazil might be associated with the introduction of Zika virus. We aimed to detect and sequence the Zika virus genome in amniotic fluid samples of two pregnant women in Brazil whose fetuses were diagnosed with microcephaly. Methods: In this case study, amniotic fluid samples from two pregnant women from the state of Paraíba in Brazil whose fetuses had been diagnosed with microcephaly were obtained, on the recommendation of the Brazilian health authorities, by ultrasound-guided transabdominal amniocentesis at 28 weeks' gestation. The women had presented at 18 weeks' and 10 weeks' gestation, respectively, with clinical manifestations that could have been symptoms of Zika virus infection, including fever, myalgia, and rash. After the amniotic fluid samples were centrifuged, DNA and RNA were extracted from the purified virus particles before the viral genome was identified by quantitative reverse transcription PCR and viral metagenomic next-generation sequencing. Phylogenetic reconstruction and investigation of recombination events were done by comparing the Brazilian Zika virus genome with sequences from other Zika strains and from flaviviruses that occur in similar regions in Brazil. Findings: We detected the Zika virus genome in the amniotic fluid of both pregnant women. The virus was not detected in their urine or serum. Tests for dengue virus, chikungunya virus, Toxoplasma gondii, rubella virus, cytomegalovirus, herpes simplex virus, HIV, Treponema pallidum, and parvovirus B19 were all negative. After sequencing of the complete genome of the Brazilian Zika virus isolated from patient 1, phylogenetic analyses showed that the virus shares 97-100% of its genomic identity with lineages isolated during an outbreak in French Polynesia in 2013, and that in both envelope and NS5 genomic regions, it clustered with sequences from North and South America, southeast Asia, and the Pacific. After assessing the possibility of recombination events between the Zika virus and other flaviviruses, we ruled out the hypothesis that the Brazilian Zika virus genome is a recombinant strain with other mosquito-borne flaviviruses. Interpretation: These findings strengthen the putative association between Zika virus and cases of microcephaly in neonates in Brazil. Moreover, our results suggest that the virus can cross the placental barrier. As a result, Zika virus should be considered as a potential infectious agent for human fetuses. Pathogenesis studies that confirm the tropism of Zika virus for neuronal cells are warranted. Funding: Consellho Nacional de Desenvolvimento e Pesquisa (CNPq), Fundação de Amparo a Pesquisa do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (FAPERJ).

185) A lipidomics approachinthe characterization of zika - infected mosquito cells: potential targets for breakingthe transmission cycle
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Melo, Carlos Fernando Odir Rodrigues ; Oliveira, Diogo Noin de ; Lima, Estela de Oliveira ; Guerreiro, Tatiane Melina ; Esteves, Cibele Zanardi ; Beck, Raissa Marques ; Padilla, Marina Aiello ; Milanez, Guilherme Paier ; Arns, Clarice Weis ; Proença-Modena, José Luiz ; Souza-Neto, Jayme Augusto ; Catharino, Rodrigo Ramos
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Viral infections
Fonte: Plos One, v. 11, n. 10
ISSN: 1932-6203
Resumo: Recent outbreaks of Zika virus in Oceania and Latin America, accompanied by unexpected clinical complications, made this infection a global public health concern. This virus has tropism to neural tissue, leading to microcephaly in newborns in a significant proportion of infected mothers. The clinical relevance of this infection, the difficulty to perform accurate diagnosis and the small amount of data in literature indicate the necessity of studies on Zika infection in order to characterize new biomarkers of this infection and to establish new targets for viral control in vertebrates and invertebrate vectors. Thus, this study aims at establishing a lipidomics profile of infected mosquito cells compared to a control group to define potential targets for viral control in mosquitoes. Thirteen lipids were elected as specific markers for Zika virus infection (Brazilian strain), which were identified as putatively linked to the intracellular mechanism of viral replication and/or cell recognition. Our findings bring biochemical information that may translate into useful targets for breaking the transmission cycle

186) Local transmission of zika virus - Puerto Rico, November 23, 2015-January 28, 2016
Autor: Thomas, Dana L.; Sharp, Tyler M.; Torres, Jomil; Armstrong, Paige A.; Munoz-Jordan, Jorge; Ryff, Kyle R.; Martinez-Quinones, Alma; Arias-Berrios, Jose; Mayshack, Marrielle; Garayalde, Glenn J.; Saavedra, Sonia; Luciano, Carlos A.; Valencia-Prado, Miguel; Waterman, Steve; Rivera-Garcia, Brenda
Assunto: States
Descritores: Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Viral infections
Fonte: Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, v. 65, n. 6, p. 154-158, 2016.
ISSN: 0149-2195
Resumo:

187) Texas enhances zika surveillance in the Rio Grande Valley
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Schnirring, Lisa
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Infectious diseases
Fonte: Center for Infectious Disease Research and Policy, New & Perspective, 2016
ISSN:
Resumo: Because of concerns about the Zika risk in an area of Texas where dengue outbreaks have occurred before, Texas state health officials urged medical providers to test pregnant women in six counties for the virus if they have symptoms, regardless of travel history. In other developments, Brazilian researchers who profiled 11 babies with Zika-linked microcephaly found a wide scope of problems, tests on macaques shed more light on how the virus might behave in humans, and Florida reported 6 more locally acquired Zika cases

188) Interim guidelines for the evaluation and testing of infants with possible congenital zika virus infection - United States, 2016
Autor: Staples, J. Erin; Dziuban, Eric J.; Fischer, Marc; Cragan, Janet D.; Rasmussen, Sonja A.; Cannon, Michael J.; Frey, Meghan T.; Renquist, Christina M.; Lanciotti, Robert S.; Munoz, Jorge L.; Powers, Ann M.; Honein, Margaret A.; Moore, Cynthia A.
Assunto: Micronesia
Descritores: Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Antibodies ; Zika virus - Biochemistry ; Zika virus - Cell ; Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - Viral infections
Fonte: Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, v. 65, n. 3, p. 63-67, 2016.
ISSN: 0149-2195
Resumo:

189) Neutralizing human antibodies prevent Zika virus replication and fetal disease in mice
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Sapparapu, Gopal ; Ferandez, Estefania ; Kose, Nurgun ; Cao, Bin; Foz, Julie M. ; Bombardi, Robin G. ; Zhao, Haiyan Zhao ; Nelson, Christopher A. ; Bryan, Aubrey L. ; Barnes, Trevor ; Dabidsin, Edgar ; Mysorekar, Indira U. ; Fremont, Daved H. ; Doranz, Benjamin J. ; Diamond, Michael S. ; Crowe, James E.
Assunto: Virology ; Antibodies
Descritores: Zika virus - Antibodies
Fonte: Nature, 2016
ISSN: 0028-0836
Resumo: Zika virus (ZIKV) is an emerging mosquito-transmitted flavivirus that can cause severe disease, including congenital birth defects during pregnancy1. To develop candidate therapeutic agents against ZIKV, we isolated a panel of human monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) from subjects with prior ZIKV infection. A subset of mAbs recognized diverse epitopes on the envelope (E) protein and exhibited potently neutralizing activity. One of the most inhibitory mAbs, ZIKV-117, broadly neutralized infection of ZIKV strains corresponding to African, Asian, and American lineages. Epitope mapping studies revealed that ZIKV-117 recognized a unique quaternary epitope on the E protein dimer–dimer interface. We evaluated the therapeutic efficacy of ZIKV-117 in pregnant and non-pregnant mice. mAb treatment markedly reduced tissue pathology, placental and fetal infection, and mortality in mice. Thus, neutralizing human mAbs can protect against maternal–fetal transmission, infection and disease, and reveal important determinants for structure-based rational vaccine design efforts

190) Hemispherx Biopharma, Inc. has unveiled a voluntary pay for stock plan (the Plan).
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor:
Assunto: Biotechnology industry, Planning, Stock prices
Descritores: Zika virus - Cell ; Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Head size
Fonte: Biotech Financial Reports, v. 23, n. 3, 2016.
ISSN:
Resumo: In addition, the CEO/Chairman and President/CFO, will both voluntarily reduce their salaries further to a cumulative reduction of 50%. The plan goes in effect immediately. We are all excited for the opportunity to invest in Hemispherxs future, said Hemispherxs Chairman and CEO, Dr. William A. Carter, Our efforts will be redoubled in 2016 to make progress on all of our major goals. Foremost, in the major goal categories are: a) accelerating success in the recently initiated Expanded Access programs globally for both Ampligen (an experimental therapeutic) and Alferon N; b) achieving further regulatory progress with Ampligen as a potential biotherapeutic for Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS) treatment; c) advancing new clinical tests in cancer immunotherapy, including potential treatment of metastatic colon cancer wherein all standard of care therapies have faltered; and expanding research on the use of our experimental drug Ampligen and Alferon N as an early onset broad spectrum antivirals for diseases such as MERS, Ebola virus, Equine Encephalitis and, given the new pandemic threat, the Zika virus. Previous studies (preclinical) have shown that both Ampligen and interferon are active against the flavivirus family of viruses which includes the West Nile virus and Zika virus. About Hemispherx Biopharma Hemispherx Biopharma, Inc. is an advanced specialty pharmaceutical company engaged in the manufacture and clinical development of new drug entities for treatment of seriously debilitating disorders. Hemispherxs flagship products include Alferon N Injection and the experimental therapeutics Ampligen and Alferon LDO.

191) Acute uncomplicated febrile illness in children aged 2-59 months in Zanzibar - aetiologies, antibiotic treatment and outcome
Autor: Elfving Kristina, Shakely Deler, Andersson Maria, Baltzell Kimberly, Ali Abdullah S, Bachelard Marc, Falk Kerstin I, Ljung Annika, Msellem Mwinyi I, Omar Rahila S, Parola Philippe, Xu Weiping, Petzold Max, Trollfors Birger, Björkman Anders, Lindh Magnus, Mårtensson Andreas
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Cell ; Chikungunya virus - Infectious diseases ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Transmission ; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever ; Chikungunya virus - Dengue
Fonte: PloS One, v. 11, n. 1, p. e0146054, 2016
ISSN: 1932-6203
Resumo: Despite the fact that a large proportion of children with fever in Africa present at primary health care facilities, few studies have been designed to specifically study the causes of uncomplicated childhood febrile illness at this level of care, especially in areas like Zanzibar that has recently undergone a dramatic change from high to low malaria transmission. We prospectively studied the aetiology of febrile illness in 677 children aged 2-59 months with acute uncomplicated fever managed by IMCI (Integrated Management of Childhood Illness) guidelines in Zanzibar, using point-of-care tests, urine culture, blood-PCR, chest X-ray (CXR) of IMCI-pneumonia classified patients, - multiple quantitative (q)PCR investigations of nasopharyngeal (NPH) (all patients) - rectal (GE) swabs (diarrhoea patients). For comparison, we also performed NPH - GE qPCR analyses in 167 healthy community controls. Final fever diagnoses were retrospectively established based on all clinical - laboratory data. Clinical outcome was assessed during a 14-day follow-up. The utility of IMCI for identifying infections presumed to require antibiotics was evaluated. NPH-qPCR - GE-qPCR detected ?1 pathogen in 657/672 (98%) - 153/164 (93%) of patients - 158/166 (95%) - 144/165 (87%) of controls, respectively. Overall, 57% (387/677) had IMCI-pneumonia, but only 12% (42/342) had CXR-confirmed pneumonia. Two patients were positive for Plasmodium falciparum. Respiratory syncytial virus (24.5%), influenza A/B (22.3%), rhinovirus (10.5%) - group-A streptococci (6.4%), CXR-confirmed pneumonia (6.2%), Shigella (4.3%) were the most common viral - bacterial fever diagnoses, respectively. Blood-PCR conducted in a sub-group of patients (n = 83) without defined fever diagnosis was negative for rickettsiae, chikungunya, dengue, Rift Valley fever - West Nile viruses. Antibiotics were prescribed to 500 (74%) patients, but only 152 (22%) had an infection retrospectively considered to require antibiotics. Clinical outcome was generally good. However, two children died. Only 68 (11%) patients remained febrile on day 3 - three of them had verified fever on day 14. An additional 29 (4.5%) children had fever relapse on day 14. Regression analysis determined C-reactive Protein (CRP) as the only independent variable significantly associated with CXR-confirmed pneumonia. This is the first study on uncomplicated febrile illness in African children that both applied a comprehensive laboratory panel - a healthy control group. A majority of patients had viral respiratory tract infection. Pathogens were frequently detected by qPCR also in asymptomatic children, demonstrating the importance of incorporating controls in fever aetiology studies. The precision of IMCI for identifying infections requiring antibiotics was low.

192) Control of mosquito-borne infectious diseases: sex and gene drive
Autor: Adelman, Zach N.; Tu, Zhijian
Assunto: Genes; Infectious diseases; Population structure; Pest control; Hosts; Phenotypes; Aquatic insects; Public health; Disease transmission; Dengue; Reviews; Vectors; Sex; Aedes aegypti
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Infectious diseases ; Aedes aegypti - Sexual ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue
Fonte: Trends in Parasitology, v. 32, n. 3, special issue, p. 219-229, 2016.
ISSN: 1471-4922
Resumo: Sterile male releases have successfully reduced local populations of the dengue vector, Aedes aegypti, but challenges remain in scale and in separating sexes before release. The recent discovery of the first mosquito male determining factor (M factor) will facilitate our understanding of the genetic programs that initiate sexual development in mosquitoes. Manipulation of the M factor and possible intermediary factors may result in female-to-male conversion or female killing, enabling efficient sex separation and effective reduction of target mosquito populations. Given recent breakthroughs in the development of CRISPR-Cas9 reagents as a source of gene drive, more advanced technologies at driving maleness, the ultimate disease refractory phenotype, become possible and may represent efficient and self-limiting methods to control mosquito populations.

193) Rapid development of a DNA vaccine for zika virus
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Dowd, Kimberly A. ; Sung-Youl Ko ; Morabito, Kaitlyn M. ; Eun Sung Yang ; Pelc, Rebecca S. ; DeMaso, Christina R. ; Castilho, Leda R. Castilho ; Abbink, Peter ; Boyd, Michael ; Nityanandam, Ramya ; Gordon, David N. Gordon ; Gallagher, John Robert ; Chen, Xuejun Chen ; Todd, John-Paul ; Tsybovsky, Yaroslav ; Harris, Audray ; Huang, Yan-Jang S. ; Higgs, Stephen ; Vanlandingham, Dana L. ; Andersen, Hanne ; Lewis, Mark G. ; Barrera, Rafael De La ; Eckels, Kenneth H. ; Jarmn, Richard G. ; Nason, Martha C. Nason ; Barouch, Dan H. ; Roederer, Mario Roederer ; Kong, Wing-Pui ; Mascola, John R. ; Pierson, Theodore C. ; Grahan, Barney S.
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Vaccine
Fonte: Science, v. 354, n. 6316 , 2016
ISSN: 1095-9203
Resumo: Zika virus (ZIKV) was identified as a cause of congenital disease during an explosive outbreak in the Americas and Caribbean in 2015. Because of the ongoing fetal risk from endemic disease and travel-related exposures, a vaccine to prevent viremia in women of child-bearing age and their partners is imperative. Vaccination with DNA expressing the prM and E proteins of ZIKV was immunogenic in mice and nonhuman primates, and protection against viremia after ZIKV challenge correlated with serum neutralizing activity. These data not only indicate DNA vaccination could be a successful approach to protect against ZIKV infection, but also suggest a protective threshold of vaccine-induced neutralizing activity that will prevent viremia following acute infection

194) Zika virus infection spread through saliva - a truth or myth?
Autor: Siqueira Walter Luiz,Moffa Eduardo Buozi,Mussi Maria Carolina Martins,Machado Maria Aparecida de Andrade Moreira
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Biochemistry ; Zika virus - Cytopathology ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Brazilian Oral Research, v. 30 n. 1, 2016
ISSN: 1807-3107
Resumo: In this Point-of-view article we highlighted some features related to saliva and virus infection, in special for zika virus. In addition, we pointed out the potential oral problems caused by a microcephaly originated by a zika virus infection. In the end the, we demonstrated the importance of a more comprehensive exploration of saliva and their components as a fluid for diagnostic and therapeutic approaches on oral and systemic diseases.

195) Vaccine center researches Zika virus
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor:
Assunto: News, opinion and commentary; General and consumer interests
Descritores: Zika virus - Immune response
Fonte: UWIRE Text, p. 1, 2016
ISSN:
Resumo:

196) Zika virus infection: global update on epidemiology and potentially associated clinical manifestations
Autor:
Assunto:
Descritores: Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Flaviviridae ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Pathogenesis ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Infectious diseases ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Viral infections ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Virus ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Epidemiology ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Microcephaly ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Public health
Fonte: Health Section of the Secretariat of the League of Nations, v. 91, n. 7, p. 73-81, 2016
ISSN: 0049-8114
Resumo:

197) Differential Susceptibilities of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus from the Americas to Zika Virus.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Chouin-Carneiro, Thais, Vega-Rua, Anubis, Vazeille, Marie, Yebakima, Andrão, Girod, Romain, Goindin, Daniella, Dupont-Rouzeyrol, Myrielle, Loureno-de-Oliveira, Ricardo, Failloux, Anna-Bella
Assunto: Zika virus, Mosquitoes, Aedes aegypti, Aedes albopictus, Zika virus infections
Descritores: Zika Virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, v. 10, n. 3, p. 1-11, 2016
ISSN: 19352727
Resumo: Background: Since the major outbreak in 2007 in the Yap Island, Zika virus (ZIKV) causing dengue-like syndromes has affected multiple islands of the South Pacific region. In May 2015, the virus was detected in Brazil and then spread through South and Central America. In December 2015, ZIKV was detected in French Guiana and Martinique. The aim of the study was to evaluate the vector competence of the mosquito spp. Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus from the Caribbean (Martinique, Guadeloupe), North America (southern United States), South America (Brazil, French Guiana) for the currently circulating Asian genotype of ZIKV isolated from a patient in April 2014 in New Caledonia. Methodology/Principal Findings: Mosquitoes were orally exposed to an Asian genotype of ZIKV (NC-2014-5132). Upon exposure, engorged mosquitoes were maintained at 28°±1°C, a 16h:8h light:dark cycle and 80% humidity. 25–30 mosquitoes were processed at 4, 7 and 14 days post-infection (dpi). Mosquito bodies (thorax and abdomen), heads and saliva were analyzed to measure infection, dissemination and transmission, respectively. High infection but lower disseminated infection and transmission rates were observed for both Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus. Ae. aegypti populations from Guadeloupe and French Guiana exhibited a higher dissemination of ZIKV than the other Ae. aegypti populations examined. Transmission of ZIKV was observed in both mosquito species at 14 dpi but at a low level. Conclusions/Significance: This study suggests that although susceptible to infection, Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus were unexpectedly low competent vectors for ZIKV. This may suggest that other factors such as the large naïve population for ZIKV and the high densities of human-biting mosquitoes contribute to the rapid spread of ZIKV during the current outbreak.

198) Unexpected Rapid Improvement and Neurogenic Stunned Myocardium in a Patient With Acute Motor Axonal Neuropathy: A Case Report and Literature Review
Autor: Magid-Bernstein Jessica,Al-Mufti Fawaz,Merkler Alexander E,Roh David,Patel Sweta,May Teresa L,Agarwal Sachin,Claassen Jan,Park Soojin
Assunto:
Descritores: Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Antibodies
Fonte: Journal of Clinical Neuromuscular Disease, v. 17, n. 3, p. 135-141, 2016
ISSN: 1537-1611
Resumo: Acute Motor Axonal Neuropathy-type Guillain-Barré Syndrome (GBS) is a subset of GBS with either a rapidly improving or protracted course that was first described in China. We describe a 27-year-old previously healthy woman with weakness that progressed to complete tetraplegia and areflexia within 2 weeks after an upper respiratory illness. A lumbar puncture performed 4 days after onset of neurologic symptoms was inconclusive for GBS, and electromyography revealed complete motor axonal neuropathy. The patient had Mycoplasma pneumoniae in her nares and blood, and several antiganglioside antibodies in her blood. She was treated with plasmapheresis, antibiotics, and physical therapy. Her motor function and reflexes improved rapidly with treatment, and she was able to ambulate within 3 weeks. She also experienced cardiomyopathy, which improved with plasmapheresis. We report a rare case of Mycoplasma pneumonia-associated acute motor axonal neuropathy-type GBS presenting with complete tetraplegia, areflexia, and neurogenic stunned myocardium that rapidly improved with plasmapheresis.

199) Update: Interim Guidelines for Health Care Providers Caring for Pregnant Women and Women of Reproductive Age with Possible Zika Virus Exposure -- United States, 2016.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Oduyebo, Titilope, Petersen, Emily E., Rasmussen, Sonja A., Mead, Paul S., Meaney-Delman, Dana, Renquist, Christina M., Ellington, Sascha R., Fischer, Marc, Staples, J. Erin, Powers, Ann M., Villanueva, Julie, Galang, Romeo R., Dieke, Ada, Muñoz, Jorge L., Honein, Margaret A., Jamieson, Denise J.
Assunto: Zika virus infections, Prenatal care, Medical care - United States, Serodiagnosis, Health boards, United States
Descritores: Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Zika feverZika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Zika feverZika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Zika feverZika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: MMWR: Morbidity & Mortality Weekly Report, v. 65, n. 5, p. 122-127, 2016
ISSN: 1492195
Resumo: The article offers information on guidelines for health care providers caring for pregnant women and women of reproductive age with possible Zika virus exposure in the U.S. in 2016. Topics discussed include serologic testing to asymptomatic pregnant women who have traveled to areas with ongoing Zika virus transmission and recommendation by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control & Prevention for care providers to contact with health department for assistance with test interpretation.

200) Guillain-Barré syndrome.
Autor: Willison Hugh J.; Jacobs Bart C.; van Doorn Pieter A.
Assunto:
Descritores: Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Inflammation
Fonte: Lancet, v. 388, n. 10045, p. 717-727, 2016
ISSN: 1474-547X
Resumo: Guillain-Barré syndrome is the most common and most severe acute paralytic neuropathy, with about 100 000 people developing the disorder every year worldwide. Under the umbrella term of Guillain-Barré syndrome are several recognisable variants with distinct clinical and pathological features. The severe, generalised manifestation of Guillain-Barré syndrome with respiratory failure affects 20-30% of cases. Treatment with intravenous immunoglobulin or plasma exchange is the optimal management approach, alongside supportive care. Understanding of the infectious triggers and immunological and pathological mechanisms has advanced substantially in the past 10 years, and is guiding clinical trials investigating new treatments. Investigators of large, worldwide, collaborative studies of the spectrum of Guillain-Barré syndrome are accruing data for clinical and biological databases to inform the development of outcome predictors and disease biomarkers. Such studies are transforming the clinical and scientific landscape of acute autoimmune neuropathies.

201) The Emergence of Zika Virus as a Global Health Security Threat: A Review and a Consensus Statement of the INDUSEM Joint Working Group (JWG).
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Sikka, Veronica, Chattu, Vijay Kumar, Popli, Raaj K., Galwankar, Sagar C., Kelkar, Dhanashree, Sawicki, Stanley G., Stawicki, Stanislaw P., Papadimos, Thomas J.
Assunto: Zika virus, Zika virus infections, Public health research, World health, Research, Microcephaly
Descritores: Zika Virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Immunology ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Rash maculopapular ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Journal of Global Infectious Diseases, v. 8, n.1, p. 3-15, 2016
ISSN: 0974777X
Resumo: The Zika virus (ZIKV), first discovered in 1947, has emerged as a global public health threat over the last decade, with the accelerated geographic spread of the virus noted during the last 5 years. The World Health Organization (WHO) predicts that millions of cases of ZIKV are likely to occur in the Americas during the next 12 months. These projections, in conjunction with suspected Zika-associated increase in newborn microcephaly cases, prompted WHO to declare public health emergency of international concern. ZIKV-associated illness is characterized by an incubation period of 3-12 days. Most patients remain asymptomatic (i.e., ~80%) after contracting the virus. When symptomatic, clinical presentation is usually mild and consists of a self-limiting febrile illness that lasts approximately 2-7 days. Among common clinical manifestations are fever, arthralgia, conjunctivitis, myalgia, headache, and maculopapular rash. Hospitalization and complication rates are low, with fatalities being extremely rare. Newborn microcephaly, the most devastating and insidious complication associated with the ZIKV, has been described in the offspring of women who became infected while pregnant. Much remains to be elucidated about the timing of ZIKV infection in the context of the temporal progression of pregnancy, the corresponding in utero fetal development stage(s), and the risk of microcephaly. Without further knowledge of the pathophysiology involved, the true risk of ZIKV to the unborn remains difficult to quantify and remediate. Accurate, portable, and inexpensive point-of-care testing is required to better identify cases and manage the current and future outbreaks of ZIKV, including optimization of preventive approaches and the identification of more effective risk reduction strategies. In addition, much more work needs to be done to produce an effective vaccine. Given the rapid geographic spread of ZIKV in recent years, a coordinated local, regional, and global effort is needed to generate sufficient resources and political traction to effectively halt and contain further expansion of the current outbreak.

202) Immunotherapy in Peripheral Neuropathies.
Autor: Léger Jean-Marc; Guimarães-Costa Raquel; Muntean Cristina
Assunto: Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy, Guillain-Barré syndrome, IgM anti-myelin-associated-glycoprotein neuropathy, Immune-mediated neuropathies, Immunomodulatory treatments, Multifocal motor neuropathy
Descritores: Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Cell ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Immune response ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Pathogenesis
Fonte: Neurotherapeutics, v. 13, n. 1, p. 96-107, 2016
ISSN: 1878-7479
Resumo: Immunotherapy has been investigated in a small subset of peripheral neuropathies, including an acute one, Guillain-Barré syndrome, and 3 chronic forms: chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy, multifocal motor neuropathy, and neuropathy associated with IgM anti-myelin-associated glycoprotein. Several experimental studies and clinical data are strongly suggestive of an immune-mediated pathogenesis. Either cell-mediated mechanisms or antibody responses to Schwann cell, compact myelin, or nodal antigens are considered to act together in an aberrant immune response to cause damage to peripheral nerves. Immunomodulatory treatments used in these neuropathies aim to act at various steps of this pathogenic process. However, there are many phenotypic variants and, consequently, there is a significant difference in the response to immunotherapy between these neuropathies, as well as a need to improve our knowledge and long-term management of chronic forms.

203) Zika virus.
Autor: Basarab Marina,Bowman Conor,Aarons Emma J,Cropley Ian
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: British Medical Association, v. 352, 2016
ISSN: 1756-1833
Resumo:

204) Zika virus and neurologic autoimmunity: the putative role of gangliosides
Autor: Anaya Juan-Manuel,Ramirez-Santana Carolina,Salgado-Castaneda Ignacio,Chang Christopher,Ansari Aftab,Gershwin M Eric
Assunto: Autoimmunity; Gangliosides; Guillain-Barré syndrome; Microcephaly; Zika virus
Descritores: Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Cell ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Cytopathology ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Autoimmunity ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Infectious diseases ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Viral infections ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Virus ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Transmission ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Immunology ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Microcephaly
Fonte: BMC Medicine, v. 14, n. 1, p. 49, 2016
ISSN: 1741-7015
Resumo: An increasing number of severe neurological complications associated with Zika virus (ZIKV), chiefly Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) and primary microcephaly, have led the World Health Organization to declare a global health emergency. Molecular mimicry between glycolipids and surface molecules of infectious agents explain most of the cases of GBS preceded by infection, while a direct toxicity of ZIKV on neural cells has been raised as the main mechanism by which ZIKV induces microcephaly. Gangliosides are crucial in brain development, and their expression correlates with neurogenesis, synaptogenesis, synaptic transmission, and cell proliferation. Targeting the autoimmune response to gangliosides may represent an underexploited opportunity to examine the increased incidence of neurological complications related to ZIKV infection.

205) Mefenamic acid in combination with ribavirin shows significant effects in reducing chikungunya virus infection in vitro and in vivo
Autor: Rothan, Hussin A.; Bahrani, Hirbod; Abdulrahman, Ammar Y; Mohamed, Zulqarnain; Teoh, Teow Chong; Othman, Shatrah; Rashid, Nurshamimi Nor; Rahman, Noorsaadah A; Yusof, Rohana
Assunto: Chikungunya virus; Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs; Mefenamic acid; Meclofenamic acid; Ribavirin
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Viral infections ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Antiviral Research, v. 127, p. 50-56, 2016.
ISSN: 0166-3542
Resumo: Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) infection is a persistent problem worldwide due to efficient adaptation of the viral vectors, Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus mosquitoes. Therefore, the absence of effective anti-CHIKV drugs to combat chikungunya outbreaks often leads to a significant impact on public health care. In this study, we investigated the antiviral activity of drugs that are used to alleviate infection symptoms, namely, the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), on the premise that active compounds with potential antiviral and anti-inflammatory activities could be directly subjected for human use to treat CHIKV infections. Amongst the various NSAID compounds, Mefenamic acid (MEFE) and Meclofenamic acid (MECLO) showed considerable antiviral activity against viral replication individually or in combination with the common antiviral drug, Ribavirin (RIBA). The 50% effective concentration (EC50) was estimated to be 13 mu M for MEFE, 18 mu M for MECLO and 10 mu M for RIBA, while MEFE + RIBA (1:1) exhibited an EC50 of 3 mu M, and MECLO + RIBA (1:1) was 5 mu M. Because MEFE is commercially available and its synthesis is easier compared with MECLO, MEFE was selected for further in vivo antiviral activity analysis. Treatment with MEFE + RIBA resulted in a significant reduction of hypertrophic effects by CHIKV on the mouse liver and spleen. Viral titre quantification in the blood of CHIKV-infected mice through the plaque formation assay revealed that treatment with MEFE + RIBA exhibited a 6.5-fold reduction compared with untreated controls. In conclusion, our study demonstrated that MEFE in combination with RIBA exhibited significant anti-CHIKV activity by impairing viral replication in vitro and in vivo. Indeed, this finding may lead to an even broader application of these combinatorial treatments against other viral infections.

206) Guillain-Barré syndrome in infancy: The importance of electroneuromyography
Autor: Vedrenne-Cloquet M, Maincent K, Billette de Villemeur T, Mayer M
Assunto:
Descritores: Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Inflammation
Fonte: Archives de Pe?diatrie, v. 23, n. 2, p. 184-187, 2016
ISSN: 1769-664X
Resumo: Guillain-Barré Syndrome (GBS) is rare in infancy, and the diagnosis of atypical forms is difficult in this age range. The main differential diagnoses include congenital neuropathy. Biological and electrophysiological investigations remain important to confirm diagnosis and start treatment quickly. We report the case of an 8-month-old boy who presented with acquired hypotonia due to progressive descending limb paralysis, predominant in the upper limbs, associated with unexplained severe neutropenia. GBS was diagnosed thanks to the association of albuminocytologic dissociation on cerebrospinal fluid and demyelinating sensomotor polyradiculoneuropathy on electroneuromyography. Only one cycle of treatment with intravenous immunoglobulins was sufficient to achieve complete recovery after 1year. Physicians should know that atypical forms of GBS exist in infants, in order to recognize the syndrome, rule out differential diagnoses, and start treatment as soon as possible. Medical follow-up remains important before and after remission, especially in infants, to identify relapses, which might be the symptom of a genetic neuropathy or a chronic inflammatory disease.

207) Infectious disease: the race for a Zika vaccine is on.
Autor: Cohen Jon
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Pathogenesis ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Immunology ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Science, v. 351, n. 6273, p. 543-544, 2016
ISSN: 1095-9203
Resumo:

208) Reduced soluble RAGE is associated with disease severity of axonal Guillain-Barré syndrome
Autor: Zhang Da-Qi,Wang Rong,Li Ting,Zhou Jian-Ping,Chang Guo-Qiang,Zhao Ning,Yang Li-Na,Zhai Hui,Yang Li
Assunto:
Descritores: Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Inflammation
Fonte: Scientific Reports, v. 6, n. 21890, 2016
ISSN: 2045-2322
Resumo: Soluble receptor for advanced glycation end products (sRAGE) is an anti-inflammatory factor that mitigates the proinflammatory effects of high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1). The aim of this study was to investigate whether Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS)-related inflammation are mediated by sRAGE and HMGB1. We measured serum sRAGE, HMGB1, IL-6, and TNF-? levels in 86 patients with GBS and analysed associations between sRAGE or HMGB1 and clinical variables in these subjects. In addition, we determined cerebrospinal fluid sRAGE and HMGB1 levels in a cross-sectional study of 50 patients with GBS who had matched serum samples. We found serum sRAGE levels in patients with the acute motor axonal neuropathy (AMAN) subtype of GBS, but not other subtypes, were significantly lower than those in healthy controls, and were significantly correlated with GBS disability score and Erasmus GBS outcome score, while serum HMGB1, IL-6, and TNF-? levels in all subtypes of GBS were significantly higher than those in healthy controls. Moreover, increased sRAGE levels and decreased HMGB1 levels after treatment were observed. Our results showed that serum sRAGE may be a useful biomarker for inflammation in the AMAN GBS subtype, while HMGB1 may be related to the inflammatory process across all types of GBS.

209) Ocular Findings in Infants With Microcephaly Associated With Presumed Zika Virus Congenital Infection in Salvador, Brazil.
Autor: de Paula Freitas Bruno,de Oliveira Dias João Rafael,Prazeres Juliana,Sacramento Gielson Almeida,Ko Albert Icksang,Maia Maurício,Belfort Rubens
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Journal of the American Medical Association Ophthalmology, 2016
ISSN: 2168-6173
Resumo: The Zika virus (ZIKV) has rapidly reached epidemic proportions, especially in northeastern Brazil, and has rapidly spread to other parts of the Americas. A recent increase in the prevalence of microcephaly in newborn infants and vision-threatening findings in these infants is likely associated with the rapid spread of ZIKV. To evaluate the ocular findings in infants with microcephaly associated with presumed intrauterine ZIKV infection in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil. Case series at a tertiary hospital. Twenty-nine infants with microcephaly (defined by a cephalic circumference of ?32 cm) with a presumed diagnosis of congenital ZIKV were recruited through an active search and referrals from other hospitals and health unities. The study was conducted between December 1 and December 21, 2015. All infants and mothers underwent systemic and ophthalmic examinations from December 1 through December 21, 2015, in the Roberto Santos General Hospital, Salvador, Brazil. Anterior segment and retinal, choroidal, and optic nerve abnormalities were documented using a wide-field digital imaging system. The differential diagnosis included toxoplasmosis, rubella, cytomegalovirus, herpes simplex virus, syphilis, and human immunodeficiency virus, which were ruled out through serologic and clinical examinations. Ocular abnormalities associated with ZIKV. Twenty-three of 29 mothers (79.3%) reported suspected ZIKV infection signs and symptoms during pregnancy, 18 in the first trimester, 4 in the second trimester, and 1 in the third trimester. Of the 29 infants (58 eyes) examined (18 [62.1%] female), ocular abnormalities were present in 17 eyes (29.3%) of 10 children (34.5%). Bilateral findings were found in 7 of 10 patients presenting with ocular lesions, the most common of which were focal pigment mottling of the retina and chorioretinal atrophy in 11 of the 17 eyes with abnormalities (64.7%), followed by optic nerve abnormalities in 8 eyes (47.1%), bilateral iris coloboma in 1 patient (2 eyes [11.8%]), and lens subluxation in 1 eye (5.9%). Congenital infection due to presumed ZIKV exposure is associated with vision-threatening findings, which include bilateral macular and perimacular lesions as well as optic nerve abnormalities in most cases.

210) Zika Virus: Medical Countermeasure Development Challenges
Autor: Malone Robert W,Homan Jane,Callahan Michael V,Glasspool-Malone Jill,Damodaran Lambodhar,Schneider Adriano De Bernardi,Zimler Rebecca,Talton James,Cobb Ronald R,Ruzic Ivan,Smith-Gagen Julie,Janies Daniel,Wilson James,
Assunto:
Descritores: Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Infectious diseases ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Viral infections ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Virus ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Vaccine ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Epidemiology ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Immunology ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Microcephaly ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Public health
Fonte: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, v. 10, n. 3, p. e0004530, 2016
ISSN: 1935-2735
Resumo: Reports of high rates of primary microcephaly and Guillain-Barré syndrome associated with Zika virus infection in French Polynesia and Brazil have raised concerns that the virus circulating in these regions is a rapidly developing neuropathic, teratogenic, emerging infectious public health threat. There are no licensed medical countermeasures (vaccines, therapies or preventive drugs) available for Zika virus infection and disease. The Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) predicts that Zika virus will continue to spread and eventually reach all countries and territories in the Americas with endemic Aedes mosquitoes. This paper reviews the status of the Zika virus outbreak, including medical countermeasure options, with a focus on how the epidemiology, insect vectors, neuropathology, virology and immunology inform options and strategies available for medical countermeasure development and deployment. Multiple information sources were employed to support the review. These included publically available literature, patents, official communications, English and Lusophone lay press. Online surveys were distributed to physicians in the US, Mexico and Argentina and responses analyzed. Computational epitope analysis as well as infectious disease outbreak modeling and forecasting were implemented. Field observations in Brazil were compiled and interviews conducted with public health officials.

211) Zika virus in the americas-yet another arbovirus threat
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Fauci A.S., Morens D.M.
Assunto: RNA virus infection (diagnosis, epidemiology, therapy), Zika virus infection (diagnosis, epidemiology, therapy)
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Chikungunya Fever ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Rash maculopapular ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: New England Journal of Medicine, v. 374. n. 7, p. 601-604, feb. 2016
ISSN: 1533-4406 (electronic),0028-4793
Resumo:

212) Serum Antibodies to Glycans in Peripheral Neuropathies
Autor: Sonnino Sandro,Chiricozzi Elena,Ciampa Maria Grazia,Mauri Laura,Prinetti Alessandro,Toffano Gino,Aureli Massimo
Assunto: Glycoconjugates; Mimicry; Oligosaccharides; Peripheral neuropathies; Serum antibodies
Descritores: Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Antibodies
Fonte: Molecular Neurobiology, v. 54, n. 2, p. 1564-1567, 2016
ISSN: 1559-1182
Resumo: In peripheral neuropathies, such as sensorimotor neuropathies, motor neuron diseases, or the Guillain-Barré syndrome, serum antibodies recognizing saccharide units, portion of oligosaccharides, or oligosaccharide chains, have been found. These antibodies are called anti-glycosphingolipid (GSL) or anti-ganglioside antibodies. However, the information on the aglycone carrying the hydrophilic oligosaccharide remains elusive. The absolute and unique association of GSL to the onset, development and symptomatology of the peripheral neuropathies could be misleading. Here, we report some thoughts on the matter.

213) Preventing Zika Virus Infections in Pregnant Women: An Urgent Public Health Priority.
Autor: Bell Beth P,Boyle Coleen A,Petersen Lyle R
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: American Journal of Public Health, v. 106, n. 4, p. 589-590, 2016
ISSN: 1541-0048
Resumo:

214) The immunobiology of Campylobacter jejuni: Innate immunity and autoimmune diseases
Autor: Phongsisay Vongsavanh
Assunto: Autoimmune diseases; Campylobacter jejuni; Innate immunity; Receptor
Descritores: Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Immunopathology
Fonte: Immunobiology, v. 221, n. 4, p. 535-543, 2016
ISSN: 1878-3279
Resumo: The Gram-negative bacterium Campylobacter jejuni causes gastroenteritis and Guillain-Barré syndrome in humans. Recent advances in the immunobiology of C. jejuni have been made. This review summarizes C. jejuni-binding innate receptors and highlights the role of innate immunity in autoimmune diseases. This human pathogen produces a variety of glycoconjugates, including human ganglioside-like determinants and multiple activators of Toll-like receptors (TLRs). Furthermore, C. jejuni targets MyD88, NLRP3 inflammasome, TIR-domain-containing adapter-inducing interferon-? (TRIF), sialic acid-binding immunoglobulin-like lectins (Siglecs), macrophage galactose-type lectin (MGL), and immunoglobulin-like receptors (TREM2, LMIR5/CD300b). The roles of these innate receptors and signaling molecules have been extensively studied. MyD88-mediated TLR activation or inflammasome-dependent IL-1? secretion is essential for autoimmune induction. TRIF mediates the production of type I interferons that promote humoral immune responses and immunoglobulin class-switching. Siglec-1 and Siglec-7 interact directly with gangliosides. Siglec-1 activation enhances phagocytosis and inflammatory responses. MGL internalizes GalNAc-containing glycoconjugates. TREM2 is well-known for its role in phagocytosis. LMIR5 recognizes C. jejuni components and endogenous sulfoglycolipids. Several lines of evidence from animal models of autoimmune diseases suggest that simultaneous activation of innate immunity in the presence of autoreactive lymphocytes or antigen mimicry may link C. jejuni to immunopathology.

215) The role of TSPAN9 in alphavirus entry and early endosomes
Autor: Stiles Katie M, Kielian Margaret
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Cell ; Chikungunya virus - Proteins ; Chikungunya virus - RNA ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Vaccine
Fonte: Journal of Virology, v. 90, n. 9, p. 4289-4297, 2016
ISSN: 1098-5514
Resumo: Alphaviruses are small enveloped RNA viruses that infect cells via clathrin-mediated endocytosis - low pH-triggered fusion in the early endosome. Using an siRNA screen in human cells, we previously identified TSPAN9 as a host factor that promotes infection by the alphaviruses Sindbis (SINV), Semliki Forest (SFV), - Chikungunya (CHIKV). Depletion of TSPAN9 specifically decreases SFV membrane fusion in endosomes. TSPAN9 is a member of the tetraspanin family of multi-pass membrane proteins, but its cellular function is currently unknown. Here we used U-2 OS cells stably overexpressing TSPAN9 to show that TSPAN9 is localized at the plasma membrane - in early - late endosomes. Internalized SFV particles co-localized with TSPAN9 in vesicles early during infection. Depletion of TSPAN9 led to a reduction in the amount of the late endosomal proteins LAMP1 - CD63 - an increase in LAMP2. However, TSPAN9 depletion did not alter the delivery of SFV to early endosomes, or change their pH or protease activity. Comparative studies showed that TSPAN9 depletion strongly inhibited infection by several viruses that fuse in early endosomes (SFV, SINV, CHIKV, VSV) while viruses that fuse in the late endosome (rVSV-Lassa, rVSV-Junin), including an SFV point mutant with a lower pH threshold for fusion (SFV E2 T12I), were relatively resistant. Our data suggest that TSPAN9 modulates the early endosome compartment to make it more permissive for membrane fusion of early-penetrating viruses. Alphaviruses are spread by mosquitos - can cause serious human diseases such as arthritis - encephalitis. Recent outbreaks of CHIKV infection are responsible for millions of cases of acute illness - long-term complications. There are no vaccines or antiviral treatments for these important human pathogens. Alphaviruses infect host cells by utilizing the endocytic machinery of the cell - fusing their membrane with that of the endosome. Although the mechanism of virus-membrane fusion is well studied, we still know relatively little about the host cell proteins that are involved in alphavirus entry. Here we characterized the role of the host membrane protein TSPAN9 in alphavirus infection. TSPAN9 was localized to early endosomes containing internalized alphavirus, - depletion of TSPAN9 inhibited virus fusion with the early endosome membrane. In contrast, infection of viruses that enter through the late endosome was relatively resistant to TSPAN9 depletion, suggesting an important role for TSPAN9 in the early endosome.

216) Individual Restriction Of Fine Specificity Variability In Anti-GM1 IgG Antibodies Associated With Guillain-Barré Syndrome.
Autor: Lardone Ricardo D.; Yuki Nobuhiro; Irazoqui Fernando J.; Nores Gustavo A.
Assunto:
Descritores: Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Antibodies
Fonte: Scientific Reports
ISSN: 2045-2322
Resumo: Elevated titers of serum antibodies against GM1 ganglioside are associated with a variety of autoimmune neuropathies. Much evidence indicates these autoantibodies play a primary role in the disease processes, but the mechanism for their appearance is unclear. We studied the fine specificity of anti-GM1 antibodies of the IgG isotype present in sera from patients with Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS), using thin-layer chromatogram-immunostaining of GM1, asialo-GM1 (GA1), GD1b and GM1-derivatives with small modifications on the oligosaccharide moiety. We were able to distinguish populations of antibodies with different fine specificity. Remarkably, individual patients presented only one or two of them, and different patients had different populations. This restriction in the variability of antibody populations suggests that the appearance of the anti-GM1 antibodies is a random process involving restricted populations of lymphocytes. With the origin of disease-associated anti-GM1 antibodies as a context, this finding could provide explanation for the host susceptibility factor" observed in GBS following enteritis with GM1 oligosaccharide-carrying strains of Campylobacter jejuni."

217) Zika virus: a flavivirus caused pandemics in Latin America.
Autor: Liu Si-Qing,Zhang Bo
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Viral infections
Fonte: Virologica Sinica, 2016
ISSN: 1995-820X
Resumo:

218) How often and when Fisher syndrome is overlapped by Guillain-Barré syndrome or Bickerstaff brainstem encephalitis?
Autor: Sekiguchi Y.; Mori M.; Misawa S.; Sawai S.; Yuki N.; Beppu M.; Kuwabara S.
Assunto: Bickerstaff brainstem encephalitis, Fisher syndrome, Guillain?Barré syndrome, pharyngeal-cervical-brachial variant of Guillain?Barré syndrome
Descritores: Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Antibodies
Fonte: European Journal of Neurology, v. 23, n. 6, p. 1058-1063, 2016
ISSN: 1468-1331
Resumo: Fisher syndrome (FS) may overlap with Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS), in particular the pharyngeal-cervical-brachial variant form (PCB-GBS), or Bickerstaff brainstem encephalitis (BBE). Our aim was to elucidate the frequency of this overlap and the patterns of clinical progression in patients with FS. Sixty consecutive patients with FS were studied. FS/PCB-GBS was diagnosed when the patients developed pharyngeal, cervical and/or brachial weakness. Patients with flaccid tetraparesis were diagnosed as having FS/conventional GBS. FS/BBE was defined as the development of consciousness disturbances. All 60 patients initially developed the FS clinical triad alone (pure FS). Of these, 30 (50%) patients had pure FS throughout their course, whereas the remaining 50% of patients showed an overlap: PCB-GBS in 14 (23%) patients, conventional GBS in nine (15%) patients and BBE in seven (12%) patients. The median (range) durations from FS onset to progression to FS/PCB-GBS, FS/GBS or FS/BBE were 5 (1-7), 3 (1-4) and 3 (1-5) days, respectively. Patients with overlap syndromes more frequently received immune-modulating treatment, and the outcomes were generally favourable. The frequencies of positivity for anti-GQ1b, GT1a, GD1a, GD1b, GalNAc-GD1a and GM1 antibodies were not significantly different amongst the four groups. Of the patients with pure FS, 50% later developed an overlap with PCB-GBS, conventional GBS or BBE. The overlap occurred within 7 days of FS onset; thus, physicians should pay attention to the possible development of this overlap during the first week after FS onset.

219) The Emerging Zika Pandemic: Enhancing Preparedness.
Autor: Lucey Daniel R,Gostin Lawrence O
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Pathogenesis ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: The Journal of the American Medical Association, v. 316, n. 9, p. 865-866, 2016
ISSN: 1538-3598
Resumo:

220) Zika virus detection in urine from patients with Guillain-Barré syndrome on Martinique, January 2016
Autor: Rozé Benoît,Najioullah Fatiha,Fergé Jean-Louis,Apetse Kossivi,Brouste Yannick,Cesaire Raymond,Fagour Cédric,Fagour Laurence,Hochedez Patrick,Jeannin Séverine,Joux Julien,Mehdaoui Hossein,Valentino Ruddy,Signate Aïssatou,Cabié André,
Assunto: Martinique; Emerging or re-emerging diseases; Outbreaks; Vector-borne infections; Viral infections
Descritores: Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Infectious diseases ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Viral infections ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Virus
Fonte: Euro Surveillance : Bulletin Europe?en sur les Maladies Transmissibles = European Communicable Disease Bulletin, v. 21, n. 9, p. 1-4, 2016
ISSN: 1560-7917
Resumo: We report two cases of Guillain-Barré syndrome who had concomitant Zika virus viruria. This viruria persisted for longer than 15 days after symptom onset. The cases occurred on Martinique in January 2016, at the beginning of the Zika virus outbreak. Awareness of this possible neurological complication of ZikV infection is needed.

221) Zika Virus: Medical Countermeasure Development Challenges.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Malone, Robert W., Homan, Jane, Callahan, Michael V., Glasspool-Malone, Jill, Damodaran, Lambodhar, Schneider, Adriano De Bernardi, Zimler, Rebecca, Talton, James, Cobb, Ronald R., Ruzic, Ivan, Smith-Gagen, Julie, Janies, Daniel, Wilson, James, null, null
Assunto: Zika virus, Zika Virus Epidemic, 2015-, Microcephaly, Guillain-Barre syndrome, Preventive medicine, Nervous system - Diseases - Prevention
Descritores: Zika virus - Biochemistry ; Zika virus - Proteins ; Zika virus - Antibodies ; Zika virus - Immunology ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, v. 10, n. 3, p. 1-26, 2016
ISSN: 19352727
Resumo: Introduction: Reports of high rates of primary microcephaly and Guillain–Barré syndrome associated with Zika virus infection in French Polynesia and Brazil have raised concerns that the virus circulating in these regions is a rapidly developing neuropathic, teratogenic, emerging infectious public health threat. There are no licensed medical countermeasures (vaccines, therapies or preventive drugs) available for Zika virus infection and disease. The Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) predicts that Zika virus will continue to spread and eventually reach all countries and territories in the Americas with endemic Aedes mosquitoes. This paper reviews the status of the Zika virus outbreak, including medical countermeasure options, with a focus on how the epidemiology, insect vectors, neuropathology, virology and immunology inform options and strategies available for medical countermeasure development and deployment. Methods: Multiple information sources were employed to support the review. These included publically available literature, patents, official communications, English and Lusophone lay press. Online surveys were distributed to physicians in the US, Mexico and Argentina and responses analyzed. Computational epitope analysis as well as infectious disease outbreak modeling and forecasting were implemented. Field observations in Brazil were compiled and interviews conducted with public health officials.

222) The Emerging Zika Virus Epidemic in the Americas: Research Priorities.
Autor: Lazear Helen M,Stringer Elizabeth M,de Silva Aravinda M
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Immunology
Fonte: The Journal of the American Medical Association, v. 315, n. 9, p. 865-866, 2016
ISSN: 1538-3598
Resumo:

223) Zika Virus and Microcephaly.
Autor: Rubin Eric J,Greene Michael F,Baden Lindsey R
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Cytopathology ; Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Pathogenesis ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Immunology ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: The New England Journal of Medicine, v. 374, n. 10, p. 984-985, 2016
ISSN: 1533-4406
Resumo:

224) Fear of Zika Virus spreads To US
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor:
Assunto: News, Opinion and commentary; General and consumer interests
Descritores: Zika virus - Inflammation
Fonte: UWIRE Text, p. 1, 2016
ISSN:
Resumo:

225) Zika Virus Spreads to New Areas -- Region of the Americas, May 2015-January 2016.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Hennessey, Morgan, Fischer, Marc, Staples, J. Erin
Assunto: Zika virus infections, Zika Virus Epidemic, 2015-, Flaviviral diseases, Prevention, Mosquito control, Transmission
Descritores: Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Zika feverZika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: MMWR: Morbidity & Mortality Weekly Report, v. 65, n.3, p. 55-58, 2016
ISSN: 1492195
Resumo: A reprint of an article appeared on the periodical's website on January 22, 2016 about transmission of Zika virus among several regions of the U.S. in January 2016, is presented. Topics include identification of disease as mosquito-borne flavivirus in Uganda in 1947, observation of infection among travelers of the U.S., prevention of the disease including restriction of mosquito breeding areas, and suspension of travel plans by pregnant woman to avoid transmission.

226) Vectorborne Infections, Mali
Autor: Safronetz David, Sacko Moussa, Sogoba Nafomon, Rosenke Kyle, Martellaro Cynthia, Traoré Sékou, Cissé Issa, Maiga Ousmane, Boisen Matt, Nelson Diana, Oottamasathien Darin, Millett Molly, Garry Robert F, Branco Luis M, Doumbia Seydou, Feldmann Heinz, Traoré Mamadou S
Assunto: Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus; Ebola virus; Lassa virus; Leptospira; West Nile virus; Arboviruses; Bunyavirus; Chikungunya virus; Dengue virus; Flavivirus; Hantavirus; Rodentborne viruses; Togavirus; Vector-borne infections; Viruses; Zoonotic diseases
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Arbovirus ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever ; Chikungunya virus - Dengue
Fonte: Emerging Infectious Diseases, v. 22, n. 2, p. 340-342, 2016
ISSN: 1080-6059
Resumo:

227) Zika virus: diagnostics for an emerging pandemic threat
Autor: Waggoner Jesse J, Pinsky Benjamin A
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Arbovirus ; Chikungunya virus - Cytopathology ; Chikungunya virus - Infectious diseases ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Dengue
Fonte: Journal of Clinical Microbiology, v. 54, n. 4, p. 860-867, 2016
ISSN: 1098-660X
Resumo: Zika virus (ZIKV) is anAedesmosquito-borne flavivirus that emerged in Brazil in 2015 - then rapidly spread throughout the tropical - subtropical Americas. Based on clinical criteria alone, ZIKV cannot be reliably distinguished from infections with other pathogens that cause an undifferentiated systemic febrile illness, including infections with two common arboviruses, dengue virus - chikungunya virus. This minireview details the methods that are available to diagnose ZIKV infection.

228) Temporal genetic stability of Stegomyia aegypti (= Aedes aegypti) populations
Autor: Gloria-Soria A, Kellner D A, Brown J E, Gonzalez-Acosta C, Kamgang B, Lutwama J, Powell J R
Assunto: Chikungunya; Stegomyia (Aedes) aegypti; Dengue; Population stability; Temporal dynamics; Yellow fever
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Vaccine ; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever ; Chikungunya virus - Dengue
Fonte: Medical and Veterinary Entomology, v. 30, n. 2, p. 235-240, 2016
ISSN: 1365-2915
Resumo: The mosquito Stegomyia aegypti (= Aedes aegypti) (Diptera: Culicidae) is the primary vector of viruses that cause yellow fever, dengue - Chikungunya fever. In the absence of effective vaccines, the reduction of these diseases relies on vector control strategies. The success of these strategies is tightly linked to the population dynamics of target populations. In the present study, 14 collections from St. aegypti populations separated by periods of 1-13 years were analysed to determine their temporal genetic stability. Although temporal structure is discernible in most populations, the degree of temporal differentiation is dependent on the population - does not obscure the geographic structure of the various populations. The results suggest that performing detailed studies in the years prior to - after population reduction- or modification-based control interventions at each target field site may be useful in assessing the probability of success.

229) Zika virus: medical countermeasure development challenges.
Autor: Malone Robert W,Homan Jane,Callahan Michael V,Glasspool-Malone Jill,Damodaran Lambodhar,Schneider Adriano De Bernardi,Zimler Rebecca,Talton James,Cobb Ronald R,Ruzic Ivan,Smith-Gagen Julie,Janies Daniel,Wilson James,
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Immunology ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, v. 10, n. 3, 2016
ISSN: 1935-2735
Resumo: Reports of high rates of primary microcephaly and Guillain-Barré syndrome associated with Zika virus infection in French Polynesia and Brazil have raised concerns that the virus circulating in these regions is a rapidly developing neuropathic, teratogenic, emerging infectious public health threat. There are no licensed medical countermeasures (vaccines, therapies or preventive drugs) available for Zika virus infection and disease. The Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) predicts that Zika virus will continue to spread and eventually reach all countries and territories in the Americas with endemic Aedes mosquitoes. This paper reviews the status of the Zika virus outbreak, including medical countermeasure options, with a focus on how the epidemiology, insect vectors, neuropathology, virology and immunology inform options and strategies available for medical countermeasure development and deployment. Multiple information sources were employed to support the review. These included publically available literature, patents, official communications, English and Lusophone lay press. Online surveys were distributed to physicians in the US, Mexico and Argentina and responses analyzed. Computational epitope analysis as well as infectious disease outbreak modeling and forecasting were implemented. Field observations in Brazil were compiled and interviews conducted with public health officials.

230) Concern over Zika virus grips the world.
Autor: Samarasekera Udani,Triunfol Marcia
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Pathogenesis ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Immunology ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Lancet, v. 387, n. 10018, p. 521-524, 2016
ISSN: 1474-547X
Resumo:

231) Rapid Spread of Zika Virus in The Americas - Implications for Public Health Preparedness for Mass Gatherings at the 2016 Brazil Olympic Games.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Petersen, Eskild, Wilson, Mary E., Touch, Sok, McCloskey, Brian, Mwaba, Peter, Bates, Matthew, Dar, Osman, Mattes, Frank, Kidd, Mike, Ippolito, Giuseppe, Azhar, Esam I., Zumla, Alimuddin
Assunto: Zika virus, Public health, Olympic Games (31st : 2016 : Rio de Janeiro, Brazil), Communicable diseases, Microcephaly, Arboviruses, Risk factors
Descritores: Zika Virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: International Journal of Infectious Diseases, v. 44, p. 11-15, 2016
ISSN: 12019712
Resumo: Mass gatherings at major international sporting events put millions of international travelers and local host-country residents at risk of acquiring infectious diseases, including locally endemic infectious diseases. The mosquito-borne Zika virus (ZIKV) has recently aroused global attention due to its rapid spread since its first detection in May 2015 in Brazil to 22 other countries and other territories in the Americas. The ZIKV outbreak in Brazil, has also been associated with a significant rise in the number of babies born with microcephaly and neurological disorders, and has been declared a 'Global Emergency by the World Health Organization. This explosive spread of ZIKV in Brazil poses challenges for public health preparedness and surveillance for the Olympics and Paralympics which are due to be held in Rio De Janeiro in August, 2016. We review the epidemiology and clinical features of the current ZIKV outbreak in Brazil, highlight knowledge gaps, and review the public health implications of the current ZIKV outbreak in the Americas. We highlight the urgent need for a coordinated collaborative response for prevention and spread of infectious diseases with epidemic potential at mass gatherings events.

232) Zika virus outbreak: reproductive health and rights in Latin America (vol 387, pg 843, 2016)
Autor: Zika, Roa M.
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: The Lancet, v. 387, n. 10021, p. 848-848, 2016
ISSN: 0140-6736
Resumo:

233) Surveillance of mosquito-borne infectious diseases in febrile travelers entering China via Shenzhen ports, China, 2013
Autor: Shi Lei, Fu Shihong, Wang Lihua, Li Xiaolong, Gu Dayong, Liu Chunxiao, Zhao Chunzhong, He Jian'an, Liang Guodong
Assunto: Chikungunya virus; Dengue virus; Febrile travelers; Mosquito-borne diseases
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Antibodies ; Chikungunya virus - Infectious diseases ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever ; Chikungunya virus - Dengue
Fonte: Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease, v. 14, n. (2), p. 123-130, 2016
ISSN: 1873-0442
Resumo: About 100 million passengers enter China via Shenzhen ports every year - such huge populations increase the risk of various infectious diseases, particularly mosquito-borne diseases, entering China. This paper reports the testing - monitoring of mosquito-borne diseases in febrile travelers through Shenzhen ports in 2013. The blood samples of 619 febrile cases were collected - the serum of each sample was used for the specific gene amplification - IgM antibody detection of five typical mosquito-borne pathogens: Dengue virus (DENV), Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), Chikungunya virus (CHIKV), yellow fever virus (YFV), - West Nile Virus (WNV). Additionally, malaria was diagnosed by rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs). In total, 34 cases were detected of DENV infection (serotype I to IV), 17 cases of JEV infection, 2 cases of CHIKV infection, - 3 cases of malaria infection. No virus genes or IgM antibodies of YFV or WNV were detected in the samples. DENV, JEV - CHIKV cases were mainly from Southeast Asia, while malaria cases from Africa. DENV, JEV - CHIKV were the primary pathogens imported via Shenzhen ports. International travelers with mosquito-borne infections would accelerate the spread of these diseases, thus reinforcing the need for surveillance of mosquito-borne infections at ports should become a high priority.

234) Investigation into an outbreak of dengue-like illness in Pernambuco, Brazil, revealed a cocirculation of Zika, Chikungunya, and Dengue virus type 1
Autor: Pessôa Rodrigo, Patriota João Veras, Lourdes de Souza Maria de, Felix Alvina Clara, Mamede Nubia, Sanabani Sabri S
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Arbovirus ; Chikungunya virus - Cytopathology ; Chikungunya virus - RNA ; Chikungunya virus - Antibodies ; Chikungunya virus - Real Time PCR ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Molecular screening ; Chikungunya virus - Dengue
Fonte: Medicine, v. 95, n. 12, p. e3201, 2016
ISSN: 1536-5964
Resumo: In April 2015, an outbreak of dengue-like illness occurred in Tuparetama, a small city in the northeast region of Brazil; this outbreak was characterized by its fast expansion. An investigation was initiated to identify the viral etiologies - advise the health authorities on implementing control measures to contain the outbreak. This is the first report of this outbreak in the northeast, even though a few cases were documented earlier in a neighboring city.Plasma samples were obtained from 77 suspected dengue patients attending the main hospital in the city. Laboratory assays, such as real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, virus cDNA sequencing, - enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, were employed to identify the infecting virus - molecular phylogenetic analysis was performed to define the circulating viral genotypes.RNA of Zika virus (ZIKV) - Dengue virus (DENV) or IgM antibodies (Abs) to DENV or chikungunya (CHIKV) were detected in 40 of the 77 plasma samples (51.9%). DENV was found in 9 patients (11.7%), ZIKV was found in 31 patients (40.2%), CHIKV in 1 patient (1.3%), - coinfection of DENV - ZIKV was detected in 2 patients (2.6%). The phylogenetic analysis of 2 available partial DENV - 14 ZIKV sequences revealed the identities of genotype 1 - the Asiatic lineage, respectively.Consistent with recent reports from the same region, our results showed that the ongoing outbreak is caused by ZIKV, DENV, - CHIKV. This emphasizes the need for a routine - differential diagnosis of arboviruses in patients with dengue-like illness. Coordinated efforts are necessary to contain the outbreak. Continued surveillance will be important to assess the effectiveness of current - future prevention strategies.

235) Zika virus infection.
Autor: MacFadden Derek R,Bogoch Isaac I
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Canadian Medical Association Journal, v. 188, n. 5, 2016
ISSN: 1488-2329
Resumo:

236) Researchers Focus on Solving the Zika Riddles.
Autor: Jacob Julie A
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Pathogenesis ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Immunology ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: The Journal of the American Medical Association, v. 315, n. 11, p. 1097-1099, 2016
ISSN: 1538-3598
Resumo:

237) Time for global action on Zika virus epidemic.
Autor: Lucey Daniel R
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Epidemic
Fonte: British Medical Association ,v. 352, p. 1781, 2016
ISSN: 1756-1833
Resumo:

238) Old Viruses, New Threats.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Firger, Jessica
Assunto: Ebola virus disease, Zika virus infections, Viral vaccines
Descritores: Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Zika feverZika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Zika feverZika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Zika feverZika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Zika feverZika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Newsweek Global, v. 166, n. 8, p. 19, 2016
ISSN: 289604
Resumo: The article discusses the emergence of Ebola and Zika virus infectious diseases which are first discovered in 1976 and 1947, and mentions the inexistent vaccine development due to the lack of research fund allocations and manpower.

239) Zika Virus Spreads to New Areas - Region of the Americas, May 2015-January 2016.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Hennessey, M., Fischer, M., Staples, J. E.
Assunto: Zika virus, Zika virus infections, Flaviviruses, Zika Virus Epidemic, 2015-, Mosquitoes as carriers of disease, Transmission
Descritores: Zika Virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Rash maculopapular
Fonte: American Journal of Transplantation, v. 16, n. 3, p. 1031-1034, 2016
ISSN: 16006135
Resumo: The article discusses the spread of Zika virus, a mosquito-borne flavivirus, to the regions of the Americas from May 2015 to January 2016. Topics discussed include a background on the virus before the reported first local transmission of it in the Americas and symptoms of the virus including acute onset of fever, maculopapular rash and arthralgia.

240) Placental Inflammatory Response to Zika Virus may Affect Fetal Brain Development
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Mor G.
Assunto: brain development, fetal brain, inflammation, placenta, virus
Descritores: Zika virus - Immunology ; Zika virus - Inflammation ; Zika virus - Immunology
Fonte: American Journal of Reproductive Immunology, v. 75, n. 4, p. 421-422, apr. 2016
ISSN: 1600-0897 (electronic),1046-7408
Resumo:

241) New Study Links Zika Virus to Microcephaly.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: McKay, Betsy
Assunto: Zika Virus Epidemic, Microcephaly, Zika virus, Public health, Immunology
Descritores: Zika virus - Immunology ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Wall Street Journal - Online Edition, p. 1, 2016
ISSN: 999660
Resumo:

242) Zika virus: a new global threat for 2016.
Autor:
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Pathogenesis ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: The Lancet, v. 387, n. 10014, p. 96, 2016
ISSN: 1474-547X
Resumo:

243) Inhibition of Chikungunya virus replication by 1-[(2-Methylbenzimidazol-1-yl) Methyl]-2-Oxo-Indolin-3-ylidene] Amino] Thiourea(MBZM-N-IBT)
Autor: Mishra Priyadarsee, Kumar Abhishek, Mamidi Prabhudutta, Kumar Sameer, Basantray Itishree, Saswat Tanuja, Das Indrani, Nayak Tapas Kumar, Chattopadhyay Subhasis, Subudhi Bharat Bhusan, Chattopadhyay Soma
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Protein synthesis ; Chikungunya virus - Proteins ; Chikungunya virus - RNA ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya virus - RT-PCR ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus
Fonte: Scientific Reports, v. 6, p. 20122, 2016
ISSN: 2045-2322
Resumo: Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) infection is one of the most challenging human Arboviral infections with global significance - without any specific antiviral. In this investigation, 1-[(2-methylbenzimidazol-1-yl) methyl]-2-oxo-indolin-3-ylidene] amino] thiourea (MBZM-N-IBT) was synthesised as a molecular hybrid of 2-methyl benzimidazole - isatin-?-thiosemicarbazone - its anti-CHIKV property was evaluated. The release of infectious virus particles was calculated by plaque assay, expression profile of viral RNA was estimated by RT-PCR - viral protein profiles were assessed by Western blot - FACS analyses. The safety index of MBZM-N-IBT was found to be >21. The CHIKV infectious viral particle formation was abrogated around 76.02% by MBZM-N-IBT during infection in mammalian system - the viral RNA synthesis was reduced by 65.53% - 23.71% for nsP2 - E1 respectively. Surprisingly, the viral protein levels were reduced by 97% for both nsP2 - E2. In the time-of-addition experiment it abrogated viral infection at early as well as late phase of viral life cycle, which indicates about multiple mechanisms for its anti-CHIKV action. In silico analysis justified development of MBZM-N-IBT with good affinities for potential target proteins of CHIKV - related virus. With predictions of good drug-likeness property, it shows potential of a drug c-idate which needs further experimental validation.

244) Placental Inflammatory Response to Zika Virus may Affect Fetal Brain Development.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Mor, Gil
Assunto: Zika virus infections, Pregnant women, Rubella, Fetal development, Autism spectrum disorders
Descritores: Zika virus - Immunology ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: American Journal of Reproductive Immunology, v. 75, n. 4, p. 421-422, 2016
ISSN: 10467408
Resumo: The author discusses a study conducted by researchers in Brazil on link between Zika infection of pregnant women and microcephaly developmental abnormality of the brain cortex. He mentions the risk of rubella and cytomegalovirus (CMV) during pregnancy. He also mentions that the risk of fetal developmental problems such as autism spectrum disorders (ASD) can be increased due to Maternal immune activation (MIA) as a result of microbial infections.

245) Thrombocytopenia and subcutaneous bleedings in a patient with Zika virus infection
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Karimi O., Goorhuis A., Schinkel J., Codrington J., Vreden S.G.S., Vermaat J.S., Stijnis C., Grobusch M.P.
Assunto: bleeding, thrombocytopenia, virus infection
Descritores: Zika virus - Infectious diseases
Fonte: The Lancet, v. 387, n. 10022, p. 939–940, mar. 2016
ISSN: 1474-547X (electronic),0140-6736
Resumo:

246) Epidemiology and neurological complications of infection by the Zika virus: A new emerging neurotropic virus
Autor: Carod-Artal F J
Assunto: Enfermedad por virus Zika; Epidemiología; Flavivirus; Guillain-Barré; Microcefalia; Virus Zika
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - RNA ; Chikungunya virus - Antibodies ; Chikungunya virus - Serological diagnosis ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Transmission ; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever ; Chikungunya virus - Dengue ; Chikungunya virus - Epidemic ; Chikungunya virus - Epidemiology ; Chikungunya virus - Microcephaly ; Chikungunya virus - Rash maculopapular ; Chikungunya virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Revista de Neurologia, v. 62, n. 7, p. 317-328, 2016
ISSN: 1576-6578
Resumo: The current epidemic outbreak due to Zika virus began in 2015 - since then it has been reported in 31 countries - territories in America. The epidemiological - clinical aspects related to infection by Zika virus are reviewed. Since 2007, 55 countries in America, Asia, Africa - Oceania have detected local transmission of the virus. This epidemic has affected almost 1.5 million people in Brazil. 80% of the cases are asymptomatic. The symptoms of Zika virus disease include fever, maculopapular rash, arthralgia - non-purulent conjunctivitis. The symptoms are usually self-limiting - last one week. An increase in the incidence of cases of microcephaly, retinal lesions - Guillain-Barre syndrome associated with the Zika virus has been reported. Zika-associated Guillain-Barre syndrome in Polynesia is a pure motor axonal variant. The RNA of the Zika virus has been identified in samples of brain tissue, placenta - amniotic liquid of children with microcephaly - in the still-born infants of women infected by Zika during pregnancy. The reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction test is recommended to detect viral RNA, - serological tests (IgM ELISA - neutralising antibodies) should be conducted to confirm infection by Zika. The differential diagnosis includes infection by the dengue - chikungunya viruses. Knowledge about the pathogenic mechanisms involved in infection due to Zika virus - its long-term consequences in adults - newborn infants is still limited.

247) Zika virus outbreak: 'a perfect storm'.
Autor: Ai Jing-Wen,Zhang Ying,Zhang Wenhong
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Immunology ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Emerging Microbes & Infections, 2016
ISSN: 2222-1751
Resumo:

248) Dengue, Zika and Chikungunya
Autor: Kantor Isabel N
Assunto: Argentina, arbovirus, chikungunya, dengue, zika
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Immune response ; Zika virus - PCR detection ; Zika virus - Immune response ; Zika virus - RT-PCR ; Zika virus - Serological diagnosis ; Zika virus - Sexual ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Chikungunya Fever ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Medicina, v. 76, n. 2, 2016
ISSN: 0025-7680
Resumo: Arboviruses are transmitted by arthropods, including those responsible for the current pandemic: alphavirus (Chikungunya) and flaviviruses (dengue and Zika). Its importance increased in the Americas over the past 20 years. The main vectors are Aedes aegypti and A. albopictus. Dengue infection provides long lasting immunity against the specific serotype and temporary to the other three. Subsequent infection by another serotype determines more serious disease. There is a registered vaccine for dengue, Dengvaxia (Sanofi Pasteur). Other two (Butantan and Takeda) are in Phase III in 2016. Zika infection is usually asymptomatic or occurs with rash, conjunctivitis and not very high fever. There is no vaccine or specific treatment. It can be transmitted by parental, sexual and via blood transfusion. It has been associated with microcephaly. Chikungunya causes prolonged joint pain and persistent immune response. Two candidate vaccines are in Phase II. Dengue direct diagnosis is performed by virus isolation, RT-PCR and ELISA for NS1 antigen detection; indirect methods are ELISA-IgM (cross-reacting with other flavivirus), MAC-ELISA, and plaque neutralization. Zika is diagnosed by RT-PCR and virus isolation. Serological diagnosis cross-reacts with other flavivirus. For CHIKV culture, RT-PCR, MAC-ELISA and plaque neutralization are used. Against Aedes organophosphate larvicides (temephos), organophosphorus insecticides (malathion and fenitrothion) and pyrethroids (permethrin and deltamethrin) are usually employed. Resistance has been described to all these products. Vegetable derivatives are less expensive and biodegradable, including citronella oil, which microencapsulated can be preserved from evaporation.

249) Local Transmission of Zika Virus - Puerto Rico, November 23, 2015-January 28, 2016.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Thomas, Dana L., Sharp, Tyler M., Torres, Jomil, Armstrong, Paige A., Munoz-Jordan, Jorge, Ryff, Kyle R., Martinez-Quiñones, Alma, Arias-Berríos, José, Mayshack, Marrielle, Garayalde, Glenn J., Saavedra, Sonia, Luciano, Carlos A., Valencia-Prado, Miguel, Waterman, Steve, Rivera-García, Brenda
Assunto: Zika Virus Epidemic, Flavivital diseases, Zika virus infections, Mosquitoes as carriers of disease, Public health, Transmission
Descritores: Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Repellent ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Zika feverZika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Repellent ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Zika feverZika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Repellent ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Zika feverZika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Repellent ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Zika feverZika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Repellent ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Zika feverZika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Repellent ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: MMWR: Morbidity & Mortality Weekly Report, v. 65, n. 6, p. 154-158, 2016
ISSN: 1492195
Resumo: Zika virus, a mosquito-borne flavivirus, spread to the Region of the Americas (Americas) in mid-2015, and appears to be related to congenital microcephaly and Guillain-Barré syndrome (1,2). On February 1, 2016, the World Health Organization (WHO) declared the occurrence of microcephaly cases in association with Zika virus infection to be a Public Health Emergency of International Concern.* On December 31, 2015, Puerto Rico Department of Health (PRDH) reported the first locally acquired (index) case of Zika virus disease in a jurisdiction of the United States in a patient from southeastern Puerto Rico. During November 23, 2015-January 28, 2016, passive and enhanced surveillance for Zika virus disease identified 30 laboratory-confirmed cases. Most (93%) patients resided in eastern Puerto Rico or the San Juan metropolitan area. The most frequently reported signs and symptoms were rash (77%), myalgia (77%), arthralgia (73%), and fever (73%). Three (10%) patients were hospitalized. One case occurred in a patient hospitalized for Guillain-Barré syndrome, and one occurred in a pregnant woman. Because the most common mosquito vector of Zika virus, Aedes aegypti, is present throughout Puerto Rico, Zika virus is expected to continue to spread across the island. The public health response in Puerto Rico is being coordinated by PRDH with assistance from CDC. Clinicians in Puerto Rico should report all cases of microcephaly, Guillain-Barré syndrome, and suspected Zika virus disease to PRDH. Other adverse reproductive outcomes, including fetal demise associated with Zika virus infection, should be reported to PRDH. To avoid infection with Zika virus, residents of and visitors to Puerto Rico, particularly pregnant women, should strictly follow steps to avoid mosquito bites, including wearing pants and long-sleeved shirts, using permethrin-treated clothing and gear, using an Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)-registered insect repellent, and ensuring that windows and doors have intact screens.

250) Ocular findings in infants with microcephaly associated with presumed zika virus congenital infection in Salvador, Brazil
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: de Paula Freitas, Bruno; de Oliveira Dias, João Rafael; Prazeres, Juliana; Sacramento, Gielson Almeida; Ko, Albert Icksang; Maia, Maurício; Belfort, Rubens
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika Virus - Viral infections ; Zika Virus - RNA virus ; Zika Virus - Epidemic ; Zika Virus - Epidemiology ; Zika Virus - Microcephaly ; Zika Virus - Public health
Fonte: JAMA Ophthalmology, v. 134, n. 5, p. 529-535, 2016.
ISSN: 2168-6173
Resumo: The Zika virus (ZIKV) has rapidly reached epidemic proportions, especially in northeastern Brazil, and has rapidly spread to other parts of the Americas. A recent increase in the prevalence of microcephaly in newborn infants and vision-threatening findings in these infants is likely associated with the rapid spread of ZIKV. To evaluate the ocular findings in infants with microcephaly associated with presumed intrauterine ZIKV infection in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil. Case series at a tertiary hospital. Twenty-nine infants with microcephaly (defined by a cephalic circumference of ≤32 cm) with a presumed diagnosis of congenital ZIKV were recruited through an active search and referrals from other hospitals and health unities. The study was conducted between December 1 and December 21, 2015. All infants and mothers underwent systemic and ophthalmic examinations from December 1 through December 21, 2015, in the Roberto Santos General Hospital, Salvador, Brazil. Anterior segment and retinal, choroidal, and optic nerve abnormalities were documented using a wide-field digital imaging system. The differential diagnosis included toxoplasmosis, rubella, cytomegalovirus, herpes simplex virus, syphilis, and human immunodeficiency virus, which were ruled out through serologic and clinical examinations. Ocular abnormalities associated with ZIKV. Twenty-three of 29 mothers (79.3%) reported suspected ZIKV infection signs and symptoms during pregnancy, 18 in the first trimester, 4 in the second trimester, and 1 in the third trimester. Of the 29 infants (58 eyes) examined (18 [62.1%] female), ocular abnormalities were present in 17 eyes (29.3%) of 10 children (34.5%). Bilateral findings were found in 7 of 10 patients presenting with ocular lesions, the most common of which were focal pigment mottling of the retina and chorioretinal atrophy in 11 of the 17 eyes with abnormalities (64.7%), followed by optic nerve abnormalities in 8 eyes (47.1%), bilateral iris coloboma in 1 patient (2 eyes [11.8%]), and lens subluxation in 1 eye (5.9%). Congenital infection due to presumed ZIKV exposure is associated with vision-threatening findings, which include bilateral macular and perimacular lesions as well as optic nerve abnormalities in most cases.

251) Interim Guidelines for Prevention of Sexual Transmission of Zika Virus -- United States, 2016.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Oster, Alexandra M., Brooks, John T., Stryker, Jo Ellen, Kachur, Rachel E., Mead, Paul, Pesik, Nicki T., Petersen, Lyle R.
Assunto: Zika virus infections, Communicable diseases - Transmission, Prevention, Aedes aegypti, Safe sex, Diagnosis
Descritores: Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Sexual ; Zika virus - Zika feverZika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Sexual ; Zika virus - Zika feverZika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Sexual ; Zika virus - Zika feverZika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Sexual ; Zika virus - Zika feverZika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Sexual ; Zika virus - Zika feverZika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Sexual ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: MMWR: Morbidity & Mortality Weekly Report, v. 65, n. 5, p. 120-121, 2016
ISSN: 1492195
Resumo: The article offers information on the guidelines for prevention of sexual transmission of zika virus in the U.S. in 2016. Topics discussed include primarily transmission of the virus by Aedes aegypti mosquitoes; consistently and correctly use condoms during sex for the duration of the pregnancy as well as in non-pregnancy ; recommendation for diagnosis of infection of the virus, and utility and availability of testing.

252) Declining malaria, rising of dengue and Zika virus: Insights for mosquito vector control
Autor: Benelli Giovanni, Mehlhorn Heinz
Assunto: Arbovirus; Artemisinin; Biological control; Boosted SIT; Nanosynthesis; Sex pheromones; Sound traps; Sterile insect technique; Swarming behaviour; Vaccine
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Arbovirus ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Vaccine ; Chikungunya virus - Dengue ; Chikungunya virus - Public health
Fonte: Parasitology Research, v. 115, n. 5, p. 1747-1754, 2016
ISSN: 1432-1955
Resumo: The fight against mosquito-borne diseases is a challenge of huge public health importance. To our mind, 2015 was an extraordinary year for malaria control, due to three hot news: the Nobel Prize to Youyou Tu for the discovery of artemisinin, the development of the first vaccine against Plasmodium falciparum malaria [i.e. RTS,S/AS01 (RTS,S)], - the fall of malaria infection rates worldwide, with special reference to sub-Saharan Africa. However, there are major challenges that still deserve attention, in order to boost malaria prevention - control. Indeed, parasite strains resistant to artemisinin have been detected, - RTS,S vaccine does not offer protection against Plasmodium vivax malaria, which predominates in many countries outside of Africa. Furthermore, the recent outbreaks of Zika virus infections, occurring in South America, Central America - the Caribbean, represent the most recent of four arrivals of important arboviruses in the Western Hemisphere, over the last 20 years. Zika virus follows dengue (which slyly arrived in the hemisphere over decades - became more aggressive in the 1990s), West Nile virus (emerged in 1999) - chikungunya (emerged in 2013). Notably, there are no specific treatments for these arboviruses. The emerging scenario highlights that the effective - eco-friendly control of mosquito vectors, with special reference to highly invasive species such as Aedes aegypti - Aedes albopictus, is crucial. The concrete potential of screening plant species as sources of metabolites for parasitological purposes is worthy of attention, as elucidated by the Y. Tu's example. Notably, plant-borne molecules are often effective at few parts per million against Aedes, Ochlerotatus, Anopheles - Culex young instars, can be used for the rapid synthesis of mosquitocidal nanoformulations - even employed to prepare cheap repellents with low human toxicity. In addition, behaviour-based control tools relying to the employ of sound traps - the manipulation of swarming behaviour (i.e. lure - kill" approach) are discussed. The importance of further research on the chemical cues routing mosquito swarming - mating dynamics is highlighted. Besides radiation, transgenic - symbiont-based mosquito control approaches, an effective option may be the employ of biological control agents of mosquito young instars, in the presence of ultra-low quantities of nanoformulated botanicals, which boost their predation rates."

253) Interim Guidelines for the Evaluation and Testing of Infants with Possible Congenital Zika Virus Infection -- United States, 2016.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Staples, J. Erin, Dziuban, Eric J., Fischer, Marc, Cragan, Janet D., Rasmussen, Sonja A., Cannon, Michael J., Frey, Meghan T., Renquist, Christina M., Lanciotti, Robert S., Muñoz, Jorge L., Powers, Ann M., Honein, Margaret A., Moore, Cynthia A.
Assunto: Zika virus infections, Guidelines, Standard operating procedure, Microcephaly
Descritores: Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Serological diagnosis ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: MMWR: Morbidity & Mortality Weekly Report, v. 65, n. 3, p. 63-67, 2016
ISSN: 1492195
Resumo: A reprint of an article appeared on the periodical's website on January 22, 2016 about development of interim guidelines by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control & Prevention for testing of Zika virus infection among infants. Topics include diagnosis of disease through serological testing, infants associated with microcephaly, instructions for pregnant mothers infected with Zika virus, advantages of breastfeeding in treatment of disease, and prevention of disease by avoidance of mosquito bites.

254) Identification of Zika virus vectors and implications for control.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Ayres, Constancia F. J.
Assunto: Zika Virus Epidemic, Mosquitoes as carriers of disease, Guillan-Barre syndrome, Microcephaly, Reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, Pathogenic viruses
Descritores: Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - RT-PCR ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - MicrocephalyZika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - RT-PCR ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - MicrocephalyZika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - RT-PCR ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - MicrocephalyZika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - RT-PCR ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - MicrocephalyZika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - RT-PCR ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - MicrocephalyZika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - RT-PCR ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Microcephaly
Fonte: Lancet Infectious Diseases, v. 16, n. 3, p. 278-279, 2016
ISSN: 14733099
Resumo:

255) Thermo fisher scientific offers EUROIMMUN anti-Zika virus test kits
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor:
Assunto: Asian business; International business
Descritores: Zika virus - Antibodies
Fonte: BioSpectrum Asia, 2016
ISSN:
Resumo:

256) Zika Fears Imperil Brazil’s Tourism Push.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Kiernan, Paul, Jelmayer, Rogerio
Assunto: Zika virus infections, Tourism, Public health, Virus diseases, Brazil
Descritores: Zika virus and Viral infections ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Wall Street Journal - Online Edition, p.1, 2016
ISSN: 999660
Resumo:

257) Imported cases of Chikungunya in Barcelona in relation to the current American outbreak
Autor: Bocanegra Cristina, Antón Andrés, Sulleiro Elena, Pou Diana, Salvador Fernando, Roure Silvia, Gimferrer Laura, Espasa Mateu, Franco Leticia, Molina Israel, Valerio Lluís
Assunto: America; Barcelona; Chikungunya; Europe; Outbreak
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Infectious diseases ; Chikungunya virus - Serology ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya virus - RT-PCR ; Chikungunya virus - Serology ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever ; Chikungunya virus - Dengue ; Chikungunya virus - Public health
Fonte: Journal of Travel Medicine, v. 23, n. 3, 2016
ISSN: 1708-8305
Resumo: The Chikungunya virus (CKIKV) is currently present in America. Travel between America - Europe is particularly intense - one of the main vectors of CHIKV, Aedes albopictus, is well established in the Mediterranean basin. We describe a series of imported cases that could originate a European outbreak. We retrospectively studied cases of CHIKV originating in America - diagnosed in the last year in three Tropical Medicine Units of Barcelona of the International Health Program of the Catalan Health Institute (PROSICS). Clinical, microbiological - epidemiological data were analyzed. Forty-two CHIKV cases who had returned from 11 American countries were included. Fever was the most common symptom at onset (96.1%). Three months after symptom onset 50% continued with arthralgias, 35.3% fatigue - 11.8% arthritis. Three patients were viremic at the time of diagnosis by RT-PCR, - the remaining were diagnosed by serology (CHIKV IgM or IgG). Five (11.9%) patients had positive IgM for both dengue virus - CHIKV. The origin of the cases was diverse, the most frequent being initially the Dominican Republic, followed later by Venezuela - Colombia. Symptoms were not severe but persisted, accompanied by unremitting positive IgM. Diagnosis was mainly based on serology - RT-PCR, with the performance of the rapid immunochromatographic test being low. Phylogenetic studies showed that two viremic cases were caused by a strain of Asian lineage with a lower adaptability to Aedes albopictus. Co-infection with the dengue virus was common, but the clinical course was not affected by coinfection. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs were administered to 71.4% - steroids to 21.4%. The number of imported cases of CHIKV in Spain is rising due to introduction of this virus in America, - this could lead to an autochthonous outbreak if Public Health measures are not taken.

258) CDC expands Zika virus travel warnings.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Oakes, Kari.
Assunto: Obstetrics and gynecology; Medical specialties
Descritores: Zika Virus - Infectious disease
Fonte: OB GYN News, v. 51, n. 2, p. 2, 2016
ISSN:
Resumo:

259) Ocular symptoms accompany Zika microcephaly.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Smith, Jennie
Assunto: Pediatrics; Medical specialties; Family medicine
Descritores: Zika Virus - Infectious disease
Fonte: Pediatric News, v. 50, n. 3, p. 18, 2016
ISSN:
Resumo:

260) Whole-genome sequencing analysis from the Chikungunya virus Caribbean outbreak reveals novel evolutionary genomic elements
Autor: Stapleford Kenneth A, Moratorio Gonzalo, Henningsson Rasmus, Chen Rubing, Matheus Séverine, Enfissi Antoine, Weissglas-Volkov Daphna, Isakov Ofer, Blanc Hervé, Mounce Bryan C, Dupont-Rouzeyrol Myrielle, Shomron Noam, Weaver Scott, Fontes Magnus, Rousset Dominique, Vignuzzi Marco
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Arbovirus ; Chikungunya virus - Cell ; Chikungunya virus - Cytopathology ; Chikungunya virus - Genome ; Chikungunya virus - Pathogenesis ; Chikungunya virus - Infectious diseases ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Dengue ; Chikungunya virus - Epidemic
Fonte: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, v. 10, n. 1, p. e0004402, 2016
ISSN: 1935-2735
Resumo: Chikungunya virus (CHIKV), an alphavirus - member of the Togaviridae family, is capable of causing severe febrile disease in humans. In December of 2013 the Asian Lineage of CHIKV spread from the Old World to the Americas, spreading rapidly throughout the New World. Given this new emergence in naïve populations we studied the viral genetic diversity present in infected individuals to underst- how CHIKV may have evolved during this continuing outbreak. We used deep-sequencing technologies coupled with well-established bioinformatics pipelines to characterize the minority variants - diversity present in CHIKV infected individuals from Guadeloupe - Martinique, two isl-s in the center of the epidemic. We observed changes in the consensus sequence as well as a diverse range of minority variants present at various levels in the population. Furthermore, we found that overall diversity was dramatically reduced after single passages in cell lines. Finally, we constructed an infectious clone from this outbreak - identified a novel 3' untranslated region (UTR) structure, not previously found in nature, that led to increased replication in insect cells. Here we preformed an intrahost quasispecies analysis of the new CHIKV outbreak in the Caribbean. We identified novel variants present in infected individuals, as well as a new 3'UTR structure, suggesting that CHIKV has rapidly evolved in a short period of time once it entered this naïve population. These studies highlight the need to continue viral diversity surveillance over time as this epidemic evolves in order to underst- the evolutionary potential of CHIKV.

261) Mefenamic acid in combination with ribavirin shows significant effects in reducing Chikungunya virus infection in vitro and in vivo
Autor: Rothan Hussin A, Bahrani Hirbod, Abdulrahman Ammar Y, Mohamed Zulqarnain, Teoh Teow Chong, Othman Shatrah, Rashid Nurshamimi Nor, Rahman Noorsaadah A, Yusof Rohana
Assunto: Chikungunya virus; Meclofenamic acid; Mefenamic acid; Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs; Ribavirin
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Public health
Fonte: Antiviral Research, v. 127, p. 50-56, 2016
ISSN: 1872-9096
Resumo: Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) infection is a persistent problem worldwide due to efficient adaptation of the viral vectors, Aedes aegypti - Aedes albopictus mosquitoes. Therefore, the absence of effective anti-CHIKV drugs to combat chikungunya outbreaks often leads to a significant impact on public health care. In this study, we investigated the antiviral activity of drugs that are used to alleviate infection symptoms, namely, the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), on the premise that active compounds with potential antiviral - anti-inflammatory activities could be directly subjected for human use to treat CHIKV infections. Amongst the various NSAID compounds, Mefenamic acid (MEFE) - Meclofenamic acid (MECLO) showed considerable antiviral activity against viral replication individually or in combination with the common antiviral drug, Ribavirin (RIBA). The 50% effective concentration (EC50) was estimated to be 13 ?M for MEFE, 18 ?M for MECLO - 10 ?M for RIBA, while MEFE + RIBA (1:1) exhibited an EC50 of 3 ?M, - MECLO + RIBA (1:1) was 5 ?M. Because MEFE is commercially available - its synthesis is easier compared with MECLO, MEFE was selected for further in vivo antiviral activity analysis. Treatment with MEFE + RIBA resulted in a significant reduction of hypertrophic effects by CHIKV on the mouse liver - spleen. Viral titre quantification in the blood of CHIKV-infected mice through the plaque formation assay revealed that treatment with MEFE + RIBA exhibited a 6.5-fold reduction compared with untreated controls. In conclusion, our study demonstrated that MEFE in combination with RIBA exhibited significant anti-CHIKV activity by impairing viral replication in vitro - in vivo. Indeed, this finding may lead to an even broader application of these combinatorial treatments against other viral infections.

262) Update: Interim Guidelines for Health Care Providers Caring for Infants and Children with Possible Zika Virus Infection — United States, February 2016.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Fleming-Dutra, Katherine E., Nelson, Jennifer M., Fischer, Marc, Staples, J. Erin, Karwowski, Mateusz P., Mead, Paul, Villanueva, Julie, Renquist, Christina M., Minta, Anna A., Jamieson, Denise J., Honein, Margaret A., Moore, Cynthia A., Rasmussen, Sonja A.
Assunto: Zika virus infections, Flaviviral diseases, Microcephaly, Infants - Health, Children - Health, Viral diseases in children, Viral diseases in pregnancy, Transmission
Descritores: Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Zika fever ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases
Fonte: MMWR: Morbidity & Mortality Weekly Report, v. 65, n. 65, p. 182-187, 2016
ISSN: 1492195
Resumo: The article discusses the interim guidelines issued by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in 2016 for health care providers caring for infants and children with possible Zika virus infection. Topics include routine care of infants born to mothers who resided in or traveled to areas with Zika virus transmission during pregnancy, evaluation and testing of infants and children with possible congenital Zika virus infection and the steps to prevent Zika virus infection.

263) Transmission of Zika Virus Through Sexual Contact with Travelers to Areas of Ongoing Transmission - Continental United States, 2016.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Hills, Susan L., Russell, Kate, Hennessey, Morgan, Williams, Charnetta, Oster, Alexandra M., Fischer, Marc, Mead, Paul
Assunto: Zika virus infections, Sexual intercourse, Mosquitoes as carriers of disease, Travel - Health aspects, Condoms, Transmission
Descritores: Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Sexual ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: MMWR: Morbidity & Mortality Weekly Report, v. 65, n. 8, p. 215-216, 2016
ISSN: 1492195
Resumo: Zika virus is a flavivirus closely related to dengue, West Nile, and yellow fever viruses. Although spread is primarily by Aedes species mosquitoes, two instances of sexual transmission of Zika virus have been reported (1,2), and replicative virus has been isolated from semen of one man with hematospermia (3). On February 5, 2016, CDC published recommendations for preventing sexual transmission of Zika virus (4). Updated prevention guidelines were published on February 23.* During February 6-22, 2016, CDC received reports of 14 instances of suspected sexual transmission of Zika virus. Among these, two laboratory-confirmed cases and four probable cases of Zika virus disease have been identified among women whose only known risk factor was sexual contact with a symptomatic male partner with recent travel to an area with ongoing Zika virus transmission. Two instances have been excluded based on additional information, and six others are still under investigation. State, territorial, and local public health departments, clinicians, and the public should be aware of current recommendations for preventing sexual transmission of Zika virus, particularly to pregnant women (4). Men who reside in or have traveled to an area of ongoing Zika virus transmission and have a pregnant partner should abstain from sexual activity or consistently and correctly use condoms during sex with their pregnant partner for the duration of the pregnancy (4).

264) The presence and seroprevalence of arthropod-borne viruses in nasiriyah governorate, southern iraq: A cross-sectional study
Autor: Barakat Ali Mohammed, Smura Teemu, Kuivanen Suvi, Huhtamo Eili, Kurkela Satu, Putkuri Niina, Hasony Hassan J, Al-Hello Haider, Vapalahti Olli
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Arbovirus ; Chikungunya virus - Antibodies ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus
Fonte: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, v. 94, n. 4, p. 794-799, 2016
ISSN: 1476-1645
Resumo: The knowledge on the presence - seroprevalence of arboviruses in Iraq is fragmental. To assess the exposure of the population to arbovirus infections in southern Iraq, we conducted a serological screening of the most common arbovirus groups using immunofluorescence, hemagglutination inhibition - neutralization tests. Serum samples of 399 adult volunteers were collected in Nasiriyah, Iraq. Antibodies were detected against West Nile virus (WNV) (11.6%), s-fly-borne Sicilian virus serocomplex (18.2%), s-fly-borne Naples virus serocomplex (7.8%), Sindbis virus (1.5%), chikungunya virus (0.5%), - Tahyna virus (2.0%). The results suggest that WNV - s-fly-borne phlebovirus infections are common in southern Iraq, - these viruses should be considered as potential causative agents in patients with febrile disease -/or neurological manifestations.

265) CDC guidelines for pregnant women during the Zika virus outbreak.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Vouga, Manon, Musso, Didier, Van Mieghem, Tim, Baud, David
Assunto: Guidelines, Zika Virus Epidemic, Pregnant women - Health, Amniocentesis, Flaviviruses, Immunoglobulin M
Descritores: Zika Virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Lancet, v. 387, n. 10021, p. 843-844, 2016
ISSN: 995355
Resumo: The article presents the authors' comments on the interim guidelines published by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control & Prevention (CDC) on management of pregnant women exposed to Zika virus. They cite the guideline proposal for amniocentesis of pregnant women presenting positive or inconclusive in Zika virus testing. However, the authors contend that Zika virus co-circulates with other flaviviruses and serological cross-reactions which can result to false positive IgM detections.

266) Dengue, Zika and Chikungunya
Autor: Kantor Isabel N
Assunto: Argentina; Arbovirus; Chikungunya; Dengue; Zika
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Arbovirus; Chikungunya virus - Immune response; Chikungunya virus - Immune response; Chikungunya virus - PCR detection; Chikungunya virus - RT-PCR; Chikungunya virus - Serological diagnosis; Chikungunya Virus - Virus; Chikungunya virus - Sexual; Chikungunya virus - Vaccine; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever; Chikungunya virus - Dengue; Chikungunya virus - Microcephaly; Chikungunya virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Medicina, v. 76, n. 2. p. 93-97, 2016
ISSN: 0025-7680
Resumo: Arboviruses are transmitted by arthropods, including those responsible for the current p-emic: alphavirus (Chikungunya) - flaviviruses (dengue - Zika). Its importance increased in the Americas over the past 20 years. The main vectors are Aedes aegypti - A. albopictus. Dengue infection provides long lasting immunity against the specific serotype - temporary to the other three. Subsequent infection by another serotype determines more serious disease. There is a registered vaccine for dengue, Dengvaxia (Sanofi Pasteur). Other two (Butantan - Takeda) are in Phase III in 2016. Zika infection is usually asymptomatic or occurs with rash, conjunctivitis - not very high fever. There is no vaccine or specific treatment. It can be transmitted by parental, sexual - via blood transfusion. It has been associated with microcephaly. Chikungunya causes prolonged joint pain - persistent immune response. Two c-idate vaccines are in Phase II. Dengue direct diagnosis is performed by virus isolation, RT-PCR - ELISA for NS1 antigen detection; indirect methods are ELISA-IgM (cross-reacting with other flavivirus), MAC-ELISA, - plaque neutralization. Zika is diagnosed by RT-PCR - virus isolation. Serological diagnosis cross-reacts with other flavivirus. For CHIKV culture, RT-PCR, MAC-ELISA - plaque neutralization are used. Against Aedes organophosphate larvicides (temephos), organophosphorus insecticides (malathion - fenitrothion) - pyrethroids (permethrin - deltamethrin) are usually employed. Resistance has been described to all these products. Vegetable derivatives are less expensive - biodegradable, including citronella oil, which microencapsulated can be preserved from evaporation.

267) Simultaneous outbreaks of dengue, Chikungunya and Zika virus infections: Diagnosis challenge in a returning traveller with nonspecific febrile illness
Autor: Moulin E,Selby K, Cherpillod P, Kaiser L, Boillat-Blanco N
Assunto: Chikungunya; Zika; Dengue; Diagnostic algorithm; Outbreak
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Infectious diseases ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Dengue
Fonte: New Microbes and New Infections, v. 11, p. 6-7, 2016
ISSN: 2052-2975
Resumo: Zika virus is an emerging flavivirus that is following the path of dengue - chikungunya. The three Aedes-borne viruses cause simultaneous outbreaks with similar clinical manifestations which represents a diagnostic challenge in ill returning travellers. We report the first Zika virus infection case imported to Switzerl- - present a diagnostic algorithm.

268) Zika Virus and Microcephaly.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Rubin, Eric J., Greene, Michael F., Baden, Lindsey R.
Assunto: Zika virus, Microcephaly, Zika virus infections, Infants - Health, Pregnancy complications, Pregnant women - Health
Descritores: Zika virus - Immunology ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Immunology ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: New England Journal of Medicine, v. 374, n. 10, p. 984-985, 2016
ISSN: 284793
Resumo: Zika virus has been sweeping through South and Central America, with more than a million suspected cases during the past few months, along with a substantial increase in reporting of infants born with microcephaly.(1),(2) Thus far, the two outbreaks have largely been epidemiologically associated in time and geography. However, Mlakar and colleagues(3) now report in the Journal molecular genetic and electron-microscopic data from a case that helps to strengthen the biologic association. This group cared for a pregnant European woman in whom a syndrome compatible with Zika virus infection developed at 13 weeks of gestation while she was working . . .

269) The Potential Hidden Toll of Zika.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: McNeil Jr., Donald G.
Assunto: Infants, Mental health, Zika virus infections, Schizophrenia in children, Mother & infant, Autism in children, Children, Bipolar disorder in children, Viral diseases in children, Latin America
Descritores: Zika virus and Viral infections ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: New York Times, v. 165, n. 57151, p. D1-D5, 2016
ISSN: 3624331
Resumo: The article discusses the possibility that infants born to mothers who were infected with the Zika virus during pregnancy may suffer from various mental health issues later in life, and it mentions how the Zika virus resembles infectious agents that have been linked to the development of medical and mental conditions such as autism, schizophrenia, and bipolar disorder. In utero illnesses and viral infections are examined, along with the health of children in Latin America and the Caribbean.

270) Zika virus.
Autor: Lopes Marta Heloisa,Miyaji Karina Takesaki,Infante Vanessa
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Revista da Associac?a?o Me?dica Brasileira, v. 62, n. 1, p. 4-9, 2016
ISSN: 0104-4230
Resumo:

271) Biomedical briefing
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor:
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Genome ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Nature Medicine, v. 22, n. 3, p. 228-229, 2016.
ISSN: 1078-8956
Resumo:

272) Brazil Reports 1761 Microcephaly Cases as Mosquito Virus Spreads.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Miles, Tom
Assunto: Microcephaly Crocephaly, Brazelians, Health, Zika virus infections, Aedes aegypti
Descritores: Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Zika feverZika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Zika feverZika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Zika feverZika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Zika feverZika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Zika feverZika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Zika feverZika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Zika feverZika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Clinical Infectious Diseases, v. 62, n. 6, pi-ii, 2016
ISSN: 10584838
Resumo: The article reports cases of babies born with small brains, microcephaly, due to surge in mosquito-borne Zika virus in Brazil. Topics discussed are monitoring of virus spread by World Health Organization (WHO); confirmation of virus spread by Aedes aegypti mosquito in other Latin American countries including Panama, Venezuela, and Paraguay; and need for ensuring protection from mosquito bites as no medicine or vaccine is developed yet.

273) Zika virus in the americas - yet another arbovirus threat
Autor: Fauci Anthony S, Morens David M
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Arbovirus ; Chikungunya virus - Flaviviridae ; Chikungunya virus - Pathogenesis ; Chikungunya virus - Infectious diseases ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Transmission ; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever ; Chikungunya virus - Epidemic ; Chikungunya virus - Epidemiology ; Chikungunya virus - Public health ; Chikungunya virus - Zika fever
Fonte: The New England Journal of Medicine, v. 374, n. 7, p. 601-604, 2016
ISSN: 1533-4406
Resumo:

274) Emerging role of lipid droplets in Aedes aegypti immune response against bacteria and Dengue virus
Autor: Ferreira Barletta, Ana Beatriz; Alves, Liliane Rosa; Nascimento Silva, Maria Clara L.; Sim, Shuzhen; Dimopoulos, George; Liechocki, Sally; Maya-Monteiro, Clarissa M.; Ferreira Sorgine, Marcos H.
Assunto: Diptera-Culicidae l.; Fat storage; Perilipin-a; In-vivo; Protein; Bodies; Drosophila; Cells; Lipolysis; Midgut
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - Immune response ; Aedes aegypti - Molecular structure ; Aedes aegypti - RNA ; Aedes aegypti - Immunology ; Aedes aegypti - Viral infections ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Scientific Reports, v. 6, n. 19928, 2016
ISSN: 2045-2322
Resumo: In mammals, lipid droplets (LDs) are ubiquitous organelles that modulate immune and inflammatory responses through the production of lipid mediators. In insects, it is unknown whether LDs play any role during the development of immune responses. We show that Aedes aegypti Aag2 cells - an immune responsive cell lineage - accumulates LDs when challenged with Enterobacter cloacae, Sindbis, and Dengue viruses. Microarray analysis of Aag2 challenged with E. cloacae or infected with Dengue virus revealed high transcripts levels of genes associated with lipid storage and LDs biogenesis, correlating with the increased LDs numbers in those conditions. Similarly, in mosquitoes, LDs accumulate in midgut cells in response to Serratia marcescens and Sindbis virus or when the native microbiota proliferates, following a blood meal. Also, constitutive activation of Toll and IMD pathways by knocking-down their respective negative modulators (Cactus and Caspar) increases LDs numbers in the midgut. Our results show for the first time an infection-induced LDs accumulation in response to both bacterial and viral infections in Ae. Aegypti, and we propose a role for LDs in mosquito immunity. These findings open new venues for further studies in insect immune responses associated with lipid metabolism.

275) Two Japanese siblings affected with Chikungunya fever with different clinical courses: Imported infections from the Cook Islands
Autor: Kondo Makoto, Akachi Shigehiro, Ando Katsuhiko, Nomura Tatsuma, Yamanaka Keiichi, Mizutani Hitoshi
Assunto: Chikungunya fever; Chikungunya virus; Arthralgia; Imported infection; Tropical area
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Antibodies ; Chikungunya virus - Infectious diseases ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever ; Chikungunya virus - Epidemic
Fonte: The Journal of Dermatology, v. 43, n. 6, p. 697-700, 2016
ISSN: 1346-8138
Resumo: Two Japanese siblings visited the Cook Isl-s on business - stayed for 2 months. The sister developed a high fever, arthralgia, erythema - leg edema on the day after returning to Japan. The brother also developed neck - joint pain on the day following the sister's onset. Subsequently, his erythematous lesions spread over his whole body. Chikungunya virus was detected from the sister's blood - urine by specific reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, but not in the brother's samples. Retrospectively, his history of Chikungunya fever was confirmed by the presence of the anti-Chikungunya virus immunoglobulin (Ig)M - IgG antibodies using the specific enzyme-linked immunoassay. In Japan, no autochthonous case of Chikungunya fever was reported previously. We should give attention to the imported infectious diseases for epidemic prevention. This report warns about the danger of the imported infectious diseases, - also suggests that covering the topic of infectious disease in the world is critical to doctors as well as travelers.

276) The reemergence of Zika virus: A review on pathogenesis, clinical manifestations, diagnosis, and treatment
Autor: Shuaib Waqas, Stanazai Hashim, Abazid Ahmad G, Mattar Ahmed A
Assunto: Brazil; Chikungunya; Dengue; Microcephaly; Zika
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Arbovirus ; Chikungunya virus - Flaviviridae ; Chikungunya virus - Pathogenesis ; Chikungunya virus - RNA ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever ; Chikungunya virus - Dengue ; Chikungunya virus - Microcephaly ; Chikungunya virus - Zika fever
Fonte: The American Journal of Medicine, v. 129, n. 8, p. 879.e7-879.e12, 2016
ISSN: 1555-7162
Resumo: That extreme care should be exercised in the selection of lower primates for purposes of studying exotic viral agents is clearly indicated by the data presented. Although no viremia was found in the animals tested, adherence to a rigid program of housing and protective screening is essential if a serious transmission hazard is to be minimized, particularly in areas of high arthropod activity.

277) The next steps on Zika.
Autor:
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Pathogenesis ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Nature, v. 530, n. 7588, p. 5, 2016
ISSN: 1476-4687
Resumo:

278) Paranodal destruction and axo-glial dysjunction in a subtype of CIDP with anticontaction-1 antibodies.
Autor: Kuwabara Satoshi; Misawa Sonoko; Mori Masahiro
Assunto: NEUROIMMUNOLOGY, NEUROMUSCULAR
Descritores: Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Cell ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Pathogenesis ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Proteins ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Antibodies ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Immunology
Fonte: Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry, v. 86, n. 7, p. 707, 2015
ISSN: 1468-330X
Resumo:

279) Parity and longevity of Aedes aegypti according to temperatures in controlled conditions and consequences on dengue transmission risks
Autor: Goindin Daniella, Delannay Christelle, Ramdini Cédric, Gustave Joël, Fouque Florence
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Infectious diseases ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Transmission ; Chikungunya virus - Vaccine ; Chikungunya virus - Dengue ; Chikungunya virus - Epidemic
Fonte: PloS One, v. 10, n. 8, p. e0135489, 2015
ISSN: 1932-6203
Resumo: In Guadeloupe, Aedes aegypti mosquitoes are the only vectors of dengue - chikungunya viruses. For both diseases, vector control is the only tool for preventing epidemics since no vaccine or specific treatment is available. However, to efficiently implement control of mosquitoes vectors, a reliable estimation of the transmission risks is necessary. To become infective an Ae. aegypti female must ingest the virus during a blood meal - will not be able to transmit the virus during another blood-meal until the extrinsic incubation period is completed. Consequently the aged females will carry more infectious risks. The objectives of the present study were to estimate under controlled conditions the expectation of infective life for females - thus the transmission risks in relation with their reproductive cycle - parity status. Larvae of Ae. aegypti were collected in central Guadeloupe - breed under laboratory conditions until adult emergence. The experiments were performed at constant temperatures (± 1.5°C) of 24°C, 27°C - 30°C on adults females from first generation (F1). Females were kept - fed individually - records of blood-feeding, egg-laying - survival were done daily. Some females were dissected at different physiological stages to observe the ovaries development. The data were analyzed to follow the evolution of parity rates, the number of gonotrophic cycles, the fecundity - to study the mean expectation of life - the mean expectation of infective life for Ae. aegypti females according to temperatures. The expectation of life varies with the parity rates - according to the temperatures, with durations from about 10 days at low parity rates at the higher temperature to an optimal duration of about 35 days when 70% of females are parous at 27°C. Infective life expectancy was found highly variable in the lower parous rates - again the optimal durations were found when more than 50% of females are parous for the mean temperatures of 27°C - 30°C. Parity rates can be determined for field collected females - could be a good proxy of the expectation of infective life according to temperatures. However, for the same parity rates, the estimation of infective life expectation is very different between Ae. aegypti - Anopheles gambiae mosquitoes. Correlation of field parity rates with transmission risks requires absolutely to be based on Ae. aegypti models, since available Anopheles sp. models underestimate greatly the females longevity.

280) Ultrasound in the diagnosis of peripheral neuropathy: structure meets function in the neuromuscular clinic
Autor: Gallardo Elena,Noto Yu-Ichi,Simon Neil G
Assunto: Diabetic neuropathy; Guillain-Barre syndrome; HMSN (charcot-marie-tooth); Neuropathy; Ultrasound
Descritores: Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Cytopathology ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Infectious diseases
Fonte: Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry, v. 86, n. 10, p. 1066-1074, 2015
ISSN: 1468-330X
Resumo: Peripheral nerve ultrasound (US) has emerged as a promising technique for the diagnosis of peripheral nerve disorders. While most experience with US has been reported in the context of nerve entrapment syndromes, the role of US in the diagnosis of peripheral neuropathy (PN) has recently been explored. Distinctive US findings have been reported in patients with hereditary, immune-mediated, infectious and axonal PN; US may add complementary information to neurophysiological studies in the diagnostic work-up of PN. This review describes the characteristic US findings in PN reported to date and a classification of abnormal nerve US patterns in PN is proposed. Closer scrutiny of nerve abnormalities beyond assessment of nerve calibre may allow for more accurate diagnostic classification of PN, as well as contribute to the understanding of the intersection of structure and function in PN.

281) Mosquitocidal and oviposition repellent activities of the extracts of seaweed Bryopsis pennata on Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus
Autor: Yu, Ke-Xin; Wong, Ching-Lee; Ahmad, Rohani; Jantan, Ibrahim
Assunto: Dengue vector; Ovicidal; Larvicidal; Insecticide
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Infectious diseases ; Aedes aegypti - Repellent ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue
Fonte: Molecules, v. 20, n. 8, p. 14082-14102, 2015.
ISSN:
Resumo: The ever-increasing threat from infectious diseases and the development of insecticide resistance in mosquito populations drive the global search for new natural insecticides. The aims of this study were to evaluate the mosquitocidal activity of the extracts of seaweed Bryopsis pennata against dengue vectors Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus, and determine the seaweed's toxic effect on brine shrimp nauplii (as a non-target organism). In addition, the chemical compositions of the active larvicidal extract and fraction were analyzed by using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). Chloroform extract exhibited strong ovicidal activity (with LC50 values of 229.3 and 250.5 mu g/mL) and larvicidal activity against Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus. The larvicidal potential of chloroform extract was further ascertained when its A7 fraction exhibited strong toxic effect against Ae. aegypti (LC50 = 4.7 mu g/mL) and Ae. albopictus (LC50 = 5.3 mu g/mL). LC-MS analysis of the chloroform extract gave a tentative identification of 13 compounds; Bis-(3-oxoundecyl) tetrasulfide was identified as the major compound in A7 fraction. Methanol extract showed strong repellent effect against female oviposition, along with weak adulticidal activity against mosquito and weak toxicity against brine shrimp nauplii. The mosquitocidal results of B. pennata suggest further investigation for the development of effective insecticide.

282) Intravenous immunoglobulin response in treatment-naïve chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy.
Autor: Kuitwaard Krista; Hahn Angelika F.; Vermeulen Marinus; Venance Shannon L.; van Doorn Pieter A.
Assunto: CLINICAL NEUROLOGY, GUILLAIN-BARRE SYNDROME, NEUROIMMUNOLOGY, NEUROMUSCULAR, NEUROPATHY
Descritores: Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Pathogenesis ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Proteins ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Antibodies ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Public health
Fonte: Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry, v. 86, n. 12, p. 1331-1336, 2015
ISSN: 1468-330X
Resumo: There is no consensus on which treatment should be used preferentially in individual patients with chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP). Patients unlikely to respond to intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) could be prescribed corticosteroids first to avoid high cost and a delayed treatment response. We investigated which factors determined a response to IVIg. Treatment-naïve patients with CIDP initially treated with at least one full course of IVIg (2 g/kg) at one of two neuromuscular disease centres were included. Patients fulfilled the European Federation of Neurological Societies/Peripheral Nerve Society clinical criteria for CIDP. Significant improvement following IVIg was defined as an improvement (? 1 grade) on the modified Rankin scale. Difference in weakness between arms and legs was defined as ? 2 grades on the Medical Research Council scale between ankle dorsiflexion and wrist extension. Clinical predictors with a p value <0.15 in univariate analysis were analysed in multivariate logistic regression. Of a total of 281 patients, 214 patients (76%) improved. In univariate analysis, the presence of pain, other autoimmune disease, difference in weakness between arms and legs, and a myelin-associated glycoprotein negative IgM monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance were associated with no response to IVIg. In multivariate analysis no pain (p=0.018) and no difference in weakness between arms and legs (p=0.048) were independently associated with IVIg response. Of IVIg non-responders, 66% improved with plasma exchange and 58% with corticosteroids. IVIg is a very effective first-line treatment. Patients with CIDP presenting with pain or a difference in weakness between arms and legs are less likely to respond to IVIg.

283) Evaluation of the Efficacy, Potential for Vector Transmission, and Duration of Immunity of MP-12, an Attenuated Rift Valley Fever Virus Vaccine Candidate, in Sheep
Autor: Miller, Myrna M.; Bennett, Kristine E.; Drolet, Barbara S.; Lindsay, Robbin; Mecham, James O.; Reeves, Will K.; Weingartl, Hana M.; Wilson, William C.
Assunto: Rhesus macaques; Saudi-arabia; PCR assay; Safety; Competence; Mutations; Mosquitos; Diptera; Immunogenicity; Pathogenicity
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Biochemistry ; Aedes aegypti - RNA ; Aedes aegypti - Immunology ; Aedes aegypti - Viral infections ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Vaccine ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Clinical and Vaccine Immunology, v. 22, n. 8, p. 930-937, 2015
ISSN: 1556-6811
Resumo: Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) causes serious disease in ruminants and humans in Africa. In North America, there are susceptible ruminant hosts and competent mosquito vectors, yet there are no fully licensed animal vaccines for this arthropod-borne virus, should it be introduced. Studies in sheep and cattle have found the attenuated strain of RVFV, MP-12, to be both safe and efficacious based on early testing, and a 2-year conditional license for use in U.S. livestock has been issued. The purpose of this study was to further determine the vaccine's potential to infect mosquitoes, the duration of humoral immunity to 24 months , and the ability to prevent disease and viremia from a virulent challenge. Vaccination experiments conducted in sheep found no evidence of a potential for vector transmission to 4 North American mosquito species. Neutralizing antibodies were elicited, with titers of > 1:40 still present at 24 months postvaccination. Vaccinates were protected from clinical signs and detectable viremia after challenge with virulent virus, while control sheep had fever and high-titered viremia extending for 5 days. Antibodies to three viral proteins (nucleocapsid N, the N-terminal half of glycoprotein GN, and the nonstructural protein from the short segment NSs) were also detected to 24 months using competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. This study demonstrates that the MP-12 vaccine given as a single dose in sheep generates protective immunity to a virulent challenge with antibody duration of at least 2 years, with no evidence of a risk for vector transmission.

284) The safety of human papilloma virus-blockers and the risk of triggering autoimmune diseases
Autor: Baker Britain,Eça Guimarães Luísa,Tomljenovic Lucija,Agmon-Levin Nancy,Shoenfeld Yehuda
Assunto: Adjuvant; Aluminum; Autoimmune/inflammatory syndrome induced by adjuvants; Autoimmunity; Guillain Barré syndrome; Human papilloma virus; Postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome; Premature ovarian failure; Vaccines
Descritores: Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Immune response ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Autoimmunity ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Immune response ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Viral infections ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Virus ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Vaccine
Fonte: Expert Opinion on Drug Safety, v. 14, n. 9, p. 1387-1394, 2015
ISSN: 1744-764X
Resumo: With the safety of human papilloma virus vaccine (HPVv) being questioned, this article aims to assess the risks and benefits of the commercially available HPVv. Within the last decade, two vaccines (Gardasil and Cervarix) have been put on the market to prevent infection with the most oncogenic HPV subtypes. Both vaccines contain aluminum adjuvants that are meant to cause a hyper stimulated immune response to prevent HPV infection. The purpose of this paper is to consider the safety of these two vaccines based on the data from the U.S. Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS) and case reports. The current HPVv are both effective and generally safe. However, it should be noted that autoimmune side effects have been reported in several studies. Further research should be done to understand the relationship between HPVv and autoimmunity.

285) High rates of o'nyong nyong and Chikungunya virus transmission in coastal Kenya
Autor: LaBeaud A Desiree, Banda Tamara, Brichard Julie, Muchiri Eric M, Mungai Peter L, Mutuku Francis M, Borland Erin, Gildengorin Ginny, Pfeil Sarah, Teng Crystal Y, Long Kristin, Heise Mark, Powers Ann M, Kitron Uriel, King Charles H
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Pathogenesis ; Chikungunya virus - Serology ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya virus - Serology ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Transmission ; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever ; Chikungunya virus - Epidemiology ; Chikungunya virus - Immunology ; Chikungunya virus - Public health
Fonte: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, v. 9, n. 2, p. e0003436, 2015
ISSN: 1935-2735
Resumo: Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) - o'nyong nyong virus (ONNV) are mosquito-borne alphaviruses endemic in East Africa that cause acute febrile illness - arthritis. The objectives of this study were to measure the seroprevalence of CHIKV - ONNV in coastal Kenya - link it to demographics - other risk factors. Demographic - exposure questionnaires were administered to 1,848 participants recruited from two village clusters (Milalani-Nganja - Vuga) in 2009. Sera were tested for alphavirus exposure using st-ardized CHIKV IgG ELISA protocols - confirmed with plaque reduction neutralization tests (PRNT). Logistic regression models were used to determine the variables associated with seropositivity. Weighted K test for global clustering of houses with alphavirus positive participants was performed for distance ranges of 50-1,000 meters, - G* statistic - kernel density mapping were used to identify locations of higher seroprevalence. 486 (26%) participants were seropositive by IgG ELISA. Of 443 PRNT confirmed positives, 25 samples (6%) were CHIKV+, 250 samples (56%) were ONNV+, - 168 samples (38%) had high titers for both. Age was significantly associated with seropositivity (OR 1.01 per year, 95% C.I. 1.00-1.01); however, younger adults were more likely to be seropositive than older adults. Males were less likely to be seropositive (p<0.05; OR 0.79, 95% C.I. 0.64-0.97). Adults who owned a bicycle (p<0.05; OR 1.37, 95% C.I. 1.00-1.85) or motor vehicle (p<0.05; OR 4.64, 95% C.I. 1.19-18.05) were more likely to be seropositive. Spatial analysis demonstrated hotspots of transmission within each village - clustering among local households in Milalani-Nganja, peaking at the 200-500m range. Alphavirus exposure, particularly ONNV exposure, is common in coastal Kenya with ongoing interepidemic transmission of both ONNV - CHIKV. Women - adults were more likely to be seropositive. Household location may be a defining factor for the ecology of alphaviral transmission in this region.

286) Intravenous immunoglobulin treatment in a HIV-1 positive patient with Guillain-Barré syndrome.
Autor: Rosca Elena Cecilia,Rosca Ovidiu,Simu Mihaela
Assunto: Guillain-Barré syndrome, HIV-1;, Intravenous immunoglobulin;
Descritores: Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Cell ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Infectious diseases
Fonte: International Immunopharmacology, v. 29, n. 2, p. 964-965, 2015
ISSN: 1878-1705
Resumo: We report the case of an HIV-1 positive patient with primary demyelinating neuropathy (Guillain-Barré syndrome); after intravenous immunoglobulin treatment (IVIG), he presented with an increase in CD4 and CD8 cell counts and a decrease in plasma viral load. Currently, there is little reported research regarding IVIG treatment in adults with HIV-1. The present report brings further evidence regarding the possible benefit of IVIG in HIV-1 infected patients, providing a novel perspective on treatment.

287) From imported to an endemic disease: Impact of Chikungunya virus disease in the hospital epidemiology, Tolima, Colombia, 2014-2015
Autor: Jimenez-Canizales Carlos E, Medina-Gaitan David A, Mondragon-Cardona Álvaro E, Rodríguez-Morales Alfonso J
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Pathogenesis ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Transmission ; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever ; Chikungunya virus - Epidemiology ; Chikungunya virus - Public health
Fonte: Recent Patents on Anti-infective Drug Discovery, v. 10, n. 1, p. 64-66, 2015
ISSN: 2212-4071
Resumo:

288) Probiotics as a Potential Alternative for Relieving Peripheral Neuropathies: a Case for Guillain-Barré Syndrome.
Autor: Saxena Abhishek
Assunto: Guillain-Barré syndrome, gut-brain axis, microbiota, neuronal autoimmunity, peripheral neuropathies, probiotics
Descritores: Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Autoimmunity
Fonte: Frontiers in Microbiology, v. 6, p. 1497, 2015
ISSN: 1664-302X
Resumo:

289) Exome and Transcriptome Sequencing of Aedes aegypti Identifies a Locus That Confers Resistance to Brugia malayi and Alters the Immune Response
Autor: Juneja, Punita; Ariani, Cristina V.; Ho, Yung Shwen; Akorli, Jewelna; Palmer, William J.; Pain, Arnab; Jiggins, Francis M.
Assunto: Differential Expression Analysis; Midgut Serine Proteases; Yellow-Fever Mosquito; Anopheles-Gambiae;Gene-Expression; Disease-Vector; Rna-Seq; Filarial Susceptibility; Drosophila-Melanogaster; Read Alignment
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Genome ; Aedes aegypti - Immune response ; Aedes aegypti - Molecular structure ; Aedes aegypti - RNA ; Aedes aegypti - Immunology
Fonte: Plos Pathogens, v. 11, n. 3, 2015
ISSN: 1553-7366
Resumo: Many mosquito species are naturally polymorphic for their abilities to transmit parasites, a feature which is of great interest for controlling vector-borne disease. Aedes aegypti, the primary vector of dengue and yellow fever and a laboratory model for studying lymphatic filariasis, is genetically variable for its capacity to harbor the filarial nematode Brugia malayi. The genome of Ae. aegypti is large and repetitive, making genome resequencing difficult and expensive. We designed exome captures to target protein-coding regions of the genome, and used association mapping in a wild Kenyan population to identify a single, dominant, sex-linked locus underlying resistance. This falls in a region of the genome where a resistance locus was previously mapped in a line established in 1936, suggesting that this polymorphism has been maintained in the wild for the at least 80 years. We then crossed resistant and susceptible mosquitoes to place both alleles of the gene into a common genetic background, and used RNA-seq to measure the effect of this locus on gene expression. We found evidence for Toll, IMD, and JAK-STAT pathway activity in response to early stages of B. malayi infection when the parasites are beginning to die in the resistant genotype. We also found that resistant mosquitoes express anti-microbial peptides at the time of parasite-killing, and that this expression is suppressed in susceptible mosquitoes. Together, we have found that a single resistance locus leads to a higher immune response in resistant mosquitoes, and we identify genes in this region that may be responsible for this trait.

290) Increased plasmacytoid dendritic cells in Guillain-Barré syndrome.
Autor: Wang Yu-Zhong; Feng Xun-Gang; Wang Qian; Xing Chun-Ye; Shi Qi-Guang; Kong Qing-Xia; Cheng Pan-Pan; Zhang Yong; Hao Yan-Lei; Yuki Nobuhiro
Assunto: Dendritic cell, Guillain-Barré syndrome
Descritores: Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Biosynthesis ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Cell ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Immune response ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Pathogenesis ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Protein synthesis ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Proteins ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Antibodies ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Immunology ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Public health
Fonte: Journal of Neuroimmunology, v. 283, p. 1-6, 2015
ISSN: 1872-8421
Resumo: Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) is a post-infectious autoimmune disease. Dendritic cells (DCs) can recognize the pathogen and modulate the host immune response. Exploring the role of DCs in GBS will help our understanding of the disease development. In this study, we aimed to analyze plasmacytoid and conventional DCs in peripheral blood of patients with GBS at different stages of the disease: acute phase as well as early and late recovery phases. There was a significant increase of plasmacytoid DCs in the acute phase (p=0.03 vs healthy donors). There was a positive correlation between percentage of plasmacytoid DCs and the clinical severity of patients with GBS (r=0.61, p<0.001). Quantitative polymerase chain reaction and flow cytometry confirmed the aberrant plasmacytoid DCs in GBS. Thus, plasmacytoid DCs may participate in the development of GBS.

291) Immunogenicity, safety, and tolerability of a recombinant measles-virus-based chikungunya vaccine: A randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, active-comparator, first-in-man trial
Autor: Ramsauer Katrin, Schwameis Michael, Firbas Christa, Müllner Matthias, Putnak Robert J, Thomas Stephen J, Desprès Philippe, Tauber Erich, Jilma Bernd, Tangy Frederic
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Biosynthesis ; Chikungunya virus - Pathogenesis ; Chikungunya virus - Proteins ; Chikungunya virus - Antibodies ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Vaccine ; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever ; Chikungunya virus - Epidemiology ; Chikungunya virus - Immunology ; Chikungunya virus - Public health
Fonte: The Lancet. Infectious Diseases, v. 15, n. 5, p. 519-527, 2015
ISSN: 1474-4457
Resumo: Chikungunya is an emerging arthropod-borne disease that has spread from tropical endemic areas to more temperate climates of the USA - Europe. However, no specific treatment or preventive measure is yet available. We aimed to investigate the immunogenicity - safety of a live recombinant measles-virus-based chikungunya vaccine. We did a r-omised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, active-comparator, phase 1, dose-escalation study at one centre in Vienna, Austria. Healthy men - women aged 18-45 years with no comorbidities were r-omly assigned, by computer-generated block r-omisation (block size of 14), to receive either one of three escalating doses of the measles-virus-based c-idate vaccine (low dose [1·5 × 10(4) median tissue culture infection doses (TCID50) per 0·05 mL], medium dose [7·5 × 10(4) TCID50 per 0·25 mL], or high dose [3·0 × 10(5) TCID50 per 1·0 mL]), or the active comparator-Priorix. Participants were additionally block-r-omised to receive a booster injection on either day 28 or day 90 after the first vaccination. Participants - study investigators were masked to group allocation. The primary endpoint was the presence of neutralising anti-chikungunya antibodies on day 28, as assessed by 50% plaque reduction neutralisation test. Analysis was by intention to treat - per protocol. This trial is registered with EudraCT, number 2013-001084-23. Between Nov 22, 2013, - Feb 25, 2014, we r-omly assigned 42 participants to receive the low dose (n=12), the medium dose (n=12), or the high dose (n=12) of the measles-virus-based c-idate vaccine, or Priorix (n=6), of whom 36 participants (86%; n=9, n=12, n=10, n=5, respectively) were included in the per-protocol population. The c-idate vaccine raised neutralising antibodies in all dose cohorts after one immunisation, with seroconversion rates of 44% (n=4) in the low-dose group, 92% (n=11) in the medium-dose group, - 90% (n=10) in the high-dose group. The immunogenicity of the c-idate vaccine was not affected by pre-existing anti-measles immunity. The second vaccination resulted in a 100% seroconversion for all participants in the c-idate vaccine groups. The c-idate vaccine had an overall good safety profile, - the rate of adverse events increased with vaccine dose - volume. No vaccination-related serious adverse events were recorded. The live recombinant measles-virus-based chikungunya vaccine had good immunogenicity, even in the presence of anti-vector immunity, was safe, - had a generally acceptable tolerability profile. This vaccine is the first promising measles-virus-based c-idate vaccine for use in human beings. Themis Bioscience GmBH.

292) Intravenous immunoglobulin in critically ill adults: When and what is the evidence?
Autor: Wang J.; McQuilten Z. K.; Wood E. M.; Aubron C.
Assunto: Critically ill patients, Intensive care unit (ICU), Intravenous immunoglobulin
Descritores: Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Proteins ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Antibodies ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Inflammation ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Epidemiology
Fonte: Journal of Critical Care, v. 30, n. 3, p. 652, 2015
ISSN: 1557-8615
Resumo: Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) use is growing dramatically internationally due to the increasing numbers of acute and chronic conditions that may benefit from IVIg. Patients with conditions that may benefit from IVIg might require intensive care unit (ICU) admission, supporting the need to review IVIg use in the critical care setting. The most common clinical indications for IVIg in adults that may require ICU admission and are commonly supported under clinical practice guidelines are Guillain-Barré syndrome, myasthenia gravis and Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome, inflammatory myopathies, and primary or secondary immunodeficiency diseases complicated by severe bacterial sepsis. Other emerging indications include necrotizing fasciitis, toxic epidermal necrolysis/Stevens-Johnson syndrome, and toxic shock syndrome. The evidence for IVIg use in sepsis and septic shock remains controversial and insufficient to recommend its routine use. Intravenous immunoglobulin is expensive and also carries risks of adverse effects, including common and benign infusion-related reactions, as well as relatively rare and more serious problems, such as thromboembolic events, renal failure, and aseptic meningitis. In this article, we review the literature on conditions requiring ICU admission and IVIg, and we classify them as supported, emerging, or unsupported indications based on the available evidence and guidelines for clinical use of IVIg.

293) A critical oole for CLSP2 in the modulation of antifungal immune response in mosquitoes
Autor: Wang, Yan-Hong; Hu, Yang; Xing, Long-Sheng; Jiang, Hong; Hu, Song-Nian; Raikhel, Alexander S.; Zou, Zhen
Assunto: Genome - Wide Analysis ; Aedes aegypti ; Innate immunity ; Manduca ; Fungal -Infections; Anopheles ? Gambiae ; Host ? Defense ; Drosophila
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - Genome ; Aedes aegypti - Immune response ; Aedes aegypti - Molecular structure ; Aedes aegypti - RNA ; Aedes aegypti - Immunology ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Plos Pathogens, v. 11, n. 6, 2015
ISSN: 1553-7366
Resumo: Entomopathogenic fungi represent a promising class of bio-insecticides for mosquito control. Thus, detailed knowledge of the molecular mechanisms governing anti-fungal immune response in mosquitoes is essential. In this study, we show that CLSP2 is a modulator of immune responses during anti-fungal infection in the mosquito Aedes aegypti. With a fungal infection, the expression of the CLSP2 gene is elevated. CLSP2 is cleaved upon challenge with Beauveria bassiana conidia, and the liberated CLSP2 CTL-type domain binds to fungal cell components and B. bassiana conidia. Furthermore, CLPS2 RNA interference silencing significantly increases the resistance to the fungal challenge. RNA-sequencing transcriptome analysis showed that the majority of immune genes were highly upregulated in the CLSP2-depleted mosquitoes infected with the fungus. The up-regulated immune gene cohorts belong to melanization and Toll pathways, but not to the IMD or JAK-STAT. A thioester-containing protein (TEP22), a member of alpha(2)-macroglobulin family, has been implicated in the CLSP2-modulated mosquito antifungal defense. Our study has contributed to a greater understanding of immune-modulating mechanisms in mosquitoes.

294) The gut microbiota and its correlations with the central nervous system disorders
Autor: Catanzaro R,Anzalone M,Calabrese F,Milazzo M,Capuana M,Italia A,Occhipinti S,Marotta F
Assunto:
Descritores: Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Biosynthesis ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Immune response ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Pathogenesis ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Inflammation ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Immunology ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Public health
Fonte: Panminerva Medica, v. 57, n. 3, p. 127-143, 2015
ISSN: 1827-1898
Resumo: A mutual impact of gastrointestinal tract (GIT) and central nervous system (CNS) functions has been recognized since the mid-twentieth century. It is accepted that the so-called gut-brain axis provides a two-way homeostatic communication, through immunological, hormonal and neuronal signals. A dysfunction of this axis has been associated with the pathogenesis of some diseases both within and outside the GIT, that have shown an increase in incidence over the last decades. Studies comparing germ-free animals and animals exposed to pathogenic bacterial infections, probiotics or antibiotics suggest the participation of the microbiota in this communication and a role in host defense, regulation of immunity and autoimmune disease appearance. The GIT could represent a vulnerable area through which pathogens influence all aspects of physiology and even induce CNS neuro-inflammation. All those concepts may suggest the modulation of the gut microbiota as an achievable strategy for innovative therapies in complex disorders. Moving from this background, the present review discusses the relationship between intestinal microbiota and CNS and the effects in health and disease. We particularly look at how the commensal gut microbiota influences systemic immune response in some neurological disorders, highlighting its impact on pain and cognition in multiple sclerosis, Guillain-Barrè Syndrome, neurodevelopmental and behavioral disorders and Alzheimer's disease. In this review we discuss recent studies showing that the potential microbiota-gut-brain dialogue is implicated in neurodegenerative diseases. Gaining a better understanding of the relationship between microbiota and CNS could provide an insight on the pathogenesis and therapeutic strategies of these disorders.

295) Detection of Chikungunya virus from a case of encephalitis, Bangalore, Karnataka State
Autor: Shaikh N J, Raut C G, Sinha D P, Manjunath M J
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Cytopathology ; Chikungunya virus - DNA ; Chikungunya virus - Pathogenesis ; Chikungunya virus - Proteins ; Chikungunya virus - RNA ; Chikungunya virus - Antibodies ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya virus - RT-PCR ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever
Fonte: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology, v. 33, n. 3, p. 454-455, 2015
ISSN: 1998-3646
Resumo:

296) Pathogenesis of immune-mediated neuropathies.
Autor: Dalakas Marinos C.
Assunto: Autoimmunity, Immunotherapy, Neuropathy, Ranvier
Descritores: Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Cell ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Cytopathology ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Pathogenesis ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Proteins ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Antibodies ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Autoimmunity ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Cytokines ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Immunopathology ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Molecular screening ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Immunology
Fonte: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta, v. 1852, n. 4, p. 658-666, 2015
ISSN: 0006-3002
Resumo: Autoimmune neuropathies occur when immunologic tolerance to myelin or axonal antigens is lost. Even though the triggering factors and the underling immunopathology have not been fully elucidated in all neuropathy subsets, immunological studies on the patients' nerves, transfer experiments with the patients' serum or intraneural injections, and molecular fingerprinting on circulating autoantibodies or autoreactive T cells, indicate that cellular and humoral factors, either independently or in concert with each other, play a fundamental role in their cause. The review is focused on the main subtypes of autoimmune neuropathies, mainly the Guillain-Barré syndrome(s), the Chronic Inflammatory Demyelinating Polyneuropathy (CIDP), the Multifocal Motor Neuropathy (MMN), and the IgM anti-MAG-antibody mediated neuropathy. It addresses the factors associated with breaking tolerance, examines the T cell activation process including co-stimulatory molecules and key cytokines, and discusses the role of antibodies against peripheral nerve glycolipids or glycoproteins. Special attention is given to the newly identified proteins in the nodal, paranodal and juxtaparanodal regions as potential antigenic targets that could best explain conduction failure and rapid recovery. New biological agents against T cells, cytokines, B cells, transmigration and transduction molecules involved in their immunopathologic network, are discussed as future therapeutic options in difficult cases. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Neuromuscular Diseases: Pathology and Molecular Pathogenesis.

297) Evaluation of Chikungunya virus infection in children from India during 2009-2010: A cross sectional observational study
Autor: Raghavendhar B Siva, Ray Pratima, Ratagiri Vinod H, Sharma B S, Kabra Sushil K, Lodha Rakesh
Assunto: Chikungunya virus; E1 gene; IgM elisa; Phylogenetic analysis; RT-PCR
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - RNA ; Chikungunya virus - Antibodies ; Chikungunya virus - PCR detection ; Chikungunya virus - RT-PCR ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever
Fonte: Journal of Medical Virology, v. 88, n. 6, p. 923-930, 2015
ISSN: 1096-9071
Resumo: Chikungunya virus, a small (about 60-70 nm diameter), spherical, enveloped, positive, single str-ed RNA virus is transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes. After a short period of incubation (3-5 days) symptoms like fever with joint pains - others start appearing. After a gap of 20 years, this virus re-emerged during 2006-2008 in India causing a major outbreak of CHIKV in India. This study was conducted subsequent to the major outbreak in order to evaluate the proportion of chikungunya virus infection in children with suggestive symptoms at three geographical locations of India. Lineage of circulating strains - changes in the E1 structural polypeptide were also determined. Blood samples were collected (in Sodium citrate vacutainer tubes) during 1st June 2009 to 31st May 2010 from children (age 0 ? 18 years) suspected to have chikungunya infection, that is, those who presented with sudden onset of fever -/or joint pain, myalgia, - headache from three regions of India, All India Institute of Medical Sciences (AIIMS) in New Delhi, Karnataka Institute of Medical Sciences (KIMS) in Hubli - Sawai Mansingh Medical College (SMS) in Jaipur. Detection of CHIKV antibodies in all acute-phase patient plasma samples was done by IgM ELISA - for samples within ?5 days of fever, a one-step RT-PCR was carried out on a block thermo-cycler targeting 294 bp region of E1 gene that codes for the viral envelope protein. Comparison of nucleotide - amino acid sequences from few positive samples of two regions was done with African S-27 reference strain using BioEdit. A phylogenetic tree was constructed using MEGA 6 by using the Maximum Likelihood method based on the Kimura 2-parameter model. Out of the 723 acute phase samples tested from three geographical locations of India, Chikungunya virus infection was detected in 249/723 (34.44%) subjects by either IgM Elisa (180/723) or RT-PCR (69/412). RT-PCR was employed in samples collected from children with ?5 days of fever. Maximum positive cases were from KIMS center, Hubli. Seasonally, positivity varied with number of enrolled cases at KIMS - SMS. Joint pain was significantly associated with CHIKV positivity (P = 0.0156). Presence/absence of certain clinical features varied with age (P < 0.05). Sequence analysis revealed four amino acid changes. Phylogenetic analysis with partial sequences of E1 gene from KIMS (n = 12) - SMS (n = 5) showed that the study isolates clustered with Indian Ocean Lineage strains (IOL) of East, Central - South African (ECSA) type. Evaluation of chikungunya virus infection in children from India during 2009-2010 showed high proportion of CHIKV infection in Southern region of India compared to Northern region. The circulating CHIKV strains were of Indian Ocean Lineage (IOL) group within the East, Central, - South African (ECSA) genotype. However few amino acid changes were observed in E1 polypeptide with reference to African strain S-27 (AF369024). Further studies are needed to know the implications of these changes in vector-pathogen compatibility - host-pathogen interactivity. As a whole, this study highlighted the proportion of CHIKV cases, lineage of causative strain - evolutionary pattern of circulating strain in terms of amino acid changes in the structural protein. J. Med. Virol. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

298) In silico analysis of MHC-I restricted epitopes of Chikungunya virus proteins: Implication in understanding anti-CHIKV CD8(+) T cell response and advancement of epitope based immunotherapy for CHIKV infection.
Autor: Pratheek B. M.; Suryawanshi Amol R.; Chattopadhyay Soma; Chattopadhyay Subhasis
Assunto: Chikungunya virus, H2-Db, H2-Dd, HLA-I, MHC-I epitope
Descritores: Guillain-Barre Syndrome - T lymphocytes
Fonte: Infection, Genetics and Evolution, v. 31, p. 118-126, 2015
ISSN: 1567-7257
Resumo: Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a mosquito-borne Alphavirus, responsible for acute febrile infection. The high morbidity and socio-economic loss associated with the recent CHIKV epidemics worldwide have raised a great public health concern and emphasize the need to study the immunological basis of CHIKV infection to control the disease. MHC-I restricted CD8(+) T cell response represent one of the major anti-viral immune responses. Accordingly, it is essential to have a detailed understanding towards CHIKV specific MHC-I restricted immunogenic epitopes for anti-viral CD8(+) CTL immunogenicity. In the present study, a computational approach was used to predict the conserved MHC-I epitopes for mouse haplotypes (H2-Db and H2-Dd) and some alleles of the major HLA-I supertypes (HLA-A2, -A3, -A24, -B7, -B15) of all CHIKV proteins. Further, an in-depth computational analysis was carried out to validate the selected epitopes for their nature of conservation in different global CHIKV isolates to assess their binding affinities to the appropriate site of respective MHC-I molecules and to predict anti-CHIKV CD8(+) CTL immunogenicity. Our analyses resulted in fifteen highly conserved epitopes for H2-Db and H2-Dd and fifty epitopes for different HLA-I supertypes. Out of these, the MHC-I epitopes VLLPNVHTL and MTPERVTRL were found to have highest predictable CTL immunogenicities and least binding energies for H2-Db and H2-Dd, whereas, for HLA-I, the epitope FLTLFVNTL was with the highest population coverage, CTL immunogenicity and least binding energy. Hence, our study has identified MHC-I restricted epitopes that may help in the advancement of MHC-I restricted epitope based anti-CHIKV immune responses against this infection and this will be useful towards the development of epitope based anti-CHIKV immunotherapy in the future. However, further experimental investigations for cross validation and evaluation are warranted to establish the ability of epitopes to induce CD8(+) T cell mediated immune responses.

299) Susceptibility of indigenous and transplanted mosquito spp. to dengue virus in Japan
Autor: Sasaki, Toshinori; Higa, Yukiko; Bertuso, Arlene G; Isawa, Haruhiko; Takasaki, Tomohiko; Minakawa, Noboru; Sawabe, Kyoko
Assunto: Human diseases; Infectious diseases; Interspecific relationships; Pest control; Hosts; Disease transmission; Public health; Aircraft; Dengue; Vectors; Infection; Dengue virus; Aedes aegypti; Flavivirus; Flaviviridae
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Infectious diseases ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue
Fonte: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases, v. 68, n. 5, p. 425-427, 2015.
ISSN: 1344-6304
Resumo: Dengue fever, an acute, mosquito-borne, febrile illness caused by Flavivirus spp., is a problem in Africa, South and Southeast Asia, Latin America, and the Caribbean. A dengue outbreak occurred after nearly 70 years of absence or no detection, and then 158 autochthonous cases occurred in Japan from August to October 15, 2014. The most competent mosquito vectors for dengue virus transmission were Aedes aegypti and A. albopictus. Since A. albopictus is widely distributed across Japan and A. aegypti recently invaded Japan by airplane, we examined the susceptibility of these species to infection by dengue virus.

300) Relation between symptoms and pathophysiology in inflammatory neuropathies: Controversies and hypotheses.
Autor: Franssen Hessel
Assunto: Axon; Demyelination; Ion-channels; Neuropathy; Symptoms
Descritores: Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Cell ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Inflammation
Fonte: Neuroscience Letters, v. 596, p. 84-89, 2015
ISSN: 1872-7972
Resumo: This review attempts to explain the symptoms experienced by patients with inflammatory neuropathies by pathophysiological events. The emphasis is not on the primary events that may cause a particular illness but on downstream events taking place in peripheral nerves or muscles. Symptoms that will be discussed include sensory predominance, motor predominance, activity-induced weakness, heat paresis, and cold paresis. Each symptom is associated with, but not limited to, particular neuropathies.

301) The spread of Aedes albopictus in metropolitan France: Contribution of environmental drivers and human activities and predictions for a near future
Autor: Roche Benjamin, Léger Lucas, L'Ambert Grégory, Lacour Guillaume, Foussadier Rémi, Besnard Gilles, Barré-Cardi Hélène, Simard Frédéric, Fontenille Didier
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Arbovirus ; Chikungunya virus - Pathogenesis ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Transmission ; Chikungunya virus - Dengue ; Chikungunya virus - Public health
Fonte: PloS One, v. 10, n. 5, p. e0125600, 2015
ISSN: 1932-6203
Resumo: Invasion of new territories by insect vector species that can transmit pathogens is one of the most important threats for human health. The spread of the mosquito Aedes albopictus in Europe is emblematic, because of its major role in the emergence - transmission of arboviruses such as dengue or chikungunya. Here, we modeled the spread of this mosquito species in France through a statistical framework taking advantage of a long-term surveillance dataset going back to the first observation of Ae. albopictus in the Metropolitan area. After validating the model, we show that human activities are especially important for mosquito dispersion while l- use is a major factor for mosquito establishment. More importantly, we show that Ae. albopictus invasion is accelerating through time in this area, resulting in a geographic range extending further - further year after year. We also show that sporadic jump" of Ae. albopictus in a new location far from the colonized area did not succeed in starting a new invasion front so far. Finally, we discuss on a potential adaptation to cooler climate - the risk of invasion into Northern latitudes."

302) Progressive subacute Miller-Fisher syndrome successfully treated with plasmapheresis.
Autor: Ejma Maria; Waliszewska-Prosó? Marta; Hofman Anna; Budrewicz S?awomir; Podemski Ryszard; Bili?ska Ma?gorzata; Koszewicz Magdalena
Assunto: Anti-GQ1b antibody, Miller-Fisher syndrome, Plasmapheresis
Descritores: Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Pathogenesis ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Proteins ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Antibodies ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Immunology
Fonte: Neurologia i Neurochirurgia Polska, v. 49, n. 2, p. 137-138, 2015
ISSN: 0028-3843
Resumo: Miller-Fisher Syndrome (MFS) is a rare acute polyneuropathy composed of the clinical triad of ataxia, areflexia and ophthalmoplegia, with a monophasic, self-limited course and spontaneous improvement. The authors present a 65-year-old man with Miller-Fisher syndrome consisting of bilateral ophthalmoplegia, trigeminal and facial nerve palsy, mild ataxia and peripheral neuropathy. The disease had a progressive, subacute course within 3 months. A high titer of anti-GQ1b antibodies was detected. As a result of plasmapheresis, complete recovery was achieved. The presented case was atypical in its clinical course and treatment. It could support the theory of the continuity between MFS, Bickerstaff brainstem encephalitis (BBE), and Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS).

303) Mosquitocidal properties of IgG targeting the glutamate-gated chloride channel in three mosquito disease vectors (Diptera: Culicidae)
Autor: Meyers, Jacob I.; Gray, Meg; Foy, Brian D.
Assunto: Aedes aegypti; Anopheles gambiae; Culex tarsalis; GluCl; Mosquitocidal antibody
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Biochemistry ; Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - Immunology ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Journal of Experimental Biology , v. 218, n. 10, p. 1487-1495, 2015
ISSN: 0022-0949
Resumo: The glutamate-gated chloride channel (GluCl) is a highly sensitive insecticide target of the avermectin class of insecticides. As an alternative to using chemical insecticides to kill mosquitoes, we tested the effects of purified immunoglobulinG(IgG) targeting the extracellular domain of GluCl from Anopheles gambiae (AgGluCl) on the survivorship of three key mosquito disease vectors: Anopheles gambiae s.s., Aedes aegypti and Culex tarsalis. When administered through a single bloodmeal, anti-AgGluCl IgG reduced the survivorship of A. gambiae in a dose-dependentmanner (LC50: 2.82 mg ml(-1), range 2.68-2.96 mg ml(-1)) but not A. aegypti or C. tarsalis. We previously demonstrated that AgGluCl is only located in tissues of the head and thorax of A. gambiae. To verify that AgGluCl IgG is affecting target antigens found outside the midgut, we injected it directly into the hemocoel via intrathoracic injection. A single, physiologically relevant concentration of anti-AgGluCl IgG injected into the hemocoel equally reduced mosquito survivorship of all three species. To test whether anti-AgGluCl IgG was entering the hemocoel of each of these mosquitoes, we fed mosquitoes a blood meal containing anti-AgGluCl IgG and subsequently extracted their hemolymph. We only detected IgG in the hemolymph of A. gambiae, suggesting that resistance of A. aegypti and C. tarsalis to anti-AgGluCl IgG found in blood meals is due to deficient IgG translocation across the midgut. We predicted that anti-AgGluCl IgG's mode of action is by antagonizing GluCl activity. To test this hypothesis, we fed A. gambiae blood meals containing anti-AgGluCl IgG and the GluCl agonist ivermectin (IVM). Anti-AgGluCl IgG attenuated the mosquitocidal effects of IVM, suggesting that anti-AgGluCl IgG antagonizes IVM-induced activation of GluCl. Lastly, we stained adult, female A. aegypti and C. tarsalis for GluCl expression. Neuronal GluCl expression in these mosquitoes was similar to previously reported A. gambiae GluCl expression; however, we also discovered GluCl staining on the basolateral surface of their midgut epithelial cells, suggesting important physiological differences in Culicine and Anopheline mosquitoes.

304) Progressive bilateral facial weakness.
Autor: Carswell Christopher; Northey Luke C.; Davies Leo; Yuki Nobuhiro; Kiernan Matthew C.
Assunto: GANGLIOSIDE, GUILLAIN-BARRE SYNDROME
Descritores: Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Pathogenesis ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Proteins ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Antibodies ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Clinical examination
Fonte: Practical Neurology, v. 15, n. 1, p. 76-79, 2015
ISSN: 1474-7766
Resumo:

305) New Year's resolution: Get to know Chikungunya
Autor: Harvey Carolyn Hester
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Pathogenesis ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever ; Chikungunya virus - Epidemiology ; Chikungunya virus - Public health
Fonte: Journal of Environmental Health, v. 77, n. 6, p. 6-7, 2015
ISSN: 0022-0892
Resumo:

306) Polyneuritis cranialis: oculopharyngeal subtype of Guillain-Barré syndrome.
Autor: Wakerley Benjamin R.; Yuki Nobuhiro
Assunto: Acute ophthalmoparesis, Cranial polyneuropathy, Guillain-Barré syndrome, Miller Fisher syndrome, Pharyngeal-cervical-brachial weakness, Polyneuritis cranialis
Descritores: Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Antibodies
Fonte: Journal of Neurology, v. 262, n. 9, p. 2001-2012, 2015
ISSN: 1432-1459
Resumo: Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) constitutes a spectrum of related post-infectious neuropathies, which are characterized by their anatomical patterns of weakness and neurological involvement. Historically, the term polyneuritis cranialis has been used to describe some patients with GBS presenting with multiple cranial neuropathies in the absence of limb weakness. We examine previous reports of polyneuritis cranialis to determine disease characteristics and define new diagnostic criteria. Disease characteristics were determined from 15 historical case reports of patients presenting with isolated 'polyneuritis cranialis', 'cranial polyneuropathy', 'multiple cranial neuropathy' and 'multiple cranial neuropathies' due to GBS. Median age was 40 years. 80% displayed antecedent infectious symptoms. In all cases, disease course was monophasic with clinical improvement within weeks or months. Initial symptoms were ocular (73%) or bulbar (33%). Mean number of cranial nerves involved was 6 (range, 3-10). 93% displayed ocular signs, 73% facial weakness or numbness and 87% bulbar signs. In 3 patients (20%), there was significant asymmetry. Cerebrospinal fluid albuminocytological dissociation was present in 67% of cases. Serum anti-ganglioside antibodies were tested for in 8 of 15 patients and anti-GQ1b antibodies were found in 3 patients, whilst anti-GT1a antibodies were found in 1 patient. Polycranial neuritis (the oculopharyngeal subtype of GBS) can be defined in patients with disease characteristics of GBS who display ocular and pharyngeal weakness in the absence of limb weakness or ataxia. In half of cases tested for, anti-ganglioside antibodies were present and most frequently against GQ1b.

307) The olfactory nerve: A shortcut for influenza and other viral diseases into the central nervous system
Autor: van Riel Debby, Verdijk Rob, Kuiken Thijs
Assunto: CNS; H5N1; Cell-to-cell transmission; Influenza; Olfactory nerve; Olfactory receptor neuron; Virus
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Biochemistry ; Chikungunya virus - Cell ; Chikungunya virus - Cytopathology ; Chikungunya virus - Immune response ; Chikungunya virus - Pathogenesis ; Chikungunya virus - Immune response ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya virus - Molecular methods ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Molecular screening ; Chikungunya virus - Transmission ; Chikungunya virus - Public health
Fonte: The Journal of Pathology, v. 235, n. 2, p. 277-287, 2015
ISSN: 1096-9896
Resumo: The olfactory nerve consists mainly of olfactory receptor neurons - directly connects the nasal cavity with the central nervous system (CNS). Each olfactory receptor neuron projects a dendrite into the nasal cavity on the apical side, - on the basal side extends its axon through the cribriform plate into the olfactory bulb of the brain. Viruses that can use the olfactory nerve as a shortcut into the CNS include influenza A virus, herpesviruses, poliovirus, paramyxoviruses, vesicular stomatitis virus, rabies virus, parainfluenza virus, adenoviruses, Japanese encephalitis virus, West Nile virus, chikungunya virus, La Crosse virus, mouse hepatitis virus, - bunyaviruses. However, mechanisms of transport via the olfactory nerve - subsequent spread through the CNS are poorly understood. Proposed mechanisms are either infection of olfactory receptor neurons themselves or diffusion through channels formed by olfactory ensheathing cells. Subsequent virus spread through the CNS could occur by multiple mechanisms, including trans-synaptic transport - microfusion. Viral infection of the CNS can lead to damage from infection of nerve cells per se, from the immune response, or from a combination of both. Clinical consequences range from nervous dysfunction in the absence of histopathological changes to severe meningoencephalitis - neurodegenerative disease.

308) Simulation study of the effect of influenza and influenza vaccination on risk of acquiring Guillain-Barré syndrome
Autor: Hawken Steven,Kwong Jeffrey C,Deeks Shelley L,Crowcroft Natasha S,McGeer Allison J,Ducharme Robin,Campitelli Michael A,Coyle Doug,Wilson Kumanan
Assunto:
Descritores: Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Pathogenesis ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Viral infections ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Vaccine ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Epidemiology ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Public health
Fonte: Emerging Infectious Diseases, v. 21, n. 2, p. 224-231, 2015
ISSN: 1080-6059
Resumo: It is unclear whether seasonal influenza vaccination results in a net increase or decrease in the risk for Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS). To assess the effect of seasonal influenza vaccination on the absolute risk of acquiring GBS, we used simulation models and published estimates of age- and sex-specific risks for GBS, influenza incidence, and vaccine effectiveness. For a hypothetical 45-year-old woman and 75-year-old man, excess GBS risk for influenza vaccination versus no vaccination was -0.36/1 million vaccinations (95% credible interval -1.22% to 0.28) and -0.42/1 million vaccinations (95% credible interval, -3.68 to 2.44), respectively. These numbers represent a small absolute reduction in GBS risk with vaccination. Under typical conditions (e.g. influenza incidence rates >5% and vaccine effectiveness >60%), vaccination reduced GBS risk. These findings should strengthen confidence in the safety of influenza vaccine and allow health professionals to better put GBS risk in context when discussing influenza vaccination with patients.

309) In silico analysis of MHC-I restricted epitopes of Chikungunya virus proteins: Implication in underst-ing anti-CHIKV CD8(+) T cell response and advancement of epitope based immunotherapy for CHIKV infection
Autor: Pratheek B M, Suryawanshi Amol R, Chattopadhyay Soma, Chattopadhyay Subhasis
Assunto: Chikungunya virus; H2-Db; H2-Dd; HLA-I; MHC-I epitope
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Cell ; Chikungunya virus - Genome ; Chikungunya virus - Immune response ; Chikungunya virus - Molecular structure ; Chikungunya virus - Pathogenesis ; Chikungunya virus - Proteins ; Chikungunya virus - Immune response ; Chikungunya virus - T lymphocytes ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya virus - Molecular methods ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever ; Chikungunya virus - Epidemic ; Chikungunya virus - Immunology ; Chikungunya virus - Public health
Fonte: Infection, Genetics and Evolution, v. 31, p. 118-126, 2015
ISSN: 1567-7257
Resumo: Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a mosquito-borne Alphavirus, responsible for acute febrile infection. The high morbidity - socio-economic loss associated with the recent CHIKV epidemics worldwide have raised a great public health concern - emphasize the need to study the immunological basis of CHIKV infection to control the disease. MHC-I restricted CD8(+) T cell response represent one of the major anti-viral immune responses. Accordingly, it is essential to have a detailed underst-ing towards CHIKV specific MHC-I restricted immunogenic epitopes for anti-viral CD8(+) CTL immunogenicity. In the present study, a computational approach was used to predict the conserved MHC-I epitopes for mouse haplotypes (H2-Db - H2-Dd) - some alleles of the major HLA-I supertypes (HLA-A2, -A3, -A24, -B7, -B15) of all CHIKV proteins. Further, an in-depth computational analysis was carried out to validate the selected epitopes for their nature of conservation in different global CHIKV isolates to assess their binding affinities to the appropriate site of respective MHC-I molecules - to predict anti-CHIKV CD8(+) CTL immunogenicity. Our analyses resulted in fifteen highly conserved epitopes for H2-Db - H2-Dd - fifty epitopes for different HLA-I supertypes. Out of these, the MHC-I epitopes VLLPNVHTL - MTPERVTRL were found to have highest predictable CTL immunogenicities - least binding energies for H2-Db - H2-Dd, whereas, for HLA-I, the epitope FLTLFVNTL was with the highest population coverage, CTL immunogenicity - least binding energy. Hence, our study has identified MHC-I restricted epitopes that may help in the advancement of MHC-I restricted epitope based anti-CHIKV immune responses against this infection - this will be useful towards the development of epitope based anti-CHIKV immunotherapy in the future. However, further experimental investigations for cross validation - evaluation are warranted to establish the ability of epitopes to induce CD8(+) T cell mediated immune responses.

310) Novel Variant of Miller Fisher Syndrome Occurring With Tumor Necrosis Factor ? Antagonist Therapy.
Autor: Ratnarajan Gokulan; Thompson Alexander; Dodridge Caroline; Parry Allyson; Elston John
Assunto:
Descritores: Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Pathogenesis ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Proteins ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Antibodies ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Cytokines
Fonte: JAMA Neurology, v. 72, n. 11, p. 1377-1378, 2015
ISSN: 2168-6157
Resumo:

311) Standard operating procedures for standardized mass rearing of the dengue and chikungunya vectors Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) and II and Egg storage and hatching
Autor: Zheng Min-Lin, Zhang Dong-Jing, Damiens David D, Lees Rosemary Susan, Gilles Jeremie R L
Assunto: Bacterial broth; Boiled water; Hatch rate; Egg storage; Mass rearing; Mosquito production; Aedes; Dengue; Chikungunya
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Cell ; Chikungunya virus - Flaviviridae ; Chikungunya virus - Pathogenesis ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Transmission ; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever ; Chikungunya virus - Dengue ; Chikungunya virus - Public health
Fonte: Parasites & Vectors, v. 8, p. 348, 2015
ISSN: 1756-3305
Resumo: Management of large quantities of eggs will be a crucial aspect of the efficient - sustainable mass production of mosquitoes for programmes with a Sterile Insect Technique component. The efficiency of different hatching media - effectiveness of long term storage methods are presented here. The effect on hatch rate of storage duration - three hatching media was analysed: deionized water, boiled deionized water - a bacterial broth, using Two-way ANOVA - Post hoc Tukey tests, - the Pearson correlation coefficient was used to find the effect on the proportion of collapsed eggs. Two long term storage methods were also tested: conventional storage (egg paper strips stored in zip lock bags within a sealed plastic box), - water storage (egg papers in a covered plastic cup with deionized water). Regression analyses were used to find the effect of water storage - storage duration on hatch rate. Both species hatched most efficiently in bacterial broth. Few eggs hatched in deionized water, - pre-boiling the water increased the hatch rate of Ae. aegypti, but not Ae. albopictus. A hatch rate greater than 80% was obtained after 10 weeks of conventional storage in Ae. aegypti - 11 weeks in Ae. albopictus. After this period, hatching decreased dramatically; no eggs hatched after 24 weeks. Storing eggs in water produced an 85% hatch rate after 5 months in both species. A small but significant proportion of eggs hatched in the water, probably due to combined effects of natural deoxygenation of the water over time - the natural instalment hatching typical of the species. The demonstrated efficiency of the bacterial broth hatching medium for both Ae. albopictus - Ae. aegypti facilitates mass production of these two important vector species in the same facility, with use of a common hatching medium reducing cost - operational complexity. Similarly the increased hatch rate of eggs stored in water would allow greater flexibility of egg management in a large programme over the medium term, particularly if oxygenation of the water by bubbling oxygen through the storage tray could be applied to prevent hatching during storage.

312) T Cell Epitope Redundancy: Cross-conservation of the TCR face between Pathogens and Self and its Implications for Vaccines and Auto-immunity
Autor: Moise Leonard,Beseme Sarah,Tassone Ryan,Liu Rui,Kibria Farzana,Terry Frances,Martin William,De Groot Anne S
Assunto: Autoimmune disease; Bacteria; Cancer Vaccine; Cross-conservation; Guillain Barre Syndrome; H7N9; HCV; HIV; Immunoinformatics; Influenza Vaccine; Molecular mimicry; Multiple Sclerosis; Narcolepsy; Off Target Effects; Parasite; Regulatory T cell; T cell epitope; T cell receptor; TCR; TCR Degeneracy; Vaccine; Virus
Descritores: Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Cell ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Genome ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Immune response ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Proteins ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Virus ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Vaccine ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Immunology
Fonte: Expert Review of Vaccines, v. 15, n. 5, p. 607-617, 2015
ISSN: 1744-8395
Resumo: T cells are extensively trained on 'self' in the thymus and then move to the periphery, where they seek out and destroy infections and regulate immune response to self-antigens. T cell receptors (TCR) on T cells' surface recognize T cell epitopes, short linear strings of amino acids presented by antigen-presenting cells. Some of these epitopes activate T effectors, while others activate regulatory T cells. It was recently discovered that T cell epitopes that are highly conserved on their TCR face with human genome sequences are often associated with T cells that regulate immune response. These TCR-cross-conserved or 'redundant epitopes' are more common in proteins found in pathogens that have co-evolved with humans than in other non-commensal pathogens. Epitope redundancy might be the link between pathogens and autoimmune disease. This article reviews recently published data and addresses epitope redundancy, the elephant in the room" for vaccine developers and T cell immunologists."

313) Zika virus outbreaks in the Americas.
Autor:
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Pathogenesis ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Releve? É?pide?miologique Hebdomadaire, v. 90, n. 45, p. 609-610, 2015
ISSN: 0049-8114
Resumo:

314) Pathophysiology and diagnosis of Guillain-Barré syndrome - challenges and needs.
Autor: Dash Sambit; Pai Aparna R.; Kamath Ullas; Rao Pragna
Assunto: Campylobacter jejuni, anti-ganglioside antibodies, autoimmunity, electrodiagnosis, molecular mimicry
Descritores: Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Biosynthesis ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Biochemistry ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Cytopathology ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Immune response ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Pathogenesis ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Antibodies ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Autoimmunity ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Molecular methods ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Molecular screening ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Epidemiology
Fonte: The International Journal of Neuroscience, v. 125, n. 4, p. 235-240, 2015
ISSN: 1563-5279
Resumo: Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) is an autoimmune polyneuropathy which presents with acute onset and rapid progression of flaccid, hyporeflexi quadriparesis. Both sensory and autonomic nerve involvement is seen. GBS has various subtypes that vary in their pathophysiology. The pathogenesis involves an immune response triggered by a preceding event which may be an infection, immunisation or surgical procedure. Clinical diagnosis has been largely the primary diagnosing criterion for GBS along with electrodiagnosis, which has several pitfalls and is supported by ancillary testing of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis and Nerve Conduction Studies. Measurement of anti-ganglioside antibodies is also an effective tool in its diagnosis. Further understanding of pathophysiology and better diagnostic methods are required for better management of GBS.

315) Lymphadenopathy in patients with Chikungunya virus infection imported from Hispaniola: Case reports
Autor: Norman Francesca F, Monge-Maillo Begoña, Perez-Molina Jose-Antonio, de Ory Fernando, Franco Leticia, Sánchez-Seco María-Paz, López-Vélez Rogelio
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Infectious diseases ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever
Fonte: Journal of Travel Medicine, v. 22, n. 4, p. 272-275, 2015
ISSN: 1708-8305
Resumo: Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is currently spreading in the Caribbean - America. Lymphadenopathy, described in infections with other alphaviruses, is not commonly reported in CHIKV infections. Painful lymphadenopathy was found in three of the first six CHIKV infections from the current outbreak diagnosed at a reference center in Madrid, Spain.

316) Mechanisms of distal axonal degeneration in peripheral neuropathies.
Autor: Cashman Christopher R.; Höke Ahmet
Assunto: Campylobacter jejuni, Chemotherapy induced peripheral neuropathy, Diabetes, Guillain-Barré syndrome, HIV neuropathy, Mechanisms of neuropathy, Mitochondrial aging, Peripheral neuropathy, Post-infectious neuropathy, Wld(S)
Descritores: Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Biosynthesis ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Cell ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Flaviviridae ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Pathogenesis ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Proteins ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Infectious diseases Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Inflammation Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Virus
Fonte: Neuroscience Letters, v. 596, p. 33-50, 2015
ISSN: 1872-7972
Resumo: Peripheral neuropathy is a common complication of a variety of diseases and treatments, including diabetes, cancer chemotherapy, and infectious causes (HIV, hepatitis C, and Campylobacter jejuni). Despite the fundamental difference between these insults, peripheral neuropathy develops as a combination of just six primary mechanisms: altered metabolism, covalent modification, altered organelle function and reactive oxygen species formation, altered intracellular and inflammatory signaling, slowed axonal transport, and altered ion channel dynamics and expression. All of these pathways converge to lead to axon dysfunction and symptoms of neuropathy. The detailed mechanisms of axon degeneration itself have begun to be elucidated with studies of animal models with altered degeneration kinetics, including the slowed Wallerian degeneration (Wld(S)) and Sarm knockout animal models. These studies have shown axonal degeneration to occur through a programmed pathway of injury signaling and cytoskeletal degradation. Insights into the common disease insults that converge on the axonal degeneration pathway promise to facilitate the development of therapeutics that may be effective against other mechanisms of neurodegeneration.

317) Risk factors for the presence of chikungunya and dengue vectors (Aedes aegypti - Aedes albopictus), their altitudinal distribution and climatic determinants of their abundance in central Nepal
Autor: Dhimal Meghnath, Gautam Ishan, Joshi Hari Datt, O'Hara Robert B, Ahrens Bodo, Kuch Ulrich
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Pathogenesis ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Transmission ; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever ; Chikungunya virus - Dengue ; Chikungunya virus - Public health
Fonte: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, v. 9, n. 3, p. e0003545, 2015
ISSN: 1935-2735
Resumo: The presence of the recently introduced primary dengue virus vector mosquito Aedes aegypti in Nepal, in association with the likely indigenous secondary vector Aedes albopictus, raises public health concerns. Chikungunya fever cases have also been reported in Nepal, - the virus causing this disease is also transmitted by these mosquito species. Here we report the results of a study on the risk factors for the presence of chikungunya - dengue virus vectors, their elevational ceiling of distribution, - climatic determinants of their abundance in central Nepal. We collected immature stages of mosquitoes during six monthly cross-sectional surveys covering six administrative districts along an altitudinal transect in central Nepal that extended from Birgunj (80 m above sea level [asl]) to Dhunche (highest altitude sampled: 2,100 m asl). The dengue vectors Ae. aegypti - Ae. albopictus were commonly found up to 1,350 m asl in Kathm-u valley - were present but rarely found from 1,750 to 2,100 m asl in Dhunche. The lymphatic filariasis vector Culex quinquefasciatus was commonly found throughout the study transect. Physiographic region, month of collection, collection station - container type were significant predictors of the occurrence - co-occurrence of Ae. aegypti - Ae. albopictus. The climatic variables rainfall, temperature, - relative humidity were significant predictors of chikungunya - dengue virus vectors abundance. We conclude that chikungunya - dengue virus vectors have already established their populations up to the High Mountain region of Nepal - that this may be attributed to the environmental - climate change that has been observed over the decades in Nepal. The rapid expansion of the distribution of these important disease vectors in the High Mountain region, previously considered to be non-endemic for dengue - chikungunya fever, calls for urgent actions to protect the health of local people - tourists travelling in the central Himalayas.

318) Similarities of serum anti-ganglioside antibodies in first and third episodes of recurrent Guillain-Barre syndrome: case report
Autor: Togawa Jumpei,Nakaoku Yuriko,Hagiwara Mai,Murakami Gaku,Mitsueda-Ono Takahiro,Ueno Rino,Kusunoki Susumu,Matsui Masaru
Assunto:
Descritores: Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Pathogenesis ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Proteins ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Antibodies ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Immunology
Fonte: Journal of Neurology, v. 262, n. 5, p. 1360-1362, 2015
ISSN: 1432-1459
Resumo:

319) The phosphatidylserine and phosphatidylethanolamine receptor CD300a binds Dengue virus and enhances infection
Autor: Carnec Xavier, Meertens Laurent, Dejarnac Ophélie, Perera-Lecoin Manuel, Hafirassou Mohamed Lamine, Kitaura Jiro, Ramdasi Rasika, Schwartz Olivier, Amara Ali
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Cell ; Chikungunya virus - Proteins ; Chikungunya virus - Antibodies ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Dengue
Fonte: Journal of Virology, v. 90, n. 1, p. 92-102, 2015
ISSN: 1098-5514
Resumo: Dengue virus (DENV) is the etiological agent of the major human arboviral disease. We previously demonstrated that the TIM - TAM families of phosphatidylserine (PtdSer) receptors involved in the phagocytosis of apoptotic cells mediate DENV entry into target cells. We show here that human CD300a, a recently identified phospholipid receptor, also binds directly DENV particles - enhances viral entry. CD300a facilitates infection of the four DENV serotypes, as well as of other mosquito-borne viruses such as West Nile virus - Chikungunya virus. CD300a acts as an attachment factor that enhances DENV internalization through clathrin-mediated endocytosis. CD300a recognizes predominantly phosphatidylethanolamine (PtdEth) - to a lesser extent PtdSer associated with viral particles. Mutation of residues in the IgV domain critical for phospholipid binding abrogate CD300a-mediated enhancement of DENV infection. Finally, we show that CD300a is expressed at the surface of primary macrophages - anti-CD300a polyclonal antibodies partially inhibited DENV infection of these cells. Overall, these data indicate that CD300a is a novel DENV binding receptor that recognizes PtdEth - PtdSer present on virions - enhance infection. Dengue disease, caused by dengue virus (DENV), has emerged as the most important mosquito-borne viral disease of humans - is a major global health concern. The molecular bases of DENV-host cell interactions during virus entry are poorly understood, hampering the discovery of new targets for antiviral intervention. We recently discovered that the TIM - TAM proteins, two receptor families involved in the phosphatidylserine (PtdSer)-dependent phagocytic removal of apoptotic cells, interact with DENV particles-associated PtdSer through a mechanism that mimics the recognition of apoptotic cells - mediate DENV infection. In this study, we show that CD300a, a novel identified phospholipid receptor, mediates DENV infection. CD300a-dependent DENV infection relies on the direct recognition of phosphatidylethanolamine - to a lesser extent PtdSer associated with viral particles. This study provides novel insights into the mechanisms that mediate DENV entry - reinforce the concept that DENV uses an apoptotic mimicry strategy for viral entry.

320) Hepatitis E and neuralgic amyotrophy: Five cases and review of literature.
Autor: Dartevel Anaïs; Colombe Barbara; Bosseray Annick; Larrat Sylvie; Sarrot-Reynauld Françoise; Belbezier Aude; Lagrange Emmeline; Bouillet Laurence
Assunto: Nervous system diseases, Neuralgic amyotrophy, Parsonage turner syndrome, Strong hepatitis E
Descritores: Guillain-Barre Syndrome - RNA ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Viral infections ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Virus
Fonte: Journal of Clinical Virology, v. 69, p. 156-164.
ISSN: 1873-5967
Resumo: Hepatitis E virus infection - mainly genotype 3 - is increasingly common in industrialized countries. Infection is usually asymptomatic, but cases of central or peripheral neurological symptoms with hepatitis E have been described. The most frequent is Guillain-Barre but somes cases of neuralgic amyotrophy have been described. In our center, since 2010, we have identified five cases of neuralgic amyotrophy associated with acute hepatitis E in immunocompetent patients. For all these patients, neuralgic amyotrophy was diagnosed with electromyogram and positive IgM for hepatitis E, and detectable HEV RNA in 4 of the cases. Including our patients, we count 26 cases in literature. The mean age of the patients was 44 years old, with a large predominance of males (88%). The disorder is bilateral and asymmetric in 69% of cases. Peripheral nerves other than the brachial plexus were affected in 6 patients (23%). In industrialized countries, any neuralgic amyotrophy, particularly if there is bilateral, asymmetric associated with involvement of nerves outside the brachial plexus, should lead physicians to consider a diagnosis of acute hepatitis E.

321) Sialic acid expression in the mosquito Aedes aegypti and its possible role in dengue virus-vector interactions
Autor: Cime-Castillo, Jorge; Delannoy, Philippe; Mendoza-Hernandez, Guillermo; Monroy-Martinez, Veronica; Harduin-Lepers, Anne; Lanz-Mendoza, Humberto; Hernandez-Hernandez, Fidel de la Cruz; Zenteno, Edgar; Cabello-Gutierrez, Carlos; Ruiz-Ordaz, Blanca H.
Assunto: Mosquitoes; Dengue fever; West Nile virus; Vector competence; Proteins; Pathogenesis; Infections; Biomedical research
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Viral infections ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue
Fonte: BioMed Research International, v. 2015, 2015.
ISSN: 2314-6133
Resumo: Dengue fever (DF) is the most prevalent arthropod-borne viral disease which affects humans. DF is caused by the four dengue virus (DENV) serotypes, which are transmitted to the host by the mosquito Aedes aegypti that has key roles in DENV infection, replication, and viral transmission (vector competence). Mosquito saliva also plays an important role during DENV transmission. In this study, we detected the presence of sialic acid (Sia) in Aedes aegypti tissues, which may have an important role during DENV-vector competence. We also identified genome sequences encoding enzymes involved in Sia pathways. The cDNA for Aedes aegypti CMP-Sia synthase (CSAS) was amplified, cloned, and functionally evaluated via the complementation of LEC29.Lec32 CSAS-deficient CHO cells. Aedes CSAS-transfected LEC29.Lec32 cells were able to express Sia moieties on the cell surface. Sequences related to alpha -2,6-sialyltransferase were detected in the Aedes aegypti genome. Likewise, we identified Sia- alpha -2,6-DENV interactions in different mosquito tissues. In addition, we evaluated the possible role of sialylated molecules in a salivary gland extract during DENV internalization in mammalian cells. The knowledge of early DENV-host interactions could facilitate a better understanding of viral tropism and pathogenesis to allow the development of new strategies for controlling DENV transmission.

322) Post-Traumatic brain injury (TBI) presenting with Guillain-Barré syndrome and elevated anti-ganglioside antibodies: a case report and review of the literature.
Autor: Carr Kevin R.; Shah Manan; Garvin Rachel; Shakir Ahmed; Jackson Carlayne
Assunto: AIDP, anti-ganglioside antibodies, guillain-Barré syndrome, trauma
Descritores: Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Antibodies
Fonte: The International Journal of Neuroscience, n. 125, n. 7, p. 486-492, 2015
ISSN: 1563-5279
Resumo: Guillain-Barré Syndrome (GBS) is a demyelinating polyneuropathy resulting in sensory, motor and autonomic symptoms. The severity of the disease can range from mild to severe but it is classically described as an ascending demyelinating process. Initially thought to be the sequelae of a bacterial or viral infection, the clinical symptoms of post-infective GBS can present up to 4 weeks after sentinel injury. A rarely defined post-surgical GBS has been since described after major cranial, cardiothoracic and gastro-intestinal surgery. Post traumatic GBS is an even more unusual presentation with very few cases reported in contemporary academic literature. We present a case of GBS presenting two weeks after non-operative traumatic brain injury (TBI) and a review of the literature.

323) High rate of subclinical Chikungunya virus infection and association of neutralizing antibody with protection in a prospective cohort in the Philippines
Autor: Yoon In-Kyu, Alera Maria Theresa, Lago Catherine B, Tac-An Ilya A, Villa Daisy, Fernandez Stefan, Thaisomboonsuk Butsaya, Klungthong Chonticha, Levy Jens W, Velasco John Mark, Roque Vito G, Salje Henrik, Macareo Louis R, Hermann Laura L, Nisalak Ananda, Srikiatkhachorn Anon
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Arbovirus ; Chikungunya virus - Molecular structure ; Chikungunya virus - Pathogenesis ; Chikungunya virus - Proteins ; Chikungunya virus - RNA ; Chikungunya virus - Antibodies ; Chikungunya virus - Infectious diseases ; Chikungunya virus - Serology ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya virus - Serology ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Transmission ; Chikungunya virus - Vaccine ; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever ; Chikungunya virus - Epidemiology ; Chikungunya virus - Immunology ; Chikungunya virus - Public health
Fonte: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, v. 9, n. 5, p. e0003764, 2015
ISSN: 1935-2735
Resumo: Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a globally re-emerging arbovirus for which previous studies have indicated the majority of infections result in symptomatic febrile illness. We sought to characterize the proportion of subclinical - symptomatic CHIKV infections in a prospective cohort study in a country with known CHIKV circulation. A prospective longitudinal cohort of subjects ?6 months old underwent community-based active surveillance for acute febrile illness in Cebu City, Philippines from 2012-13. Subjects with fever history were clinically evaluated at acute, 2, 5, - 8 day visits, - at a 3-week convalescent visit. Blood was collected at the acute - 3-week convalescent visits. Symptomatic CHIKV infections were identified by positive CHIKV PCR in acute blood samples -/or CHIKV IgM/IgG ELISA seroconversion in paired acute/convalescent samples. Enrollment - 12-month blood samples underwent plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT) using CHIKV attenuated strain 181/clone25. Subclinical CHIKV infections were identified by ?8-fold rise from a baseline enrollment PRNT titer <10 without symptomatic infection detected during the intervening surveillance period. Selected CHIKV PCR-positive samples underwent viral isolation - envelope protein-1 gene sequencing. Of 853 subjects who completed all study procedures at 12 months, 19 symptomatic infections (2.19 per 100 person-years) - 87 subclinical infections (10.03 per 100 person-years) occurred. The ratio of subclinical-to-symptomatic infections was 4.6:1 varying with age from 2:1 in 6 month-5 year olds to 12:1 in those >50 years old. Baseline CHIKV PRNT titer ?10 was associated with 100% (95%CI: 46.1, 100.0) protection from symptomatic CHIKV infection. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated Asian genotype closely related to strains from Asia - the Caribbean. Subclinical infections accounted for a majority of total CHIKV infections. A positive baseline CHIKV PRNT titer was associated with protection from symptomatic CHIKV infection. These findings have implications for assessing disease burden, underst-ing virus transmission, - supporting vaccine development.

324) Post-Licensure Surveillance of Trivalent Live-Attenuated Influenza Vaccine in Children Aged 2-18 Years, Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System, United States, July 2005-June 2012.
Autor: Haber Penina.; Moro Pedro L.; Cano Maria,; Vellozzi Claudia; Lewis Paige; Woo Emily Jane; Broder Karen
Assunto: live-attenuated influenza, postmarketing surveillance, vaccine, vaccine safety
Descritores: Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Infectious diseases ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Vaccine ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Epidemiology
Fonte: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society, v. 4, n. 3, p. 205-213, 2015
ISSN: 2048-7207
Resumo: The first trivalent live-attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV3) was licensed in 2003 for use in healthy persons 5-49 years of age. In 2007, the US Food and Drug Administration expanded its indication to healthy children 2-4 years of age. We searched the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS) for US reports after LAIV3 from July 1, 2005 to June 30, 2012 in children aged 2-18 years. Medical records were requested for nonmanufacturer reports coded as serious (ie, death, hospitalization, prolonged hospitalization, life-threatening illness, disability). We characterized electronic data and clinically reviewed all serious reports and reports of special interest. Empirical Bayesian data mining was used to identify new or unexpected adverse events (AEs). During the study period, VAERS received 2619 US LAIV3 reports for children aged 2-18 years; 197 (7.5%) reports were serious, including 5 deaths. The 2 most frequent nonfatal serious reports involved neurological and respiratory systems, with 56 (29.2%) and 43 (22.4%) reports, respectively. The most frequent neurological diagnoses were seizures and Guillain-Barré Syndrome, and the most frequent respiratory conditions were pneumonia and asthma or reactive airway disease. Data mining showed increased proportions for reports of medication errors, most commonly vaccine administration errors not associated with an AE. In this VAERS analysis of reports following LAIV3, we found no new or unexpected AEs patterns. Reports of LAIV3 administration to persons, for whom it is not recommended, including children with a history of asthma or reactive airway disease or wheezing, indicate that ongoing monitoring and education in vaccine indications are needed.

325) A neuron-specific antiviral mechanism prevents lethal flaviviral infection of mosquitoes
Autor: Xiao, Xiaoping; Zhang, Rudian; Pang, Xiaojing; Liang, Guodong; Wang, Penghua; Cheng, Gong
Assunto: West nile - Virus; Mannose - Binding lectin; Quinquefasciatus diptera - Culicidae; Culex ?Pipiens - Quinquefasciatus; Aedes aegypti - Mosquitos; Surfactant protein D; Dengue - Virus; RNA interference; Sindbis virus; Hikaru - Genki
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - RNA ; Aedes aegypti - Viral infections ; Aedes aegypti - virus ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Plos Pathogens, v. 11, n. 4, 2015
ISSN: 1553-7366
Resumo: Mosquitoes are natural vectors for many etiologic agents of human viral diseases. Mosquito-borne flaviviruses can persistently infect the mosquito central nervous system without causing dramatic pathology or influencing the mosquito behavior and lifespan. The mechanism by which the mosquito nervous system resists flaviviral infection is still largely unknown. Here we report that an Aedes aegypti homologue of the neural factor Hikaru genki (AaHig) efficiently restricts flavivirus infection of the central nervous system. AaHig was predominantly expressed in the mosquito nervous system and localized to the plasma membrane of neural cells. Functional blockade of AaHig enhanced Dengue virus (DENV) and Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), but not Sindbis virus (SINV), replication in mosquito heads and consequently caused neural apoptosis and a dramatic reduction in the mosquito lifespan. Consistently, delivery of recombinant AaHig to mosquitoes reduced viral infection. Furthermore, the membrane-localized AaHig directly interfaced with a highly conserved motif in the surface envelope proteins of DENV and JEV, and consequently interrupted endocytic viral entry into mosquito cells. Loss of either plasma membrane targeting or virion-binding ability rendered AaHig nonfunctional. Interestingly, Culex pipien pallens Hig also demonstrated a prominent anti-flavivirus activity, suggesting a functionally conserved function for Hig. Our results demonstrate that an evolutionarily conserved antiviral mechanism prevents lethal flaviviral infection of the central nervous system in mosquitoes, and thus may facilitate flaviviral transmission in nature.

326) Guillain-Barré syndrome.
Autor: Ansar Vibhuti; Valadi Nojan
Assunto: Acute inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (AIDP), Acute motor axonal neuropathy, Demyelinating syndrome, Guillain-Barré syndrome, Miller Fisher syndrome
Descritores: Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Antibodies
Fonte: Primary Care, v. 42, n. 2, p. 189-193, 2015
ISSN: 1558-299X
Resumo: Guillain-Barré syndrome and its clinical variants are a group of rapidly progressing, potentially debilitating neurologic disorders that may have significant morbidity/mortality if left unrecognized or untreated. The most common symptoms include ascending limb weakness and paralysis, which may progress to respiratory failure. Diagnosis is made clinically with laboratory testing. Several treatment options exist, including plasma exchange and intravenous immunoglobulin administration. Most cases may resolve without sequelae, but those that do not may leave behind significant persistent debility.

327) Spatio-temporal distribution of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) mitochondrial lineages in cities with distinct dengue incidence rates suggests complex population dynamics of the dengue vector in Colombia
Autor: Jaimes-Dueñez Jeiczon, Arboleda Sair, Triana-Chávez Omar, Gómez-Palacio Andrés
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Biosynthesis ; Chikungunya virus - DNA ; Chikungunya virus - Flaviviridae ; Chikungunya virus - Molecular structure ; Chikungunya virus - Pathogenesis ; Chikungunya virus - Proteins ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya virus - Molecular methods ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Transmission ; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever ; Chikungunya virus - Dengue ; Chikungunya virus - Epidemiology ; Chikungunya virus - Public health
Fonte: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, v. 9, n. 4, p. e0003553, 2015
ISSN: 1935-2735
Resumo: Aedes aegypti is the primary vector of the four serotypes of dengue virus (DENV1-4), Chikungunya - yellow fever virus to humans. Previous population genetic studies have revealed a particular genetic structure among the vector populations in the Americas that suggests differences in the ability to transmit DENV. In Colombia, despite its high epidemiologic importance, the genetic population structure - the phylogeographic depiction of Ae. aegypti, as well as its relationship with the epidemiologic l-scapes in cities with heterogeneous incidence levels, remains unknown. We conducted a spatiotemporal analysis with the aim of determining the genetic structure - phylogeography of Colombian populations of Ae. aegypti among cities with different eco-epidemiologic characteristics with regard to DENV. Mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase C subunit 1 (COI)--NADH dehydrogenase subunit 4 (ND4) genes were sequenced - analyzed from 341 adult mosquitoes collected during 2012 - 2013 in the Colombian cities of Bello, Riohacha - Villavicencio, which exhibit low, medium - high levels of incidence of DENV, respectively. The results demonstrated a low genetic differentiation over time - a high genetic structure between the cities due to changes in the frequency of two highly supported genetic groups. The phylogeographic analyses indicated that one group (associated with West African populations) was found in all the cities throughout the sampling while the second group (associated with East African populations) was found in all the samples from Bello - in only one sampling from Riohacha. Environmental factors such as the use of chemical insecticides showed a significant correlation with decreasing genetic diversity, indicating that environmental factors affect the population structure of Ae. aegypti across time - space in these cities. Our results suggest that two Ae. aegypti lineages are present in Colombia; one that is widespread - related to a West African conspecific, - a second that may have been recently introduced - is related to an East African conspecific. The first lineage can be found in cities showing a high incidence of dengue fever - the use of chemical insecticides, whereas the second is present in cities showing a low incidence of dengue fever where the use of chemical insecticides is not constant. This study helps to improve our knowledge of the population structure of Ae. aegypti involved in the diversity of dengue fever epidemiology in Colombia.

328) Toll-like receptors recognize distinct proteinase-resistant glycoconjugates in Campylobacter jejuni and Escherichia coli
Autor: Phongsisay Vongsavanh,Hara Hiromitsu,Fujimoto Shuji
Assunto: Campylobacter jejuni; Inflammation; Toll-like receptors
Descritores: Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Biosynthesis ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Cytopathology ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Pathogenesis ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Proteins ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Cytokines ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Inflammation ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Molecular screening ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Immunology
Fonte: Molecular Immunology, v. 64, n. 1, p. 195-203, 2015
ISSN: 1872-9142
Resumo: Campylobacter jejuni causes gastroenteritis and autoimmune neuropathy Guillain-Barré syndrome. The mechanism by which C. jejuni infection results in such the hyperimmunity is not completely understood. Host immunity plays an important role in the disease pathogenesis; however, little is known how immune system recognizes this human pathogen. In this study, we report that Toll-like receptors recognize distinct proteinase K-resistant glycoconjugates in C. jejuni and Escherichia coli. Lipopolysaccharide is solely proteinase-resistant glycoconjugate in E. coli. In contrast, C. jejuni possesses at least five different components that are resistant to proteinase digestion and are capable of inducing NF-?B activation through TLR2 and TLR4. Possession of multiple activators of Toll-like receptors may be the unique strategy of C. jejuni to trigger hyperimmunity.

329) Present and future projections of habitat suitability of the Asian tiger mosquito, a vector of viral pathogens, from global climate simulation
Autor: Proestos Y, Christophides G K, Ergüler K, Tanarhte M, Waldock J, Lelieveld J
Assunto: Aedes albopictus; Climate change; Global climate modelling; Habitat suitability; Vector distribution model; Vector-borne diseases
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Pathogenesis ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Transmission ; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever ; Chikungunya virus - Dengue ; Chikungunya virus - Public health
Fonte: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, v. 370, n. 1665, 2015
ISSN: 1471-2970
Resumo: Climate change can influence the transmission of vector-borne diseases (VBDs) through altering the habitat suitability of insect vectors. Here we present global climate model simulations - evaluate the associated uncertainties in view of the main meteorological factors that may affect the distribution of the Asian tiger mosquito (Aedes albopictus), which can transmit pathogens that cause chikungunya, dengue fever, yellow fever - various encephalitides. Using a general circulation model at 50 km horizontal resolution to simulate mosquito survival variables including temperature, precipitation - relative humidity, we present both global - regional projections of the habitat suitability up to the middle of the twenty-first century. The model resolution of 50 km allows evaluation against previous projections for Europe - provides a basis for comparative analyses with other regions. Model uncertainties - performance are addressed in light of the recent CMIP5 ensemble climate model simulations for the RCP8.5 concentration pathway - using meteorological re-analysis data (ERA-Interim/ECMWF) for the recent past. Uncertainty ranges associated with the thresholds of meteorological variables that may affect the distribution of Ae. albopictus are diagnosed using fuzzy-logic methodology, notably to assess the influence of selected meteorological criteria - combinations of criteria that influence mosquito habitat suitability. From the climate projections for 2050, - adopting a habitat suitability index larger than 70%, we estimate that approximately 2.4 billion individuals in a l- area of nearly 20 million km(2) will potentially be exposed to Ae. albopictus. The synthesis of fuzzy-logic based on mosquito biology - climate change analysis provides new insights into the regional - global spreading of VBDs to support disease control - policy making.

330) Peptide motif analysis predicts alphaviruses as triggers for rheumatoid arthritis.
Autor: Hogeboom Charissa
Assunto: Alphavirus, HLA DRB1, Molecular mimicry, Rheumatoid arthritis (RA), STAT1 inhibition, Shared epitope
Descritores: Guillain-Barre Syndrome - T lymphocytes
Fonte: Molecular Immunology, v. 68, p. 465-475, 2015
ISSN: 1872-9142
Resumo: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) develops in response to both genetic and environmental factors. The strongest genetic determinant is HLA-DR, where polymorphisms within the P4 and P6 binding pockets confer elevated risk. However, low disease concordance across monozygotic twin pairs underscores the importance of an environmental factor, probably infectious. The goal of this investigation was to predict the microorganism most likely to interact with HLA-DR to trigger RA under the molecular mimicry hypothesis. A set of 185 structural proteins from viruses or intracellular bacteria was scanned for regions of sequence homology with a collagen peptide that binds preferentially to DR4; candidates were then evaluated against a motif required for T cell cross-reactivity. The plausibility of the predicted agent was evaluated by comparison of microbial prevalence patterns to epidemiological characteristics of RA. Peptides from alphavirus capsid proteins provided the closest fit. Variations in the P6 position suggest that the HLA binding preference may vary by species, with Ross River virus, Chikungunya virus, and Mayaro virus peptides binding preferentially to DR4, and peptides from Sindbis/Ockelbo virus showing stronger affinity to DR1. The predicted HLA preference is supported by epidemiological studies of post-infection chronic arthralgia. Parallels between the cytokine profiles of RA and chronic alphavirus infection are discussed.

331) Anticipating the international spread of Zika virus from Brazil
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Bogoch I.I., Brady O.J., Kraemer M.U.G., German M., Creatore M.I., Kulkarni M.A., Brownstein J.S., Mekaru S.R., Hay S.I., Groot E., Watts A., Khan K.
Assunto: virus
Descritores: Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: The Lancet, v. 387, n. 10016, p. 335–336, 2015
ISSN: 1474-547X (electronic),0140-6736
Resumo:

332) Immune-mediated neuropathy with Epstein-Barr virus-positive T-cell lymphoproliferative disease.
Autor: Hattori Takaaki; Arai Ayako; Yokota Takanori; Imadome Ken-Ichi; Tomimitsu Hiroyuki; Miura Osamu; Mizusawa Hidehiro
Assunto:
Descritores: Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Cell ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Pathogenesis ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Proteins ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Viral infections ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Virus
Fonte: Internal Medicine, v. 54, n. 1, p. 69-73, 2015
ISSN: 1349-7235
Resumo: A 47-year-old man with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-positive T/NK- cell lymphoproliferative disease (EBV-T/NK-LPD) developed acute-onset weakness. A nerve conduction study showed a conduction block in both the proximal and most distal segments. Although the patient's neuropathy transiently responded to intravenous immunoglobulin, it was progressive for at least 25 days until the start of prednisolone (PSL) administration, after which it remarkably improved. The neuropathy further improved after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (BMT). The present patient's clinical course is not consistent with that of typical Guillain-Barré syndrome. This case suggests that EBV-T/NK-LPD can cause progressive immune-mediated neuropathy as a result of chronic EBV antigen presentation and can be treated with PSL and BMT.

333) Chikungunya: bmerging threat to the United States
Autor: Stamm Lola V
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Pathogenesis ; Chikungunya virus - Infectious diseases ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Transmission ; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever ; Chikungunya virus - Epidemiology ; Chikungunya virus - Public health
Fonte: JAMA Dermatology, v. 151, n. 3, p. 257-258, 2015
ISSN: 2168-6084
Resumo:

334) Indications for IVIG in rheumatic diseases.
Autor: Mulhearn Ben; Bruce Ian N.
Assunto: IVIG, Kawasaki disease, intravenous immunoglobulin, lupus, myopathy, myositis, review, rheumatic disease, vasculitis
Descritores: Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Proteins ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Antibodies ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Inflammation ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Epidemiology
Fonte: Rheumatology, v. 54, n. 3, p. 383-391, 2015
ISSN: 1462-0332
Resumo: The use of IVIG to treat a wide variety of immune-driven diseases has grown rapidly, although the mechanism of action is not completely understood. Increasing demand for IVIG coupled with concerns regarding potential transmissible agents has led to worldwide suply shortages. National agencies have therefore produced guidelines for its use, with the latest England and Wales guideline being published in 2011. Due to the rarity of the rheumatic diseases, the evidence for IVIG use has been shown to be lacking in some areas and promising in others. Conditions in which IVIG has been shown to have benefit include ITP, Guillain-Barré syndrome and chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy occurring in the context of rheumatic disease, as well as in SLE, idiopathic inflammatory myopathies and ANCA-associated vasculitides. This review looks at current IVIG use and is designed to be an aid for rheumatologists when considering the use of IVIG in clinical practice.

335) Persistence of anti-chikungunya virus-specific antibodies in a cohort of patients followed from the acute phase of infection after the 2007 outbreak in Italy
Autor: Pierro A, Rossini G, Gaibani P, Finarelli A C, Moro M L, Landini M P, Sambri V
Assunto: Antibody Response; Italy; Chikungunya virus; Infected patients; Serological follow-up
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Antibodies ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Public health
Fonte: New Microbes and New Infections, v. 7, p. 23-25, 2015
ISSN: 2052-2975
Resumo: Chikungunya is a mosquito-borne infection of humans, - its diffusion has increased worldwide. In 2007 an outbreak occurred in Italy. In this study, the antibody response of 133 patients followed up starting from the acute phase of infection was investigated. Antibody titres were periodically scored up to 1 year since the infection: 82.7% of the IgM antibody disappeared within 12 months, - the IgG response lasted longer than 12 months. Nevertheless, the IgG mean titre was lower in 95.5% of patients at the end of follow-up, thus suggesting a decrease within a relatively short period.

336) Visual Detection of Human Antibodies Using Sugar Chain-Immobilized Fluorescent Nanoparticles: Application as a Point of Care Diagnostic Tool for Guillain-Barré Syndrome
Autor: Shinchi Hiroyuki,Yuki Nobuhiro,Ishida Hideharu,Hirata Koichi,Wakao Masahiro,Suda Yasuo
Assunto:
Descritores: Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Antibodies
Fonte: PloS One, v. 10, n. 9, p. e0137966 (1-14), 2015
ISSN: 1932-6203
Resumo: Sugar chain binding antibodies have gained substantial attention as biomarkers due to their crucial roles in various disorders. In this study, we developed simple and quick detection method of anti-sugar chain antibodies in sera using our previously developed sugar chain-immobilized fluorescent nanoparticles (SFNPs) for the point-of-care diagnostics. Sugar chain structure on SFNPs was modified with the sugar moieties of the GM1 ganglioside via our original linker molecule to detect anti-GM1 antibodies. The structures and densities of the sugar moieties immobilized on the nanoparticles were evaluated in detail using lectins and sera containing anti-GM1 antibodies from patients with Guillain-Barré syndrome, a neurological disorder, as an example of disease involving anti-sugar chain antibodies. When optimized SFNPs were added to sera from patients with Guillain-Barré syndrome, fluorescent aggregates were able to visually detect under UV light in three hours. The sensitivity of the detection method was equivalent to that of the current ELISA method used for the diagnosis of Guillain-Barré syndrome. These results suggest that our method using SFNPs is suitable for the point-of-care diagnostics of diseases involving anti-sugar chain antibodies.

337) The global compendium of Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus occurrence
Autor: Kraemer Moritz U G, Sinka Marianne E, Duda Kirsten A, Mylne Adrian, Shearer Freya M, Brady Oliver J, Messina Jane P, Barker Christopher M, Moore Chester G, Carvalho Roberta G, Coelho Giovanini E, Van Bortel Wim, Hendrickx Guy, Schaffner Francis, Wint G R William, Elyazar Iqbal R F, Teng Hwa-Jen, Hay Simon I
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Cytopathology ; Chikungunya virus - Flaviviridae ; Chikungunya virus - Pathogenesis ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Transmission ; Chikungunya virus - Vaccine ; Chikungunya virus - Dengue ; Chikungunya virus - Epidemiology ; Chikungunya virus - Immunology ; Chikungunya virus - Public health
Fonte: Scientific Data, v. 2, p. 150035, 2015
ISSN: 2052-4463
Resumo: Aedes aegypti - Ae. albopictus are the main vectors transmitting dengue - chikungunya viruses. Despite being pathogens of global public health importance, knowledge of their vectors' global distribution remains patchy - sparse. A global geographic database of known occurrences of Ae. aegypti - Ae. albopictus between 1960 - 2014 was compiled. Herein we present the database, which comprises occurrence data linked to point or polygon locations, derived from peer-reviewed literature - unpublished studies including national entomological surveys - expert networks. We describe all data collection processes, as well as geo-positioning methods, database management - quality-control procedures. This is the first comprehensive global database of Ae. aegypti - Ae. albopictus occurrence, consisting of 19,930 - 22,137 geo-positioned occurrence records respectively. Both datasets can be used for a variety of mapping - spatial analyses of the vectors -, by inference, the diseases they transmit.

338) Serum cytokine and chemokine profiles in patients with chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy
Autor: Beppu Minako,Sawai Setsu,Misawa Sonoko,Sogawa Kazuyuki,Mori Masahiro,Ishige Takayuki,Satoh Mamoru,Nomura Fumio,Kuwabara Satoshi
Assunto: Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy; Cytokine; HGF; IL-1?; MIP-1?; MIP-1?; TNF-?
Descritores: Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Proteins ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Cytokines ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Molecular screening
Fonte: Journal of Neuroimmunology, v. 279, p. 7-10, 2015
ISSN: 1872-8421
Resumo: To identify serum cytokine networks specific to chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP), serum samples of two subgroups (18 patients with typical CIDP and 12 patients with multifocal acquired demyelinating sensory and motor neuropathy [MADSAM]) were analyzed with multiplex magnetic bead-based cytokine assay. TNF-?, HGF, MIP-1? and IL-1? levels were significantly higher in total CIDP patients than in normal controls. Of these, HGF levels were elevated in typical CIDP patients, but not in MADSAM patients. Patients with high HGF levels showed good responses to steroid treatment. Different cytokine profiles among the CIDP subtypes presumably reflect differences in pathophysiology.

339) The microbiome modulates arbovirus transmission in mosquitoes
Autor: Hegde Shivanand, Rasgon Jason L, Hughes Grant L
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Arbovirus ; Chikungunya virus - Cytopathology ; Chikungunya virus - Infectious diseases ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Transmission ; Chikungunya virus - Dengue ; Chikungunya virus - Public health
Fonte: Current Opinion in Virology, v. 15, p. 97-102, 2015
ISSN: 1879-6265
Resumo: Mosquito-transmitted arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) such as dengue virus, chikungunya virus, - West Nile virus constitute a major public health burden - are increasing in severity - frequency worldwide. The microbiota associated with mosquitoes (comprised of viruses, bacteria, fungi - protozoa) can profoundly influence many host phenotypes including vector competence, which can either be enhanced or suppressed. Thus, the tripartite interactions between the mosquito vector, its microbiota - the pathogens they transmit offer novel possibilities to control arthropod-borne diseases.

340) Guillain-Barré syndrome: report of two rare clinical cases occurring after allergenic bone grafting in oral maxillofacial surgery.
Autor: Cicciù Marco; Herford Alan Scott; Bramanti Ennio; Maiorana Carlo
Assunto: Guillaine-Barré Syndrome, allogeneic-banked freeze-dried bone, oral surgery
Descritores: Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Cytopathology ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Viral infections
Fonte: International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Pathology, v. 8, n. 6, p. 7614-7616, 2015
ISSN: 1936-2625
Resumo: Guillaine-Barré Syndrome (GBS), also known as post-infectious polyneuropathy or acute idiopathic polyneuritis, is an infrequent disorder of the peripheral nervous system. The cause of GBS is unknown. It has been associated in the past with microbial infections, vaccinations, surgical procedures and debilitation of the patient. The classic signs of GBS occurring in the two patients being reported here are muscle weakness, motor and sensory impairment and ascending paralysis with respiratory involvement. The documented cases involved GBS syndrome following oral and maxillofacial surgery in which allogeneic-banked freeze-dried bone have been utilized along with autogenous grafting. There were no incidents of viral infection, vaccination or the other prodromal incidents involved in these cases. It is believed that the description of these two cases would be of interest in that it may stimulate the reporting of similar anecdotal occurrences by other surgeons. Both patients fully recovered from the GBS and are presently alive and well.

341) Syndromic approach to arboviral diagnostics for global travelers as a basis for infectious disease surveillance
Autor: Cleton Natalie B, Reusken Chantal B E M, Wagenaar Jiri F P, van der Vaart Elske E, Reimerink Johan, van der Eijk Annemiek A, Koopmans Marion P G
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Arbovirus ; Chikungunya virus - Infectious diseases ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Dengue ; Chikungunya virus - Public health
Fonte: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, v. 9, n. 9, p. e0004073, 2015
ISSN: 1935-2735
Resumo: Arboviruses have overlapping geographical distributions - can cause symptoms that coincide with more common infections. Therefore, arbovirus infections are often neglected by travel diagnostics. Here, we assessed the potential of syndrome-based approaches for diagnosis - surveillance of neglected arboviral diseases in returning travelers. To map the patients high at risk of missed clinical arboviral infections we compared the quantity of all arboviral diagnostic requests by physicians in the Netherl-s, from 2009 through 2013, with a literature-based assessment of the travelers' likely exposure to an arbovirus. 2153 patients, with travel - clinical history were evaluated. The diagnostic assay for dengue virus (DENV) was the most commonly requested (86%). Of travelers returning from Southeast Asia with symptoms compatible with chikungunya virus (CHIKV), only 55% were tested. For travelers in Europe, arbovirus diagnostics were rarely requested. Over all, diagnostics for most arboviruses were requested only on severe clinical presentation. Travel destination - syndrome were used inconsistently for triage of diagnostics, likely resulting in vast under-diagnosis of arboviral infections of public health significance. This study shows the need for more awareness among physicians - st-ardization of syndromic diagnostic algorithms.

342) Intravenous immunoglobulin in neurology--mode of action and clinical efficacy.
Autor: Lünemann Jan D.; Nimmerjahn Falk; Dalakas Marinos C.
Assunto:
Descritores: Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Biosynthesis ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Proteins ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Antibodies ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Immunology ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Public health
Fonte: Nature Reviews, v. 11, n. 2, p. 80-89, 2015
ISSN: 1759-4766
Resumo: Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg)-a preparation of polyclonal serum IgG pooled from thousands of blood donors-has been used for nearly three decades, and is proving to be an efficient anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory treatment for a growing number of neurological diseases. Evidence from controlled clinical trials has established IVIg as a first-line therapy for Guillain-Barré syndrome, chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy and multifocal motor neuropathy. IVIg is also an effective rescue therapy in some patients with worsening myasthenia gravis, and is beneficial as a second-line therapy for dermatomyositis and stiff-person syndrome. IVIg has been tested in some neurodegenerative disorders, but a controlled study in Alzheimer disease yielded disappointing results. Despite its widespread use and therapeutic success, the mechanisms of action of IVIg are poorly understood. Several hypotheses, based on the function of either the variable or constant IgG fragments, have been proposed to explain IVIg's immunomodulatory activity. This Review highlights emerging data on the mechanisms of action of IVIg related to its anti-inflammatory activity, especially that involving the cellular Fc? receptors and Fc glycosylation. We also summarize recent trials in neurological diseases, discuss potential biomarkers of efficacy, offer practical guidelines on administration, and provide a rationale for experimental trials in neuroinflammatory disorders.

343) Chikungunya, the emerging migratory rheumatism
Autor: Javelle Emilie, Gautret Philippe, Simon Fabrice
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Pathogenesis ; Chikungunya virus - Infectious diseases ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus
Fonte: The Lancet. Infectious Diseases, v. 15, n. 5, p. 509-510, 2015
ISSN: 1474-4457
Resumo:

344) Pharmacological treatment for pain in Guillain-Barré syndrome.
Autor: Liu Jia,Wang Lu-Ning; McNicol Ewan D.
Assunto:
Descritores: Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Pathogenesis ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Proteins ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Antibodies ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Clinical examination ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Public health
Fonte: The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, v. 4, 2015
ISSN: 1469-493X
Resumo: Pain in Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) is common, yet it is often under recognised and poorly managed. In recent years, a variety of pharmacological treatment options have been investigated in clinical trials for people with GBS-associated pain. This is an updated version of the original Cochrane review published in Issue 10, 2013. To assess the efficacy and safety of pharmacological treatments for various pain symptoms associated with GBS, during both the acute and convalescent (three months or more after onset) phases of GBS. On 3 November 2014, we searched the Cochrane Neuromuscular Disease Group Specialized Register, CENTRAL, MEDLINE and EMBASE. In addition, we searched ClinicalTrials.gov and the World Health Organization (WHO) International Clinical Trials Registry Platform. We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and quasi-RCTs in participants with confirmed GBS, with pain assessment as either the primary or secondary outcome. For cross-over trials, an adequate washout period between phases was required for inclusion. Two review authors independently screened the titles and abstracts of identified records, selected studies for inclusion, extracted eligible data, cross-checked the data for accuracy and assessed the risk of bias of each study. Three short-term RCTs, which enrolled 277 randomised participants with acute phase GBS, were included. Risk of bias in the included studies was generally unclear due to insufficient information. None of the included studies reported the primary outcome selected for this review, which was number of patients with self reported pain relief of 50% or greater. One small study investigated seven-day regimens of gabapentin versus placebo. Pain was rated on a scale from 0 (no pain) to 10 (maximum pain). Amongst the 18 participants, significantly lower mean pain scores were found at the endpoint (day 7) in the gabapentin phase compared to the endpoint of the placebo phase (mean difference -3.61, 95% CI -4.12 to -3.10) (very low quality evidence). For adverse events, no significant differences were found in the incidence of nausea (risk ratio (RR) 0.50, 95% CI 0.05 to 5.04) or constipation (RR 0.14, 95% CI 0.01 to 2.54). A second study enrolling 36 participants compared gabapentin, carbamazepine and placebo, all administered over seven days. Participants in the gabapentin group had significantly lower median pain scores on all treatment days in comparison to the placebo and carbamazepine groups (P < 0.05). There were no statistically significant differences in the median pain scores between the carbamazepine and placebo groups from day 1 to day 3, but from day 4 until the end of the study significantly lower median pain scores were noted in the carbamazepine group (P < 0.05) (very low quality evidence). There were no adverse effects of gabapentin or carbamazepine reported, other than sedation. One large RCT (223 participants, all also treated with intravenous immunoglobulin), compared a five-day course of methylprednisolone with placebo and found no statistically significant differences in number of participants developing pain (RR 0.89, 95% CI 0.68 to 1.16), number of participants with decreased pain (RR 0.95, 95% CI 0.63 to 1.42) or number of participants with increased pain (RR 0.85, 95% CI 0.52 to 1.41) (low quality evidence). The study did not report whether there were any adverse events. Since the last version of this review we found no new studies. While management of pain in GBS is essential and pharmacotherapy is widely accepted as being an important component of treatment, this review does not provide sufficient evidence to support the use of any pharmacological intervention in people with pain in GBS. Although reductions in pain severity were found when comparing gabapentin and carbamazepine with placebo, the evidence was limited and its quality very low. Larger, well-designed RCTs are required to further investigate the efficacy and safety of potential interventions for patients with pain in GBS. Additionally, interventions for pain in the convalescent phase of GBS should be investigated.

345) The global virus network: Challenging chikungunya
Autor: McSweegan Edward, Weaver Scott C, Lecuit Marc, Frieman Matthew, Morrison Thomas E, Hrynkow Sharon
Assunto: Arbovirus; Chikungunya; Emerging virus; Global Virus Network; Vector-borne
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Arbovirus ; Chikungunya virus - Infectious diseases ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Vaccine ; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever ; Chikungunya virus - Epidemic ; Chikungunya virus - Epidemiology ; Chikungunya virus - Immunology ; Chikungunya virus - Public health
Fonte: Antiviral Research, v. 120, p. 147-152, 2015
ISSN: 1872-9096
Resumo: The recent spread of chikungunya virus to the Western Hemisphere, together with the ongoing Ebola epidemic in West Africa, have highlighted the importance of international collaboration in the detection - management of disease outbreaks. In response to this need, the Global Virus Network (GVN) was formed in 2011. The GVN is a coalition of leading medical virologists in 34 affiliated laboratories in 24 countries, who collaborate to share their resources - expertise. The GVN supports research, promotes training for young scientists, serves as a technical resource for governments, businesses - international organizations, facilitates international scientific cooperation, - advocates for funding - evidence-based public policies. In response to the spread of chikungunya, the GVN formed a task force to identify research gaps - opportunities, including models of infection - disease, c-idate vaccines - antivirals, epidemiology - vector control measures. Its members also serve as authoritative sources of information for the public, press, - policy-makers. This article forms part of a symposium in Antiviral Research on Chikungunya discovers the New World"."

346) Performance of acute flaccid paralysis surveillance compared with World Health Organization standards.
Autor: Desai Shalini; Smith Tiffany; Thorley Bruce R.; Grenier Danielle; Dickson Nigel; Altpeter Ekkehardt; Sabbe Martine; Elliott Elizabeth; Zurynski Yvonne
Assunto: disease eradication, paralysis, poliomyelitis, sentinel surveillance
Descritores: Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Infectious diseases ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Epidemiology ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Public health
Fonte: Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health, v. 51, n. 2, p. 209-214, 2015
ISSN: 1440-1754
Resumo: To compare acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) surveillance systems used by members of the International Network of Paediatric Surveillance Units (INoPSU) across the five AFP surveillance performance indicators recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO) for the maintenance of polio-free certification. A survey was administered to AFP surveillance co-ordinators in five INoPSU member countries (Australia, Belgium, Canada, New Zealand and Switzerland). Data collected included information on surveillance system processes, WHO-recommended performance indicators, investigative practices and final diagnoses of cases from 2006 to 2010. All countries contacted completed the survey. Each country used similar case definitions and processes for collecting AFP data. All countries used at least one of the WHO indicators for surveillance. No country consistently met the performance indicator for incidence or stool sampling. In all countries, at least one form of neurological testing was used to diagnose cases of AFP. Guillain-Barré syndrome was the most common final diagnosis in all countries for all years examined. Industrialised countries surveyed do not consistently meet the WHO-recommended AFP surveillance performance indicators. An opportunity exists for INoPSU to suggest a standard way for member countries to collect AFP data in order to examine the potential for strengthening the current systems or introducing additional enterovirus surveillance or alternative/complementary neurological performance measures suitable for countries that have eliminated polio. INoPSU member countries are evaluating these possibilities.

347) Novel mode of ISG15-mediated protection against influenza A virus and Sendai virus in mice
Autor: Morales David J, Monte Kristen, Sun Lulu, Struckhoff Jessica J, Agapov Eugene, Holtzman Michael J, Stappenbeck Thaddeus S, Lenschow Deborah J
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Biosynthesis ; Chikungunya virus - Cell ; Chikungunya virus - Cytopathology ; Chikungunya virus - Immune response ; Chikungunya virus - Pathogenesis ; Chikungunya virus - Proteins ; Chikungunya virus - Cytokines ; Chikungunya virus - Immune response ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Immunology ; Chikungunya virus - Public health
Fonte: Journal of Virology, v. 89, n. 1, p. 337-349, 2015
ISSN: 1098-5514
Resumo: ISG15 is a diubiquitin-like modifier - one of the most rapidly induced genes upon type I interferon stimulation. Hundreds of host proteins - a number of viral proteins have been shown to be ISGylated, - underst-ing how these modifications affect the interferon response - virus replication has been of considerable interest. ISG15(-/-) mice exhibit increased susceptibility to viral infection, - in the case of influenza B virus - vaccinia virus, ISG15 conjugation has been shown to restrict virus replication in vivo. A number of studies have also found that ISG15 is capable of antagonizing replication of some viruses in tissue culture. However, recent findings have demonstrated that ISG15 can protect mice from Chikungunya virus infection without affecting the virus burden. In order to better underst- the function of ISG15 in vivo, we characterized the pathogenesis of influenza A virus - Sendai virus in ISG15(-/-) mice. We found that ISG15 protects mice from virus induced lethality by a conjugation-dependent mechanism in both of these models. However, surprisingly, we found that ISG15 had minimal effect on virus replication - did not have an obvious role in the modulation of the acute immune response to infection. Instead, we observed an increase in the number of diseased small airways in mice lacking ISG15. This ability of ISG15 to protect mice in a conjugation-dependent, but nonantiviral, manner from respiratory virus infection represents a previously undescribed role for ISG15 - demonstrates the importance of further characterization of ISG15 in vivo. It has previously been demonstrated that ISG15(-/-) mice are more susceptible to a number of viral infections. Since ISG15 is one of the most strongly induced genes after type I interferon stimulation, analysis of ISG15 function has largely focused on its role as an antiviral molecule during acute infection. Although a number of studies have shown that ISG15 does have a small effect on virus replication in tissue culture, few studies have confirmed this mechanism of protection in vivo. In these studies we have found that while ISG15(-/-) mice are more susceptible to influenza A virus - Sendai virus infections, ISGylation does not appear to mediate this protection through the direct inhibition of virus replication or the modulation of the acute immune response. Thus, in addition to showing a novel mode of ISG15 mediated protection from virus infection, this study demonstrates the importance of studying the role of ISG15 in vivo.

348) Toll-like receptor 2 and -4 are involved in the pathogenesis of the Guillain-Barré syndrome
Autor: Du Yamei,Zhang Guojun,Zhang Zaiqiang,Wang Qian,Ma Ruimin,Zhang Limin,Fan Fei,Li Youran,Wang Meng,Lv Hong,Kang Xixiong
Assunto: Guillain-Barré syndrome; Toll-like receptors; Cytokines; Anti-ganglioside antibody
Descritores: Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Biosynthesis ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Cell ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Cytopathology ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Pathogenesis ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Protein synthesis ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Proteins ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - RNA ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Antibodies ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Cytokines ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Immunology ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Public health
Fonte: Molecular Medicine Reports, v. 12, n. 2, p. 3207-3213, 2015
ISSN: 1791-3004
Resumo: Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) is an autoimmune disorder of the peripheral nervous system characterized by weakness in the limbs. To date, numerous hypotheses have been suggested to explain the pathogenesis of GBS; however, the pathogenesis of GBS remains to be elucidated. The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between Toll-like receptor (TLR) 2, TLR4 and GBS. Therefore, the mRNA of TLR2, TLR4, myeloid differentiation factor (MyD)88 and nuclear factor (NF)-?B of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) in patients with GBS and healthy controls was assessed. To confirm the function of TLR2 and TLR4 in the pathogenesis of GBS, PBMCs derived from patients with GBS and healthy controls were cultured with various TLR agonists. The levels of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-? and interleukin (IL)-1? were measured in the culture supernatant and fasting serum was obtained for the detection of anti-ganglioside antibodies. The results revealed that the mRNA levels of TLR2, TLR4, MyD88 and NF-?B were significantly increased in patients with GBS compared with those in healthy controls (P=0.003, 0.017, 0.032 and 0.015, respectively). PBMCs from patients with GBS secreted higher levels of TNF-? and IL-1? than those from control subjects. The positive rate of immunoglobulin (Ig)G and IgM anti-ganglioside antibodies in patients with severe GBS was 42.86%, which was markedly higher than rates found in patients with mild GBS (9.09 and 18.18%, respectively). The results of the present study demonstrated that TLR2 and TLR4 are involved in the pathogenesis of GBS and that they and their associated signaling pathways may be targets for the treatment of GBS.

349) Co-infections with chikungunya and dengue viruses: A serological study in Karnataka State, India
Autor: Shaikh N, Raut C G, Manjunatha M
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Flaviviridae ; Chikungunya virus - Pathogenesis ; Chikungunya virus - Proteins ; Chikungunya virus - Antibodies ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever ; Chikungunya virus - Dengue ; Chikungunya virus - Epidemiology ; Chikungunya virus - Immunology ; Chikungunya virus - Public health
Fonte: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology, v. 33, n. 3, p. 459-460, 2015
ISSN: 1998-3646
Resumo:

350) Ipilimumab-induced necrotic myelopathy in a patient with metastatic melanoma: A case report and review of literature.
Autor: Abdallah Al-Ola,Herlopian Aline,Ravilla Rahul,Bansal Meghana,Chandra-Reddy Sowmya,Mahmoud Fade,Ong Shirley,Gokden Murat,Hutchins Laura
Assunto: Ipilimumab, immune-related adverse events, progressive necrotic myelopathy
Descritores: Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Cell ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Cytopathology ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Immune response
Fonte: Journal of Oncology Pharmacy Practice, 2015
ISSN: 1477-092X
Resumo: Ipilimumab is a novel humanized monoclonal antibody directed against cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen 4, a T-cell surface molecule involved in down-regulation and suppression of the T cell response to stimuli. Patients treated with ipilimumab are at risk for immune-related adverse events involving the skin, digestive tract, liver and endocrine organs. Few case reports of immune-related adverse effects involving central or peripheral nervous system due to ipilimumab are published. These include inflammatory myopathy, aseptic meningitis, severe meningo-radiculo-neuritis, temporal arteritis, Guillain-Barre syndrome, and posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome. We report the first case of ipilimumab-induced progressive necrotic myelopathy.

351) Post-Chikungunya rheumatoid arthritis, Saint Martin
Autor: Foissac Maud, Javelle Emilie, Ray Simon, Guérin Bruno, Simon Fabrice
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Pathogenesis ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever ; Chikungunya virus - Epidemiology
Fonte: Emerging Infectious Diseases, v. 21, n. 3, p. 530-532, 2015
ISSN: 1080-6059
Resumo:

352) When is facial diplegia regarded as a variant of Guillain-Barré syndrome?
Autor: Kim J K,Oh S Y,Sohn E H,Hong Y H,Jun S M,Bae J S
Assunto: Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS); Bilateral; Facial paralysis; Variant
Descritores: Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Pathogenesis ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Proteins ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Antibodies ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Serological diagnosis ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Immunology ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Public health
Fonte: Journal of the Peripheral Nervous System : JPNS, v. 20, n. 1, p. 32-36, 2015
ISSN: 1529-8027
Resumo: A variant of Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) with predominant manifestation of facial diplegia (FD) has been described recently. This study aimed to characterize and determine the incidence of this FD-predominant GBS variant. The clinical and serological information of 900 consecutive patients were reviewed. In total, eight patients were identified between January 2007 and December 2010 as having FD accompanied by some features of GBS. These features were subjective sensory symptoms such as distal paresthesia (7/8, 88%), albumin-cytological (A/C) dissociation (7/8, 88%), antecedent infection (6/8, 75%), and minor nerve conduction study (NCS) abnormalities (5/7, 71%). One patient presented with the typical NCS feature of demyelinating neuropathy. Only two patients exhibited areflexia (2/8, 25%). None of the patients possessed any anti-ganglioside antibodies; however, the serum of two patients was positive for anti-mycoplasma antibody (2/6, 33%). FD variant of GBS occurred in less than 1% of our dataset. FD can be a regional variant of GBS when it is accompanied by supporting features, such as subjective tingling, A/C dissociation, and minor NCS abnormalities.

353) A novel Lozenge gene in silkworm, Bombyx mori regulates the melanization response of hemolymph
Autor: Xu, Man; Wang, Xue; Tan, Juan; Zhang, Kui; Guan, Xi; Patterson, Laurence H.; Ding, Hanfei; Cui, Hongjuan
Assunto: Runt-related transcription factor (RUNX); Lozenge; Melanization; Prophenoloxidases; Bombyx mori
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Immunology
Fonte: Developmental and Comparative Immunology, v. 53, n. 1, p. 191-198, 2015
ISSN: 0145-305X
Resumo: Runt-related (RUNX) transcription factors are evolutionarily conserved either in vertebrate or invertebrate. Lozenge (Lz), a members of RUNX family as well as homologue of AML-1, functions as an important transcription factor regulating the hemocytes differentiation. In this paper, we identified and characterized RUNX family especially Lz in silkworm, which is a lepidopteran model insect. The gene expression analysis illustrated that BmLz was highly expressed in hemocytes throughout the whole development period, and reached a peak in glutonous stage. Over-expression of BmLz in silkworm accelerated the melanization process of hemolymph, and led to instantaneously up-regulation of prophenoloxidases (PPOs), which were key enzymes in the melanization process. Further down-regulation of BmLz expression by RNA interference resulted in the significant delay of melanization reaction of hemolymph. These findings suggested that BmLz regulated the melanization process of hemolymph by inducing PPOs expression, and played a critical role in innate immunity defense in silkworm. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

354) Severe acute inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy with persistent weakness associated with tumor-like nerve root enlargement
Autor: Stoll Sharon S,Rakocevic Goran
Assunto:
Descritores: Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Cytopathology ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Proteins ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Antibodies
Fonte: Journal of Clinical Neuromuscular Disease, v. 16, n. 4, p. 220-222, 2015
ISSN: 1537-1611
Resumo: We report a 23-year-old woman with rapid onset of proximal and distal limb weakness and areflexia, associated with tumor-like spinal nerve root enlargement and markedly elevated cerebrospinal fluid protein. Our patient developed the inability to walk within days, without preceding illness. Within two weeks, she had near-complete bilateral wrist and foot drop. Her cranial nerves and respiratory function remained intact. She received intravenous immunoglobulin early on for suspected Guillain-barre syndrome but remained wheelchair-bound until 6 Plasma exchange sessions were completed. After that, she continued to improve with intravenous immunoglobulin dosed every 3-4 weeks. Prominent demyelinating features were found on NCS, with cerebrospinal fluid protein of 415 mg/dL. Comprehensive infectious work-up was negative. Magnetic resonance imaging of lumbosacral and cervical spine showed tumor-like masses mistaken for neurofibromatosis (axial diameter, 7.5-10 mm). Repeated magnetic resonance imaging 6 months later showed persistent nerve root enlargement, despite the patient's improved functional status.

355) Differential Phosphatidylinositol-3-Kinase-Akt-mTOR activation by Semliki forest and Chikungunya viruses is dependent on nsP3 and connected to replication complex internalization
Autor: Thaa Bastian, Biasiotto Roberta, Eng Kai, Neuvonen Maarit, Götte Benjamin, Rheinemann Lara, Mutso Margit, Utt Age, Varghese Finny, Balistreri Giuseppe, Merits Andres, Ahola Tero, McInerney Gerald M
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Biosynthesis ; Chikungunya virus - Cell ; Chikungunya virus - Cytopathology ; Chikungunya virus - Molecular structure ; Chikungunya virus - Pathogenesis ; Chikungunya virus - Proteins ; Chikungunya virus - RNA ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever
Fonte: Journal of Virology, v. 89, n. 22, p. 11420-11437, 2015
ISSN: 1098-5514
Resumo: Many viruses affect or exploit the phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K)-Akt-mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway, a crucial prosurvival signaling cascade. We report that this pathway was strongly activated in cells upon infection with the Old World alphavirus Semliki Forest virus (SFV), even under conditions of complete nutrient starvation. We mapped this activation to the hyperphosphorylated/acidic domain in the C-terminal tail of SFV nonstructural protein nsP3. Viruses with a deletion of this domain (SFV-?50) but not of other regions in nsP3 displayed a clearly delayed - reduced capacity of Akt stimulation. Ectopic expression of the nsP3 of SFV wild type (nsP3-wt), but not nsP3-?50, equipped with a membrane anchor was sufficient to activate Akt. We linked PI3K-Akt-mTOR stimulation to the intracellular dynamics of viral replication complexes, which are formed at the plasma membrane - subsequently internalized in a process blocked by the PI3K inhibitor wortmannin. Replication complex internalization was observed upon infection of cells with SFV-wt - SFV mutants with deletions in nsP3 but not with SFV-?50, where replication complexes were typically accumulated at the cell periphery. In cells infected with the closely related chikungunya virus (CHIKV), the PI3K-Akt-mTOR pathway was only moderately activated. Replication complexes of CHIKV were predominantly located at the cell periphery. Exchanging the hypervariable C-terminal tail of nsP3 between SFV - CHIKV induced the phenotype of strong PI3K-Akt-mTOR activation - replication complex internalization in CHIKV. In conclusion, infection with SFV but not CHIKV boosts PI3K-Akt-mTOR through the hyperphosphorylated/acidic domain of nsP3 to drive replication complex internalization. SFV - CHIKV are very similar in terms of molecular - cell biology, e.g., regarding replication - molecular interactions, but are strikingly different regarding pathology: CHIKV is a relevant human pathogen, causing high fever - joint pain, while SFV is a low-pathogenic model virus, albeit neuropathogenic in mice. We show that both SFV - CHIKV activate the prosurvival PI3K-Akt-mTOR pathway in cells but greatly differ in their capacities to do so: Akt is strongly - persistently activated by SFV infection but only moderately activated by CHIKV. We mapped this activation capacity to a region in nonstructural protein 3 (nsP3) of SFV - could functionally transfer this region to CHIKV. Akt activation is linked to the subcellular dynamics of replication complexes, which are efficiently internalized from the cell periphery for SFV but not CHIKV. This difference in signal pathway stimulation - replication complex localization may have implications for pathology.

356) Isolated facial diplegia in Guillain-Barré syndrome: Bifacial weakness with paresthesias.
Autor: Wakerley Benjamin R.; Yuki Nobuhiro
Assunto: Bell palsy, Guillain-Barré syndrome, Miller Fisher syndrome, bifacial weakness, facial diplegia, paraesthesia
Descritores: Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Cytopathology ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Antibodies
Fonte: Muscle & Nerve, v. 52, n. 6, p. 927-932, 2015
ISSN: 1097-4598
Resumo: Bifacial weakness with paresthesias (BFP) is a subtype of Guillain-Barré syndrome defined by rapidly progressive bilateral facial weakness in the absence of other cranial neuropathies, ataxia, or limb weakness. Many patients also complain of distal limb paresthesias and display diminished or absent deep tendon reflexes. BFP is a localized form of Guillain-Barré syndrome and is thought to be caused exclusively by demyelinating- rather than axonal-type neuropathy. Patients with BFP do not display anti-ganglioside IgG antibodies. Since it is rare, many physicians are unfamiliar with BFP, as bilateral facial weakness is more commonly associated with sarcoidosis, Lyme disease, or meningeal pathology. Many patients diagnosed with bilateral Bell palsy may instead have BFP. In this review, we highlight the clinical features of BFP and outline diagnostic criteria. Muscle Nerve 52: 927-932, 2015.

357) Temperature tolerance and inactivation of Chikungunya virus
Autor: Huang Yan-Jang S, Hsu Wei-Wen, Higgs Stephen, Vanlandingham Dana L
Assunto: Chikungunya virus; Heat inactivation; Thermostability
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Antibodies ; Chikungunya virus - Serological diagnosis ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus
Fonte: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases, v. 15, n. 11, p. 674-677, 2015
ISSN: 1557-7759
Resumo: In late 2013, chikungunya virus (CHIKV) was introduced to the New World - large outbreaks occurred in the Caribbean isl-s causing over a million suspected - over 20,000 laboratory-confirmed cases. Serological analysis is an essential component for the diagnosis of CHIKV infection together with virus isolation - detection of viral nucleic acid. Demonstrating virus neutralizing by serum antibodies in a plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT) is the gold st-ard of all serological diagnostic assays. Prior to the testing, heat inactivation of serum at 56°C for 30 min is required for the inactivation of complement activity - adventitious viruses. The presence of adventitious contaminating viruses may interfere with the results by leading to a higher number of plaques on the monolayers - subsequent false-negative results. This procedure is widely accepted for the inactivation of flaviviruses - alphaviruses. In this study, the thermostability of CHIKV was evaluated. Heat inactivation at 56°C for 30 min was demonstrated to be insufficient for the complete removal of infectious CHIKV virions present in the samples. This thermotolerance of CHIKV could compromise the accuracy of serum tests, - therefore longer treatment for greater than 120 min is recommended.

358) Severe childhood Guillain-Barré syndrome associated with Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection: a case series
Autor: Meyer Sauteur Patrick M,Roodbol Joyce,Hackenberg Annette,de Wit Marie-Claire Y,Vink Cornelis,Berger Christoph,Jacobs Enno,van Rossum Annemarie M C,Jacobs Bart C
Assunto: Bickerstaff brain stem encephalitis; Mycoplasma pneumoniae; Acute-onset chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy; Central nervous system infection; Children
Descritores: Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Antibodies ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Infectious diseases ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Epidemiology ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Immunology
Fonte: Journal of the Peripheral Nervous System : JPNS, v. 20, n. 2, p. 72-78, 2015
ISSN: 1529-8027
Resumo: We report seven children with recent Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection and severe Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) that presented to two European medical centres from 1992 to 2012. Severe GBS was defined as the occurrence of respiratory failure, central nervous system (CNS) involvement, or death. Five children had GBS, one Bickerstaff brain stem encephalitis (BBE), and one acute-onset chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (A-CIDP). The five patients with severe GBS were derived from an original cohort of 66 children with GBS. In this cohort, 17 children (26%) had a severe form of GBS and 47% of patients with M. pneumoniae infection presented with severe GBS. Of the seven patients in this case series, five were mechanically ventilated and four had CNS involvement (two were comatose). Most patients presented with non-specific clinical symptoms (nuchal rigidity and ataxia) and showed a rapidly progressive disease course (71%). Antibodies against M. pneumoniae were detected in all patients and were found to be intrathecally synthesised in two cases (GBS and BBE), which proves intrathecal infection. One patient died and only two patients recovered completely. These cases illustrate that M. pneumoniae infection in children can be followed by severe and complicated forms of GBS. Non-specific clinical features of GBS in such patients may predispose a potentially life-threatening delay in diagnosis.

359) Loss of TLR3 aggravates CHIKV replication and pathology due to an altered virus-specific neutralizing antibody response
Autor: Her Zhisheng, Teng Terk-Shin, Tan Jeslin J L, Teo Teck-Hui, Kam Yiu-Wing, Lum Fok-Moon, Lee Wendy W L, Gabriel Christelle, Melchiotti Rossella, Andiappan Anand K, Lulla Valeria, Lulla Aleksei, Win Mar K, Chow Angela, Biswas Subhra K, Leo Yee-Sin, Lecuit Marc, Merits Andres, Rénia Laurent, Ng Lisa F P
Assunto: Chikungunya virus; TLR3; Innate immunity; Joint inflammation; Neutralizing antibodies
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Biochemistry ; Chikungunya virus - Cell ; Chikungunya virus - Cytopathology ; Chikungunya virus - Pathogenesis ; Chikungunya virus - Proteins ; Chikungunya virus - RNA ; Chikungunya virus - Antibodies ; Chikungunya virus - Inflammation ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Molecular screening ; Chikungunya virus - Vaccine ; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever ; Chikungunya virus - Epidemiology ; Chikungunya virus - Immunology
Fonte: EMBO Molecular Medicine, v. 7, n. 1, p. 24-41, 2015
ISSN: 1757-4684
Resumo: RNA-sensing toll-like receptors (TLRs) mediate innate immunity - regulate anti-viral response. We show here that TLR3 regulates host immunity - the loss of TLR3 aggravates pathology in Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) infection. Susceptibility to CHIKV infection is markedly increased in human - mouse fibroblasts with defective TLR3 signaling. Up to 100-fold increase in CHIKV load was observed in Tlr3-/- mice, alongside increased virus dissemination - pro-inflammatory myeloid cells infiltration. Infection in bone marrow chimeric mice showed that TLR3-expressing hematopoietic cells are required for effective CHIKV clearance. CHIKV-specific antibodies from Tlr3-/- mice exhibited significantly lower in vitro neutralization capacity, due to altered virus-neutralizing epitope specificity. Finally, SNP genotyping analysis of CHIKF patients on TLR3 identified SNP rs6552950 to be associated with disease severity - CHIKV-specific neutralizing antibody response. These results demonstrate a key role for TLR3-mediated antibody response to CHIKV infection, virus replication - pathology, providing a basis for future development of immunotherapeutics in vaccine development.

360) Guillain-Barré syndrome.
Autor: Wakerley Benjamin R. ; Yuki Nobuhiro
Assunto: Guillain-Barré syndrome; Anti-ganglioside antibodies; Complement cascade; Miller fisher syndrome; Molecular mimicry
Descritores: Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Antibodies
Fonte: Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics, v. 15, n. 8, p. 847-849, 2015
ISSN: 1744-8360
Resumo: Over the past three decades much has been elucidated about the pathogenesis and clinical manifestations of Guillain-Barré syndrome, the most common cause of acute flaccid paralysis worldwide. Cross-reactivity between surface epitopes on the bacterium Campylobacter jejuni and peripheral nerve gangliosides has been shown to induce antibody-mediated axonal-type neuropathy in some patients. Understanding the molecular mechanisms that cause nerve damage in these patients has led to the development of novel therapies, which specifically target the complement cascade and prevent formation of the membrane attack complex. The most promising, eculizumab, is a humanized monoclonal antibody, which blocks formation of human C5a and C5b-9, and has been shown to prevent antiganglioside antibody-induced neuropathy in vitro and in a mouse model and is currently in Phase II clinical trials.

361) Zika virus infection in a traveller returning to Europe from Brazil, March 2015
Autor: Zammarchi L, Tappe D, Fortuna C, Remoli M E, Günther S, Venturi G, Bartoloni A, Schmidt-Chanasit J
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Arbovirus ; Chikungunya virus - Flaviviridae ; Chikungunya virus - Pathogenesis ; Chikungunya virus - Proteins ; Chikungunya virus - RNA ; Chikungunya virus - Antibodies ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya virus - RT-PCR ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever ; Chikungunya virus - Dengue ; Chikungunya virus - Immunology ; Chikungunya virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Euro Surveillance, v. 20, n. 23, 2015
ISSN: 1560-7917
Resumo: We report a case of laboratory-confirmed Zika virus infection imported into Europe from the Americas. The patient developed fever, rash, - oedema of h-s - feet after returning to Italy from Brazil in late March 2015. The case highlights that, together with chikungunya virus - dengue virus, three major arboviruses are now co-circulating in Brazil. These arboviruses represent a burden for the healthcare systems in Brazil - other countries where competent mosquito vectors are present.

362) Recurrent Guillain-Barré syndrome presenting stereotypic manifestations, positive antiganglioside antibodies, and rapid recovery
Autor: Pyun So Young,Jeong Jin-Ho,Bae Jong Seok
Assunto: Antiganglioside antibody, Guillain-Barré syndrome, Rapid recovery, Recurrent
Descritores: Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Antibodies
Fonte: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery, v. 139, p. 230-233, 2015
ISSN: 1872-6968
Resumo: Recurrent Guillain-Barré syndrome (rGBS) has been described as a rare entity with distinct characteristics. However, little is known about rGBS in Asian group. The aim of this study was to identify the incidence and clinical course of rGBS, and to determine its clinical/pathophysiological implications. The consecutive data of 117 GBS patients were retrieved from a single university-based hospital in Korea and analyzed in terms of clinical, serological, electrophysiological aspects. A thorough review revealed that three (2.6%) of the enrolled patients had experienced more than two definite recurrent attacks of GBS. Interestingly, all three cases exhibited clinically stereotypical features, serum antiganglioside antibodies, and rapid recovery after intravenous immunoglobulin treatment. Clinical, serological, and electrophysiological features of rGBS cases were described in detail. The stereotypic presentation of each attack in this variant suggests the importance of both host and genetic factors for the clinical manifestations. In addition, the simultaneous presence of serum antiganglioside antibodies and rapid recovery implicate reversible nerve conduction failure as the mechanism of rGBS. These features are different from typical monophasic GBS and acute onset of chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy.

363) Ability of the Encephalitic Arbovirus Semliki Forest virus to cross the blood-brain barrier is determined by the charge of the E2 glycoprotein
Autor: Ferguson Mhairi C, Saul Sirle, Fragkoudis Rennos, Weisheit Sabine, Cox Jonathan, Patabendige Adjanie, Sherwood Karen, Watson Mick, Merits Andres, Fazakerley John K
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Arbovirus ; Chikungunya virus - Biosynthesis ; Chikungunya virus - Cell ; Chikungunya virus - Molecular structure ; Chikungunya virus - Pathogenesis ; Chikungunya virus - Proteins ; Chikungunya virus - Inflammation ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Epidemic
Fonte: Journal of Virology, v. 89, n. 15, p. 7536-7549, 2015
ISSN: 1098-5514
Resumo: Semliki Forest virus (SFV) provides a well-characterized model system to study the pathogenesis of virus encephalitis. Several studies have used virus derived from the molecular clone SFV4. SFV4 virus does not have the same phenotype as the closely related L10 or the prototype virus from which its molecular clone was derived. In mice, L10 generates a high-titer plasma viremia, is efficiently neuroinvasive, - produces a fatal panencephalitis, whereas low-dose SFV4 produces a low-titer viremia, rarely enters the brain, - generally is avirulent. To determine the genetic differences responsible, the consensus sequence of L10 was determined - compared to that of SFV4. Of the 12 nucleotide differences, six were nonsynonymous; these were engineered into a new molecular clone, termed SFV6. The derived virus, SFV6, generated a high-titer viremia - was efficiently neuroinvasive - virulent. The phenotypic difference mapped to a single amino acid residue at position 162 in the E2 envelope glycoprotein (lysine in SFV4, glutamic acid in SFV6). Analysis of the L10 virus showed it contained different plaque phenotypes which differed in virulence. A lysine at E2 247 conferred a small-plaque avirulent phenotype - glutamic acid a large-plaque virulent phenotype. Viruses with a positively charged lysine at E2 162 or 247 were more reliant on glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) to enter cells - were selected for by passage in BHK-21 cells. Interestingly, viruses with the greatest reliance on binding to GAGs replicated to higher titers in the brain - more efficiently crossed an in vitro blood-brain barrier (BBB). Virus encephalitis is a major disease, - alphaviruses, as highlighted by the recent epidemic of chikungunya virus (CHIKV), are medically important pathogens. In addition, alphaviruses provide well-studied experimental systems with extensive literature, many tools, - easy genetic modification. In this study, we elucidate the genetic basis for the difference in phenotype between SFV4 - the virus stocks from which it was derived - correct this by engineering a new molecular clone. We then use this clone in one comprehensive study to demonstrate that positively charged amino acid residues on the surface of the E2 glycoprotein, mediated by binding to GAGs, determine selective advantage - plaque size in BHK-21 cells, level of viremia in mice, ability to cross an artificial BBB, efficiency of replication in the brain, - virulence. Together with studies on Sindbis virus (SINV), this study provides an important advance in underst-ing alphavirus, - probably other virus, encephalitis.

364) Systematic review and meta-analysis of the proportion of non-typhoidal Salmonella cases that develop chronic sequelae
Autor: Keithlin J,Sargeant J M,Thomas M K,Fazil A
Assunto: Inflammatory bowel disease; Reactive arthritis; Salmonellosis
Descritores: Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Pathogenesis ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Infectious diseases ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Public health
Fonte: Epidemiology and Infection, v. 143, n. 7, p. 1333-1351, 2015
ISSN: 1469-4409
Resumo: The objective of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to estimate the proportion of cases of non-typhoidal salmonellosis (NTS) that develop chronic sequelae, and to investigate factors associated with heterogeneity. Articles published in English prior to July 2011 were identified by searching PubMed, Agricola, CabDirect, and Food Safety and Technology Abstracts. Observational studies reporting the number of NTS cases that developed reactive arthritis (ReA), Reiter's syndrome (RS), haemolytic uraemic syndrome (HUS), irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) or Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS), Miller-Fisher syndrome (MFS) were included. Meta-analysis was performed using random effects and heterogeneity was assessed using the I 2 value. Meta-regression was used to explore the influence of study-level variables on heterogeneity. A total of 32 studies were identified; 25 reported on ReA, five reported on RS, seven reported on IBS, two reported on IBD, two reported on GBS, one reported on MFS, and two reported on HUS. There was insufficient data in the literature to calculate a pooled estimate for RS, HUS, IBD, GBS, or MFS. The pooled estimate of the proportion of cases of NTS that developed ReA and IBS had substantive heterogeneity, limiting the applicability of a single estimate. Thus, these estimates should be interpreted with caution and reasons for the high heterogeneity should be further explored.

365) Chikungunya virus in the Caribbean: A threat for all of the Americas
Autor: Gutierrez-Saravia Enrique, Gutierrez Camilo E
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Infectious diseases ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus
Fonte: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society, v. 4, n. 1, p. 1-3, 2015
ISSN: 2048-7207
Resumo:

366) Increase in cases of Guillain-Barré syndrome during a Chikungunya outbreak, French Polynesia, 2014 to 2015.
Autor: Oehler Erwan; Fournier Emmanuel; Leparc-Goffart Isabelle; Larre Philippe; Cubizolle Stéphanie; Sookhareea Chantal; Lastère Stéphane; Ghawche Frédéric
Assunto: French Polynesia, chikungunya, chikungunya virus, clinic, outbreaks, vector-borne infections, viral infections
Descritores: Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Serology ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Viral infections ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - RT-PCR ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Virus ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Chikungunya Fever ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Dengue
Fonte: Euro Surveillance : Bulletin Europe?en Sur Les Maladies Transmissibles, v. 20, n. 48, 2015
ISSN: 1560-7917
Resumo: During the recent chikungunya fever outbreak in French Polynesia in October 2014 to March 2015, we observed an abnormally high number of patients with neurological deficit. Clinical presentation and complementary exams were suggestive of Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) for nine patients. All nine had a recent dengue-like syndrome and tested positive for chikungunya virus (CHIKV) in serology or RT-PCR. GBS incidence was increased four- to nine-fold during this period, suggesting a link to CHIKV infection.

367) Pentosan polysulfate: A novel glycosaminoglycan-like molecule for effective treatment of alphavirus-induced cartilage destruction and inflammatory disease
Autor: Herrero Lara J, Foo Suan-Sin, Sheng Kuo-Ching, Chen Weiqiang, Forwood Mark R, Bucala Richard, Mahalingam Suresh
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Cell ; Chikungunya virus - Cytopathology ; Chikungunya virus - Pathogenesis ; Chikungunya virus - Cytokines ; Chikungunya virus - Immunopathology ; Chikungunya virus - Infectious diseases ; Chikungunya virus - Inflammation ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya virus - Real Time PCR ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever ; Chikungunya virus - Epidemic ; Chikungunya virus - Immunology
Fonte: Journal of Virology, v. 89, n. 15, p. 8063-8076, 2015
ISSN: 1098-5514
Resumo: Arthritogenic alphaviruses such as Ross River virus (RRV) - chikungunya virus (CHIKV) cause large-scale epidemics of severe musculoskeletal disease - have been progressively exp-ing their global distribution. Since its introduction in July 2014, CHIKV now circulates in the United States. The hallmark of alphavirus disease is crippling pain - inflammation of the joints, a similar immunopathology to rheumatoid arthritis. The use of glycans as novel therapeutics is an area of research that has increased in recent years. Here, we describe the promising therapeutic potential of the glycosaminoglycan (GAG)-like molecule pentosan polysulfate (PPS) to alleviate virus-induced arthritis. Mouse models of RRV - CHIKV disease were used to characterize the extent of cartilage damage in infection - investigate the potential of PPS to treat disease. This was assessed using histological analysis, real-time PCR, - fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS). Alphaviral infection resulted in cartilage destruction, the severity of which was alleviated by PPS therapy during RRV - CHIKV clinical disease. The reduction in cartilage damage corresponded with a significant reduction in immune infiltrates. Using multiplex bead arrays, PPS treatment was found to have significantly increased the anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-10 - reduced proinflammatory cytokines, typically correlated with disease severity. Furthermore, we reveal that the severe RRV-induced joint pathology, including thinning of articular cartilage - loss of proteoglycans in the cartilage matrix, was diminished with treatment. PPS is a promising new therapy for alphavirus-induced arthritis, acting to preserve the cartilage matrix, which is damaged during alphavirus infection. Overall, the data demonstrate the potential of glycotherapeutics as a new class of treatment for infectious arthritis. The hallmark of alphavirus disease is crippling pain - joint arthritis, which often has an extended duration. In the past year, CHIKV has exp-ed into the Americas, with approximately 1 million cases reported to date, whereas RRV continues to circulate in the South Pacific. Currently, there is no licensed specific treatment for alphavirus disease, - the increasing spread of infection highlights an urgent need for therapeutic intervention strategies. Pentosan polysulfate (PPS) is a glycan derivative that is orally bioavailable, has few toxic side effects, - is currently licensed under the name Elmiron for the treatment of cystitis in the United States. Our findings show that RRV infection damages the articular cartilage, including a loss of proteoglycans within the joint. Furthermore, treatment with PPS reduced the severity of both RRV- - CHIKV-induced musculoskeletal disease, including a reduction in inflammation - joint swelling, suggesting that PPS is a promising c-idate for drug repurposing for the treatment of alphavirus-induced arthritis.

368) Streptococcal IdeS: therapeutic potential for Guillain-Barré syndrome
Autor: Takahashi Ryo,Yuki Nobuhiro
Assunto:
Descritores: Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Antibodies
Fonte: Scientific Reports, v. 5, p. 10809, 2015
ISSN: 2045-2322
Resumo: Plasma exchange and intravenous immunoglobulin are effective in treating Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) probably because the former removes IgG autoantibodies and complement and the latter inhibits complement activation subsequent to the autoantibody binding to peripheral nerve antigens. IgG degrading enzyme of Streptococcus pyogenes (IdeS) can cleave the pathogenic autoantibodies into F(ab')2 and Fc. The purpose of this study is to show whether IdeS has novel therapeutic potential for GBS. Sera with anti-ganglioside IgG antibodies from 15 patients with GBS or Miller Fisher syndrome were used. We tested whether IdeS cleaved the anti-ganglioside IgG antibodies and inhibited deposition of activated complement component on ELISA plates. IdeS efficiently cleaved IgG and blocked complement activation mediated by anti-GM1, anti-GD1a and anti-GQ1b IgG antibodies. IdeS has therapeutic potential for GBS and related conditions.

369) A role for vector control in dengue vaccine programs
Autor: Christofferson, Rebecca C.; Mores, Christopher N.
Assunto: Dengue; Aedes aegypti; Vaccine; Vector control; Arbovirus; Transmission; Models
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Arbovirus ; Aedes aegypti - Immunology ; Aedes aegypti - Immunopathology ; Aedes aegypti - Viral infections ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Vaccine ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Vaccine, v. 33, n. 50, p. 7069-7074, 2015
ISSN: 0264-410X
Resumo: Development and deployment of a successful dengue virus (DENV) vaccine has confounded research and pharmaceutical entities owing to the complex nature of DENV immunity and concerns over exacerbating the risk of DENV hemorrhagic fever (DHF) as a consequence of vaccination. Thus, consensus is growing that a combination of mitigation strategies will be needed for DENV to be successfully controlled, likely involving some form of vector control to enhance a vaccine program. We present here a deterministic compartmental model to illustrate that vector control may enhance vaccination campaigns with imperfect coverage and efficacy. Though we recognize the costs and challenges associated with continuous control programs, simultaneous application of vector control methods coincident with vaccine roll out can have a positive effect by further reducing the number of human cases. The success of such an integrative strategy is predicated on closing gaps in our understanding of the DENV transmission cycle in hyperedemic locations. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

370) Nerve ultrasound in miller fisher variant of Guillain-Barré syndrome.
Autor: Décard Bernhard F.; Fladt Joachim; Axer Hubertus; Fischer Dirk; Grimm Alexander
Assunto: Guillain-Barré syndrome, Miller-Fisher syndrome, demyelinating polyneuropathy, immune-mediated neuropathy, nerve ultrasonography
Descritores: Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Antibodies
Fonte: Muscle & Nerve, v. 52, n. 6, p. 1106-1110, 2015
ISSN: 1097-4598
Resumo: Focal enlargement of the peripheral and spinal nerves, visualized using high-resolution ultrasound (HRUS), has been reported in early Guillain-Barré syndrome, but not in the Miller Fisher variant. We report the use of HRUS in 2 patients who presented with acute ataxic neuropathy, areflexia, and ophthalmoparesis. Ultrasound and/or nerve conduction studies (NCS) of peripheral nerves, the vagus, and spinal nerves C5/6 were performed at onset and 2 weeks after immunoglobulin therapy. Both patients fulfilled criteria for diagnosis of Miller Fisher syndrome (MFS). Laboratory findings revealed elevated ganglioside Q1b antibodies in both and an albuminolocytologic dissociation in 1 patient. In addition, 1 patient had NCS evidence for demyelinating neuropathy. However, ultrasound showed focal enlargement in the vagus, the spinal nerves, and/or in the peripheral nerves in both patients. After therapy, nerve enlargement decreased in parallel with clinical improvement. Spinal and/or peripheral nerve enlargement supports the diagnosis of MFS in early phases of the disease. Muscle Nerve 52: 1106-1110, 2015.

371) Seroprevalence of infections with Dengue, Rift Valley Fever and Chikungunya viruses in Kenya, 2007
Autor: Ochieng Caroline, Ahenda Petronella, Vittor Amy Y, Nyoka Raymond, Gikunju Stella, Wachira Cyrus, Waiboci Lilian, Umuro Mamo, Kim Andrea A, Nderitu Leonard, Juma Bonventure, Montgomery Joel M, Breiman Robert F, Fields Barry
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Arbovirus ; Chikungunya virus - Antibodies ; Chikungunya virus - Infectious diseases ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Transmission ; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever ; Chikungunya virus - Dengue ; Chikungunya virus - Epidemic ; Chikungunya virus - Public health
Fonte: PloS One, v. 10, n. 7, p. e0132645, 2015
ISSN: 1932-6203
Resumo: Arthropod-borne viruses are a major constituent of emerging infectious diseases worldwide, but limited data are available on the prevalence, distribution, - risk factors for transmission in Kenya - East Africa. In this study, we used 1,091 HIV-negative blood specimens from the 2007 Kenya AIDS Indicator Survey (KAIS 2007) to test for the presence of IgG antibodies to dengue virus (DENV), chikungunya virus (CHIKV) - Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV).The KAIS 2007 was a national population-based survey conducted by the Government of Kenya to provide comprehensive information needed to address the HIV/AIDS epidemic. Antibody testing for arboviruses was performed on stored blood specimens from KAIS 2007 through a two-step s-wich IgG ELISA using either commercially available kits or CDC-developed assays. Out of the 1,091 samples tested, 210 (19.2%) were positive for IgG antibodies against at least one of the three arboviruses. DENV was the most common of the three viruses tested (12.5% positive), followed by RVFV - CHIKV (4.5% - 0.97%, respectively). For DENV - RVFV, the participant's province of residence was significantly associated (P?.01) with seropositivity. Seroprevalence of DENV - RVFV increased with age, while there was no correlation between province of residence/age - seropositivity for CHIKV. Females had twelve times higher odds of exposure to CHIK as opposed to DENV - RVFV where both males - females had the same odds of exposure. Lack of education was significantly associated with a higher odds of previous infection with either DENV or RVFV (p <0.01). These data show that a number of people are at risk of arbovirus infections depending on their geographic location in Kenya - transmission of these pathogens is greater than previously appreciated. This poses a public health risk, especially for DENV.

372) Short-Term Prognosis of Mechanically Ventilated Patients With Guillain-Barré Syndrome Is Worsened by Corticosteroids as an Add-On Therapy
Autor: Wu Xiujuan,Zhang Bing,Li Chunrong,Shen Donghui,Liu Kangding,Zhu Jie,Zhang Hong-Liang
Assunto:
Descritores: Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Proteins ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Antibodies ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Public health
Fonte: Medicine, v. 94, n. 43, p. e1898, 2015
ISSN: 1536-5964
Resumo: Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) has been proven most effective in treating Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS). Corticosteroids as an add-on therapy have been prescribed in severe GBS cases. However, the efficacy of intravenous corticosteroids combined with IVIg in dealing with severe GBS remains unclear. We explored the therapeutic effects of different therapeutic regimens on the short-term prognosis of GBS patients, especially the severe cases.We retrospectively analyzed the clinical data of 527 adult patients with GBS who were prescribed to different treatments from 2003 to 2014. The therapeutic effect of a treatment was evaluated by the improvement of Hughes Functional Grading Scale (HFGS) and Medical Research Council (MRC) sum score.With comparable incidence of infectious complications (P > 0.05), more mechanically ventilated patients were found improvement after IVIg treatment than combination IVIg with intravenous corticosteroids (MRC: 97% vs. 72.4%, P < 0.05; HFGS: 97% vs. 72.4%, P < 0.05). As to bedridden patients without mechanical ventilation, incidence of infectious complications (P > 0.05) and ratio of patients who were improved after IVIg were insignificantly different from the combination therapy (MRC: 89.6% vs. 86.5%; HFGS: 69.6% vs. 61.5%; both P > 0.05), even if the intravenous corticosteroids were initiated within 7 days after onset (P > 0.05). In addition, supportive treatment was sufficient for patients who were able to walk with help (HFGS = 3) and mildly affected (HFGS < 3) when compared with IVIg and intravenous corticosteroids.IVIg is sufficient to GBS patients who are unable to walk (HFGS > 3), while corticosteroids are detrimental for short-term prognosis in mechanically ventilated patients when used in combination with IVIg. Further prospective and randomized studies are warranted to validate this finding.

373) One more shot for the road: A review and update of vaccinations for pediatric international travelers
Autor: Rebaza Andre, Lee Paul J
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Infectious diseases ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Vaccine ; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever ; Chikungunya virus - Dengue ; Chikungunya virus - Public health
Fonte: Pediatric Annals, v. 44, n. 4, p. e89-e96, 2015
ISSN: 0090-4481
Resumo: Increasing numbers of children are traveling to developing countries where they are often at a higher risk than adults of acquiring vaccine-preventable diseases. Yet, they are less likely to receive pretravel medical advice - preventive care. This article reviews the current recommendations for pediatric travel immunizations, including specific travel vaccines such as typhoid, yellow fever, Japanese encephalitis virus, - rabies as well as prospective vaccines for significant global diseases like malaria, dengue, chikungunya, - Ebola.

374) IL-35 Is Involved in the Pathogenesis of Guillain-Barré Syndrome Through Its Influence on the Function of CD4+ T Cells.
Autor: Liu Hao; Zhang Wei; Tian Fa-Fa; Kun Na; Zhou Wen-Bin; Xiao Bo; Li Jing
Assunto: CD4+ T cells, Guillain-Barré Syndrome, IL-35, STAT, transcription factors
Descritores: Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Cell ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Pathogenesis ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Proteins ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Cytokines
Fonte: Immunological Investigations, v. 44, n. 6, p. 566-77, 2015
ISSN: 1532-4311
Resumo: CD4+ T cells and many cytokines play critical roles in the pathogenesis of Guillain-Barré Syndrome (GBS), an immune-mediated inflammatory disease. However, the role of IL-35, a novel member of the IL-12 cytokine family, in this kind of disease has not yet been elucidated. In this study, we investigated the functional changes of CD4+ T cells from GBS patients with IL-35 treatment in vitro. This study involved 21 GBS patients and an equal number of healthy controls (HCs). The results indicated that the average concentration of IL-35 in the plasma of GBS patients was lower than that of healthy controls (HCs). Increased levels of STAT1, STAT3 and STAT4 proteins and T-bet, ROR ?t, IFN-? and IL-17A mRNA were observed in CD4+ T cells from GBS patients. In contrast, the levels of STAT5 and STAT6 proteins and GATA3, Foxp3, IL-4 and TGF-?1 mRNAs were decreased in GBS patients in comparison with those of HCs. In addition, treatment of CD4+ T cells from GBS patients with IL-35 upregulated IL-35, STAT5 and STAT6 protein and T-bet, GATA3, Foxp3, IFN-?, IL-4, IL-17A and TGF-?1 mRNA while inhibited levels of STAT3 and STAT4 protein and ROR?t and IL-17A mRNA. These results indicate that IL-35 might play a potential role in GBS pathogenesis. Further studies are required in order to evaluate its role in GBS.

375) A sodium channel variant in Aedes aegypti as a candidate pathogen sensor for viral-associated molecular patterns
Autor: Lee, Cara; Jones, Alexis; Kainz, Danielle; Khan, Faatima; Carrithers, Michael D.
Assunto: Yellow fever - Mosquito; Imidazolquinilone; RelA; ssRNA
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Immune response ; Aedes aegypti - Molecular structure ; Aedes aegypti - Immune response ; Aedes aegypti - Immunology
Fonte: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, v. 463, n. 4, p. 1203-1209, 2015
ISSN: 0006-291X
Resumo: Recent work demonstrated that a splice variant of a human macrophage voltage-gated sodium channel expressed on endosomes acts as an intracellular sensor for dsRNA, a viral-associated molecular pattern. Here our goal was to identify a candidate gene in a clinically relevant invertebrate model with related cellular and pattern recognition properties. The para gene in drosophila and other insects encodes voltage-gated sodium channels with similar electrophysiological properties to those found in vertebrate excitable membranes. A database search revealed that the AAEL006019 gene in Aedes aegypti, the yellow fever mosquito, encodes a voltage-gated sodium channel that is distinct from genes that encode para-like sodium channels. As compared to para-like channels, the protein products from this gene have deletions in the N-terminus and in the DII-DIII linker region. When over-expressed in an Aedes aegypti cell line, CCL-125, the AAEL006019 channel demonstrated cytoplasmic expression on vesicular-like organelles. Electrophysiologic analysis revealed that the channel mediates small inward currents that are enhanced by synthetic mimics of viral-derived ssRNA, R848 and ORNO2, but not the dsRNA mimic, poly I:C. R848 treatment of CCL-125 cells that express high levels of the channels led to increased expression of RelA and Ago2, two mediators of insect innate immunity. These results suggest that the AAEL006019 channel acts as an intracellular pathogen sensor for ssRNA molecular patterns. Published by Elsevier Inc.

376) Late-onset cytomegalovirus infection complicated by Guillain-Barre syndrome in a kidney transplant recipient: case report and review of the literature.
Autor: Shaban E.; Gohh R.; Knoll B. M.
Assunto: Cytomegalovirus, Guillain-Barre syndrome, Kidney transplant
Descritores: Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Infectious diseases
Fonte: Infection, 2015
ISSN: 1439-0973
Resumo: Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection remains a common infection after solid-organ transplantation. In the general population CMV disease is associated with Guillain-Barre syndrome (GBS), an autoimmune disease leading to an acute peripheral neuropathy, in 1 of 1000 cases. Interestingly, GBS is a rarely observed complication in solid-organ transplant recipients, possibly related to maintenance immunosuppression. We describe a case of CMV infection complicated by GBS in a kidney transplant recipient and review the literature.

377) Chikungunya virus infections
Autor: Simon Fabrice, Javelle Emilie, Gasque Philippe
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Public health ; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever
Fonte: The New England Journal of Medicine, v. 373, n. 1, p. 93-94, 2015
ISSN: 1533-4406
Resumo:

378) Heme signaling impacts global gene expression, immunity and dengue virus infectivity in Aedes aegypti
Autor: Bottino-Rojas, Vanessa; Talyuli, Octavio A. C.; Jupatanakul, Natapong; Sim, Shuzhen; Dimopoulos, George; Venancio, Thiago M.; Bahia, Ana C.; Sorgine, Marcos H.; Oliveira, Pedro L.; Paiva-Silva, Gabriela O.
Assunto: Human diseases; Environmental impact; Cytology; Pest control; Immunity; Defence mechanisms; Disease transmission; Public health; Gene expression; Hemoglobin; Infectivity; Reactive oxygen species; Energy metabolism; Heme; Hematophagy; Immune response
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - Immune response ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Immunology
Fonte: Plos One, v. 10, n. 8, 2015.
ISSN:
Resumo: Blood-feeding mosquitoes are exposed to high levels of heme, the product of hemoglobin degradation. Heme is a pro-oxidant that influences a variety of cellular processes. We performed a global analysis of heme-regulated Aedes aegypti (yellow fever mosquito) transcriptional changes to better understand influence on mosquito physiology at the molecular level. We observed an iron- and reactive oxygen species (ROS)-independent signaling induced by heme that comprised genes related to redox metabolism. By modulating the abundance of these transcripts, heme possibly acts as a danger signaling molecule. Furthermore, heme triggered critical changes in the expression of energy metabolism and immune response genes, altering the susceptibility towards bacteria and dengue virus. These findings seem to have implications on the adaptation of mosquitoes to hematophagy and consequently on their ability to transmit diseases. Altogether, these results may also contribute to the understanding of heme cell biology in eukaryotic cells.

379) A survey of the 2014 dengue fever epidemic in Guangzhou, China
Autor: Yang, Liu; Chen, Yue; Yan, Huacheng; Zhang, Pei; Xu, Xiaoli; Tang, Boheng; Zhao, Ping; Ren, Ruiwen
Assunto: Clinical picture; Dengue virus; Diagnostics; Phylogenetic analysis
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Immunology ; Aedes aegypti - PCR detection ; Aedes aegypti - Real Time PCR
Fonte: Emerging Microbes & Infections, v. 4, n. 57, 2015
ISSN: 2222-1751
Resumo: In 2014, a serious dengue outbreak in Guangzhou occurred, consisting of 37 354 laboratory confirmed cases of infection. In this study, the clinical picture of dengue fever due to dengue virus (DENV) type 1 in Guangzhou was described. Clinical and laboratory data collected by studying 726 sera of suspected clinical cases from hospitals and 328 sera of healthy persons from two residence communities were analyzed during the outbreak, and 484 patients were diagnosed with an acute dengue infection. Fever, headache, congestion of the throat, and myalgia were the most typical symptoms in DENV-infected patients. Thrombocytopenia, leukopenia, and an increase in liver enzymes were significantly more common in the infected patients than in the healthy controls. Fourteen cases of silent infection were discovered among the 328 healthy persons, suggesting a DENV inapparent infection rate of 4.27% among healthy individuals. The data obtained by analyzing 212 positive sera with three methods indicated different results with different detection methods. DENV RNA should be used for early diagnoses during days 1-6 after symptom onset, immunoglobulin M (IgM) can be easily recognized after four days have passed since symptom onset and DENV isolation has a peak positive rate during days 1-3 after the onset of symptoms. A phylogenetic analysis of viral NS1 gene sequences from this outbreak indicated that the predominant isolates could be categorized as DENV-1 genotype III and had the highest homology with the India genotypes from 2009 to 2011. However, this analysis also revealed a co-epidemic of the 2013 Zhongshan and 2003 Singapore genotypes, both belonging to DENV-1 genotype I, which suggested multiple geographic origins for the 2014 epidemic of dengue 1 strains in Guangzhou.

380) Ovicidal and adulticidal potential of leaf and seed extract of Albizia lebbeck (L.) Benth. (Family: Fabaceae) against Culex quinquefasciatus, Aedes aegypti, and Anopheles stephensi (Diptera: Culicidae)
Autor: Govindarajan Marimuthu, Rajeswary Mohan
Assunto: Albizia lebbeck; Leaf; Seed; Ovicide; Adulticide; Mosquitoes
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Ovicida ; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever ; Chikungunya virus - Dengue
Fonte: Parasitology Research, v. 114, n. 5, p. 1949-1961, 2015
ISSN: 1432-1955
Resumo: Several diseases are associated to the mosquito-human interaction. Mosquitoes are the carriers of severe - well-known illnesses such as malaria, arboviral encephalitis, dengue fever, chikungunya fever, West Nile virus, - yellow fever. These diseases produce significant morbidity - mortality in humans - livestock around the world. In the present study, hexane, benzene, chloroform, ethyl acetate, - methanol extracts of leaf - seed of Albizia lebbeck were assayed for their toxicity against three important vector mosquitoes, viz., Culex quinquefasciatus, Aedes aegypti, - Anopheles stephensi. The mean percent hatchability of the eggs was observed after 48 h post-treatment. The percent hatchability was inversely proportional to the concentration of extract - directly proportional to the eggs. All the five solvent extracts showed moderate ovicidal activity; however, the methanol extract showed the highest ovicidal activity. One hundred percent mortality was observed at 250, 200, - 150 ppm for leaf methanol extract - 375, 300, - 225 ppm for seed methanol extract of A. lebbeck against C. quinquefasciatus, Ae. aegypti, - An. stephensi, respectively. The adulticidal activity of plant leaf - seed extracts showed moderate toxic effect on the adult mosquitoes after 24 h of exposure period. However, the highest adulticidal activity was observed in the leaf methanol extract of A. lebbeck against An. stephensi where the LC?? - LC?? values were 65.12 - 117.70 ppm, respectively. Compared to leaf extracts, seeds have low potency against three mosquito species. No mortality was recorded in the control. Our data suggest that the crude hexane, benzene, chloroform, ethyl acetate, - methanol solvent extracts of A. lebbeck have the potential to be used as an eco-friendly approach for the control of the An. stephensi, Ae. aegypti, - C. quinquefasciatus. These results suggest that the leaf - seed extracts have the potential to be used as an ideal eco-friendly approach for the control of mosquitoes.

381) Sphingosine kinase 2 is a Chikungunya virus host factor co-localized with the viral replication complex
Autor: Reid St Patrick, Tritsch Sarah R, Kota Krishna, Chiang Chih-Yuan, Dong Lian, Kenny Tara, Brueggemann Ernest E, Ward Michael D, Cazares Lisa H, Bavari Sina
Assunto: Chikungunya virus; nsP3; Sphingosine kinase 2; Viral replication complex
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Pathogenesis ; Chikungunya virus - Proteins ; Chikungunya virus - RNA ; Chikungunya virus - Infectious diseases ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus
Fonte: Emerging Microbes & Infections, v. 4, n. 10, p. e61, 2015
ISSN: 2222-1751
Resumo: Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a re-emerging alphavirus which causes severe - prolonged arthralgic febrile illness. The recent global spread of the virus - lack of approved therapeutic options makes it imperative to gain greater insight into the molecular mechanisms underlying CHIKV pathogenesis, in particular host factors recruited by the virus. In the current study, we identify sphingosine kinase 2 (SK2) as a CHIKV host factor co-localized with the viral replication complex (VRC) during infection. SK2 was demonstrated to co-localize with viral RNA - nonstructural proteins. Targeted impairment of SK2 expression or function significantly inhibited CHIKV infection. Furthermore, affinity purification-mass spectrometry studies revealed that SK2 associates with a number of proteins involved in cellular gene expression specifically during viral infection, suggesting a role in replication. Collectively these results identify SK2 as a novel CHIKV host factor.

382) Evaluation of toxicity of bordeaux mixture in Aedes aegypti larvae (L. 1672) (Diptera: Culicidae) and gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria
Autor: Silva, Amandha Kaiser da; Arruda, de; Fonseca, Gustavo Graciano; Carvalho, udio Teodoro de; Silva, Cicera Maria da;Nova, sar Cavalcante Vila; Gaban, Cleusa Rocha Garcia; Cabrini, Isaias
Assunto: Food chains; Lethal limits; Pest control; Toxicity; Toxicity tests; Aquatic insects; Mortality causes; Disease transmission; Public health; Feeding;Bites; Gram-positive bacteria; Vectors; Molluscicides; Blood; Insecticides; Breeding; Infectious diseases; Dengue; Reproduction; Bacteria; Aedes aegypti; Culicidae; Mollusca; Diptera
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Infectious diseases ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Journal of Mosquito Research, v. 5, n. 6, 2015.
ISSN:
Resumo: Dengue is an infectious disease transmitted by the bite of female Aedes aegypti during blood feeding, for continuity of the reproduction process. Population mosquito control has been carried out for decades, through the intensive use of conventional insecticides. The Bordeaux Mixture (BM) is a colloidal substance with insecticidal activity, bactericidal, fungicidal and molluscicide and can act comprehensively to control immature forms of A. aegypti, in addition to altering the physical and chemical conditions in the breeding and food chain insect. The values for the lethal concentrations of BM were CL10 1.05 mg L-1 (confidence interval 0.70 - 1.34), LC50 3.06 mg L-1 (2.73 - 3.35) and LC90 8.94 mg L-1 (7.42 - 11.92). The results of this study allow us to propose the BM as insecticidal potential for population control insect vectors.

383) Cryo-EM structures elucidate neutralizing mechanisms of anti-chikungunya human monoclonal antibodies with therapeutic activity
Autor: Long Feng, Fong Rachel H, Austin Stephen K, Chen Zhenguo, Klose Thomas, Fokine Andrei, Liu Yue, Porta Jason, Sapparapu Gopal, Akahata Wataru, Doranz Benjamin J, Crowe James E, Diamond Michael S, Rossmann Michael G
Assunto: Chikungunya virus-antibody complexes; Cryo-electron microscopy structure; Neutralizing mechanism; Viral fusion inhibition
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Cytopathology ; Chikungunya virus - Molecular structure ; Chikungunya virus - Pathogenesis ; Chikungunya virus - Proteins ; Chikungunya virus - Antibodies ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya virus - Molecular methods ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Vaccine ; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever ; Chikungunya virus - Immunology
Fonte: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, v. 112, n. 45, p. 13898-13903, 2015
ISSN: 1091-6490
Resumo: Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a mosquito-transmitted alphavirus that causes severe acute - chronic disease in humans. Although highly inhibitory murine - human monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) have been generated, the structural basis of their neutralizing activity remains poorly characterized. Here, we determined the cryo-EM structures of chikungunya virus-like particles complexed with antibody fragments (Fab) of two highly protective human mAbs, 4J21 - 5M16, that block virus fusion with host membranes. Both mAbs bind primarily to sites within the A - B domains, as well as to the B domain's ?-ribbon connector of the viral glycoprotein E2. The footprints of these antibodies on the viral surface were consistent with results from loss-of-binding studies using an alanine scanning mutagenesis-based epitope mapping approach. The Fab fragments stabilized the position of the B domain relative to the virus, particularly for the complex with 5M16. This finding is consistent with a mechanism of neutralization in which anti-CHIKV mAbs that bridge the A - B domains impede movement of the B domain away from the underlying fusion loop on the E1 glycoprotein - therefore block the requisite pH-dependent fusion of viral - host membranes.

384) Detection of Zika virus in saliva
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Musso D., Roche C., Nhan T.-X., Robin E., Teissier A., Cao-Lormeau V.-M.
Assunto: Arbovirus, saliva analysis, virus detection, Zika virus
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - PCR detection ; Zika virus - Real Time PCR ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - RT-PCR ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Journal of Clinical Virology, v. 68, p. 53-55, jul. 2015
ISSN: 1873-5967 (electronic),1386-6532
Resumo: Background: During the largest Zika virus (ZIKV) outbreak ever reported that occurred from October 2013 to March 2014 in French Polynesia, we observed that several patients presenting the symptoms of acute phase Zika fever were tested negative in blood by ZIKV real-time PCR (RT-PCR). Objectives: As we have previously detected ZIKV RNA in the saliva of a young child, we investigated the use of saliva as an alternative sample for routine ZIKV RNA detection. Study design: Over a 6 month period, 1,067 samples collected from 855 patients presenting symptoms of Zika fever (saliva only, blood only or both samples) were tested using a specific ZIKV RT-PCR. A medical questionnaire was available for most of the patients. Results: ZIKV was more frequently detected in saliva compared to blood. For the 182 patients with both samples collected, tests were positive for 35 (19.2%) in saliva while negative in blood and tests were positive for 16 (8.8%) in blood while negative in saliva; the difference in mean days after symptoms onset and the percentage of the main symptoms of Zika fever for patients only positive in saliva or in blood was not significant. Conclusion: The use of saliva sample increased the rate of molecular detection of ZIKV at the acute phase of the disease but did not enlarge the window of detection of ZIKV RNA. Saliva was of particular interest when blood was difficult to collect (children and neonates especially).

385) Suramin inhibits Chikungunya virus entry and transmission
Autor: Ho Yi-Jung, Wang Yu-Ming, Lu Jeng-wei, Wu Tzong-Yuan, Lin Liang-In, Kuo Szu-Cheng, Lin Chang-Chi
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Cell ; Chikungunya virus - Cytopathology ; Chikungunya virus - RNA ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Transmission ; Chikungunya virus - Vaccine ; Chikungunya virus - Immunology
Fonte: PloS One, v. 10, n. 7, p. e0133511, 2015
ISSN: 1932-6203
Resumo: The mosquito-borne Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a profound global threat due to its high rate of contagion - the lack of vaccine or effective treatment. Suramin is a symmetric polyanionic naphthylurea that is widely used in the clinical treatment of parasite infections. Numerous studies have reported the broad antiviral activities of suramin; however, inhibition effects against CHIKV have not yet been demonstrated. The aim of this study was thus to investigate the antiviral effect of suramin on CHIKV infection - to elucidate the molecular mechanism underlying inhibition using plaque reduction assay, RT-qPCR, western blot analysis, - plaque assay. Microneutralization assay was used to determine the EC50 of suramin in the CHIKV-S27 strain as well as in three other clinical strains (0611aTw, 0810bTw - 0706aTw). Time-of-addition was used to reveal the anti-CHIKV mechanism of suramin. We also evaluated anti-CHIKV activity with regard to viral entry, virus release, - cell-to-cell transmission. Cytopathic effect, viral RNA, viral protein, - the virus yield of CHIKV infection were shown to diminish in the presence of suramin in a dose-dependent manner. Suramin was also shown the inhibitory activities of the three clinical isolates. Suramin inhibited the early progression of CHIKV infection, due perhaps to interference with virus fusion - binding, which subsequently prevented viral entry. Results of a molecular docking simulation indicate that suramin may embed within the cavity of the E1/E2 heterodimer to interfere with their function. Suramin was also shown to reduce viral release - cell-to-cell transmission of CHIKV. In conclusion, Suramin shows considerable potential as a novel anti-CHIKV agent targeting viral entry, extracellular transmission, - cell-to-cell transmission.

386) New human pathogenic dengue like virus infections (Zika, Alkhumraand Mayaro viruses): A short review
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Yasri S., Wiwanitkit V.
Assunto: Alkhumra virus, Arbovirus, Mayaro virus, Zika virus
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Serology ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Disease, v. 5, n. S1, p. S31-S32, 2015
ISSN: 2222-1808
Resumo: Dengue is an important pathogenic arbovirus that causes acute febrile illness with hemorrhagic complication. This disease is an important tropical disease that is the present public health threat. To diagnose dengue, it is usually based on clinical diagnosis. However, there are many dengues like infections that can be easily missed diagnosed. In the past decades, there are many new emerging dengues like infections that should be mentioned. Here, the authors briefly review on 2 important new human pathogenic dengue like virus infections (Zika, Alkhumra and Mayaro viruses).

387) Mimics and chameleons in Guillain-Barré and Miller Fisher syndromes.
Autor: Wakerley Benjamin R.; Yuki Nobuhiro
Assunto: NEUROPATHY
Descritores: Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Cell ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Antibodies
Fonte: Practical Neurology, v. 15, n. 2, p. 90-99, 2015
ISSN: 1474-7766
Resumo: Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) and its variant, Miller Fisher syndrome (MFS) have several subtypes, together forming a continuous spectrum of discrete and overlapping syndromes. Such is the heterogeneity within this spectrum that many physicians may be surprised to learn that these disorders are related pathophysiologically, and therefore share certain clinical features. These include history of antecedent infection, monophasic disease course and symmetrical cranial or limb weakness. The presence of cerebrospinal fluid albuminocytological dissociation (raised protein, normal cell count), antiganglioside antibodies and neurophysiological evidence of axonal or demyelinating neuropathy also support a diagnosis in many cases, but should not be relied upon. Mimics of GBS and MFS can broadly be divided into those presenting with symmetrical limb weakness and those presenting with brainstem signs. MFS and the pharyngeal-cervical-brachial variant of GBS are frequently mistaken for brainstem stroke, botulism or myasthenia gravis, whereas Bickerstaff's brainstem encephalitis is often diagnosed as Wernicke's encephalopathy. Chameleons or atypical presentations of GBS-related disorders include: paraparetic GBS, bifacial weakness with paraesthesias, acute ataxic neuropathy, acute ophthalmoparesis, acute ptosis and acute mydriasis. Many neurologists may also not be aware that deep tendon reflexes remain present or may even appear brisk in up to 10% of patients with GBS. Correct diagnosis of GBS-related disorders helps to avoid unnecessary investigations and allows early immunotherapy if appropriate.

388) Zika virus: A review to clinicians
Autor: Pinto Junior V.L., Luz K., Parreira R., Ferrinho P.
Assunto: Immunoglobulin G; Immunoglobulin M; Aedes; Antibody Detection; Arbovirus; Article; Differential Diagnosis; Epidemic; Fever; Guillain Barre Syndrome; Health Education; Human; Infection Control; Nonhuman; Polymerase Chain Reaction; Rash; Rhesus Monkey; Virus Transmission; Yellow Fever Virus; Zika Virus
Descritores: Zika virus - Arboviruses ; Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Antibodies ; Zika virus - PCR detection ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Chikungunya Fever ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Acta Medica Portuguesa, v.28, n. 6, p. 760-765,2015.
ISSN: 0870399X
Resumo: Zika virus is a flavivirus related to Dengue virus, yellow fever virus and West Nile virus. It is considered an emerging arbovirus transmitted by mosquitos of the genus Aedes. Its first description took place in 1947 in the Zika Forest in Uganda, isolated on Rhesus monkey used as bait to study the yellow fever virus. Sporadic cases have been detected in African countries and at the end of the 70?s in Indonesia. In2007, epidemics were described in Micronesia and other islands in the Pacific Ocean and more recently in Brazil. Clinical picture is characterized as a ?dengue-like? syndrome, with abrupt onset of fever and an early onset evanescent rash, often pruritic. Occasionally the disease has been associated with Guillain-Barré syndrome. Nevertheless, until now deaths and complications caused by the disease were not reported. The diagnosis can be performed by PCR or by IgG and IgM antibodies detection. The rapid spread of the virus and its epidemic potential are especially problematic in countries where there are the circulation of other arboviruses which imposes difficulties in the differential diagnosis and healthcare burden. Control measures are the same recommended for dengue and chikungunya which are based in health education and vector control. © Ordem dos Médicos2015.

389) Suramin inhibits Chikungunya virus replication through multiple mechanisms
Autor: Albulescu Irina C, van Hoolwerff Marcella, Wolters Laura A, Bottaro Elisabetta, Nastruzzi Claudio, Yang Shih Chi, Tsay Shwu-Chen, Hwu Jih Ru, Snijder Eric J, van Hemert Martijn J
Assunto: Alphavirus; Chikungunya virus; Entry; Inhibitor; RNA synthesis; Suramin
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Cell ; Chikungunya virus - RNA ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus
Fonte: Antiviral Research, v. 121, p. 39-46, 2015
ISSN: 1872-9096
Resumo: Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a mosquito-borne alphavirus that causes severe - often persistent arthritis. In recent years, millions of people have been infected with this virus for which registered antivirals are still lacking. Using our recently established in vitro assay, we discovered that the approved anti-parasitic drug suramin inhibits CHIKV RNA synthesis (IC50 of ?5?M). The compound inhibited replication of various CHIKV isolates in cell culture with an EC50 of ?80?M (CC50>5mM) - was also active against Sindbis virus - Semliki Forest virus. In vitro studies hinted that suramin interferes with (re)initiation of RNA synthesis, whereas time-of-addition studies suggested it to also interfere with a post-attachment early step in infection, possibly entry. CHIKV (nsP4) mutants resistant against favipiravir or ribavirin, which target the viral RNA polymerase, did not exhibit cross-resistance to suramin, suggesting a different mode of action. The assessment of the activity of a variety of suramin-related compounds in cell culture - the in vitro assay for RNA synthesis provided more insight into the moieties required for antiviral activity. The antiviral effect of suramin-containing liposomes was also analyzed. Its approved status makes it worthwhile to explore the use of suramin to prevent -/or treat CHIKV infections.

390) Fever and rash in a husband and wife returning from the Cook Islands
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Macesic N., Abbott I.J., Johnson D.F.
Assunto: RNA virus infection (diagnosis), zika virus infection (diagnosis)
Descritores: Zika virus - DNA ; Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Clinical Infectious Diseases, v. 61, n. 9, p. 1445, 1485-1486, nov. 2015
ISSN: 1537-6591 (electronic),1058-4838
Resumo:

391) Advances in the understanding, management, and prevention of dengue
Autor: Hermann, Laura L.; Gupta, Swati B.; Manoff, Susan B.; Kalayanarooj, Siripen; Gibbons, Robert V.; Coller, Beth-Ann G.
Assunto: Dengue; Treatment; Diagnosis; Vaccine; Epidemiology
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - Immune response ; Aedes aegypti - Molecular structure ; Aedes aegypti - Viral infections ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Epidemiology
Fonte: Journal of Clinical Virology, v. 64, p. 153-159, 2015
ISSN: 1386-6532
Resumo: Dengue causes more human morbidity globally than any other vector-borne viral disease. Recent research has led to improved epidemiological methods that predict disease burden and factors involved in transmission, a better understanding of immune responses in infection, and enhanced animal models. In addition, a number of control measures, including preventative vaccines, are in clinical trials. However, significant gaps remain, including the need for better surveillance in large parts of the world, methods to predict which individuals will develop severe disease, and immunologic correlates of protection against dengue illness. During the next decade, dengue will likely expand its geographic reach and become an increasing burden on health resources in affected areas. Licensed vaccines and antiviral agents are needed in order to effectively control dengue and limit disease. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

392) Detection of zika virus in urine
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Gourinat A.-C., O’Connor O., Calvez E., Goarant C., Dupont-Rouzeyrol M.
Assunto: Flavivirus, virus detection, Zika virus
Descritores: Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Rash maculopapular
Fonte: Emerging Infectious Diseases, v. 21, n. 1, p. 84-86, 2015
ISSN: 1080-6059 (electronic),1080-6040
Resumo: We describe the kinetics of Zika virus (ZIKV) detection in serum and urine samples of 6 patients. Urine samples were positive for ZIKV >10 days after onset of disease, which was a notably longer period than for serum samples. This finding supports the conclusion that urine samples are useful for diagnosis of ZIKV infections.

393) Seroepidemiology of selected arboviruses in febrile patients visiting selected health facilities in the lake/river basin areas of Lake Baringo, Lake Naivasha, and Tana River, Kenya
Autor: Tigoi Caroline, Lwande Olivia, Orindi Benedict, Irura Zephania, Ongus Juliette, Sang Rosemary
Assunto: Arboviruses; Chikungunya virus; Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus; Febrile patients; Kenya; Lake/River Basin areas; Rift Valley fever virus; West Nile virus
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Arbovirus ; Chikungunya virus - Antibodies ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever
Fonte: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases, v. 15, n. 2, p. 124-132, 2015
ISSN: 1557-7759
Resumo: Arboviruses cause emerging - re-emerging infections affecting humans - animals. They are spread primarily by blood-sucking insects such as mosquitoes, ticks, midges, - s-flies. Changes in climate, ecology, demographic, l--use patterns, - increasing global travel have been linked to an upsurge in arboviral disease. Outbreaks occur periodically followed by persistent low-level circulation. This study was undertaken to determine the seroepidemiology of selected arboviruses among febrile patients in selected lake/river basins of Kenya. Using a hospital-based cross-sectional descriptive survey, febrile patients were recruited - their serum samples tested for exposure to immunoglobulin M (IgM) - IgG antibodies against Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV), Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV), West Nile virus (WNV), - chikungunya virus (CHIKV). Samples positive for CHIKV - WNV were further confirmed by the plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT). Of the 379 samples examined, 176 were IgG positive for at least one of these arboviruses (46.4%, 95% confidence interval [CI] 41.4-51.5%). Virus-specific prevalence for CCHF, RVF, WN, - CHIK was 25.6%, 19.5%, 12.4%, - 2.6%, respectively. These prevalences varied significantly with geographical site (p<0.001), with Tana recording the highest overall arboviral seropositivity. PRNT results for Alphaviruses confirmed that the actual viruses circulating in Baringo were Semliki Forest virus (SFV) - CHIKV, o'nyong nyong virus (ONNV) in Naivasha, - SFV - Sindbis virus (SINDV) in Tana delta. Among the flaviviruses tested, WNV was circulating in all the three sites. There is a high burden of febrile illness in humans due to CCHFV, RVFV, WNV, - CHIKV infection in the river/lake basin regions of Kenya.

394) Parity and longevity of Aedes aegypti according to temperatures in controlled conditions and consequences on dengue transmission risks
Autor: Goindin, Daniella; Delannay, Christelle; Ramdini, Cedric;Gustave, Joeel; Fouque, Florence
Assunto: Human diseases; Reproductive cycle; Disease control; Pest control; Longevity; Temperature effects; Gonotrophic cycles; Epidemics; Data processing; Development; Blood meals; Reproductive status; Fecundity; Dengue; Controlled conditions; Ovaries; Vaccines; Evolution; Aedes aegypti; Anopheles gambiae
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Infectious diseases ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Vaccine ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Epidemic
Fonte: Plos One, v. 10, n. 8, 2015.
ISSN:
Resumo: Background In Guadeloupe, Aedes aegypti mosquitoes are the only vectors of dengue and chikungunya viruses. For both diseases, vector control is the only tool for preventing epidemics since no vaccine or specific treatment is available. However, to efficiently implement control of mosquitoes vectors, a reliable estimation of the transmission risks is necessary. To become infective an Ae. aegypti female must ingest the virus during a blood meal and will not be able to transmit the virus during another blood-meal until the extrinsic incubation period is completed. Consequently the aged females will carry more infectious risks. The objectives of the present study were to estimate under controlled conditions the expectation of infective life for females and thus the transmission risks in relation with their reproductive cycle and parity status. Methodology/Principal Findings Larvae of Ae. aegypti were collected in central Guadeloupe and breed under laboratory conditions until adult emergence. The experiments were performed at constant temperatures ( plus or minus 1.5 degree C) of 24 degree C, 27 degree C and 30 degree C on adults females from first generation (F1). Females were kept and fed individually and records of blood-feeding, egg-laying and survival were done daily. Some females were dissected at different physiological stages to observe the ovaries development. The data were analyzed to follow the evolution of parity rates, the number of gonotrophic cycles, the fecundity and to study the mean expectation of life and the mean expectation of infective life for Ae. aegypti females according to temperatures. The expectation of life varies with the parity rates and according to the temperatures, with durations from about 10 days at low parity rates at the higher temperature to an optimal duration of about 35 days when 70% of females are parous at 27 degree C. Infective life expectancy was found highly variable in the lower parous rates and again the optimal durations were found when more than 50% of females are parous for the mean temperatures of 27 degree C and 30 degree C. Conclusion Parity rates can be determined for field collected females and could be a good proxy of the expectation of infective life according to temperatures. However, for the same parity rates, the estimation of infective life expectation is very different between Ae. aegypti and Anopheles gambiae mosquitoes. Correlation of field parity rates with transmission risks requires absolutely to be based on Ae. aegypti models, since available Anopheles sp. models underestimate greatly the females longevity.

395) Laboratory evaluation of Indian medicinal plants as repellents against malaria, dengue, and filariasis vector mosquitoes
Autor: Govindarajan Marimuthu, Sivakumar Rajamohan
Assunto: Repellent activity; Erythrina indica; Asparagus racemosus; Mosquitoes
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Pathogenesis ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Repellent ; Chikungunya virus - Transmission ; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever ; Chikungunya virus - Dengue ; Chikungunya virus - Public health
Fonte: Parasitology Research, v. 114, n. 2, p. 601-612, 2015
ISSN: 1432-1955
Resumo: Mosquito-borne diseases have an economic impact, including loss in commercial - labor outputs, particularly in countries with tropical - subtropical climates; however, no part of the world is free from vector-borne diseases. Mosquitoes are the carriers of severe - well-known illnesses such as malaria, arboviral encephalitis, dengue fever, chikungunya fever, West Nile virus, - yellow fever. These diseases produce significant morbidity - mortality in humans - livestock around the world. In view of the recently increased interest in developing plant origin insecticides as an alternative to chemical insecticides, in the present study, the repellent activity of crude hexane, ethyl acetate, benzene, chloroform, - methanol extracts of leaf of Erythrina indica - root of Asparagus racemosus were assayed for their repellency against three important vector mosquitoes, viz., Anopheles stephensi, Aedes aegypti, - Culex quinquefasciatus. The crude extract was applied on a membrane used for membrane feeding of unfed mosquitoes in a 1-ft cage. About 50 unfed 3-4-day-old laboratory-reared pathogen-free strains of A. stephensi, A. aegypti, - C. quinquefasciatus were introduced in a 1-ft cage fitted with a membrane with blood for feeding with temperature maintained at 37 °C through circulating water bath maintained at 40-45 °C. Three concentrations (1.0, 2.0, - 5.0 mg/cm(2)) of the crude extracts were evaluated. Repellents in E. indica afforded longer protection time against A. stephensi, A. aegypti, - C. quinquefasciatus than those in A. racemosus at 5.0 mg/cm(2) concentration, - the mean complete protection time ranged from 120 to 210 min with the different extracts tested. In this observation, these two plant crude extracts gave protection against mosquito bites; also, the repellent activity is dependent on the strength of the plant extracts. These results suggest that the leaf extract of E. indica - root extract of A. racemosus have the potential to be used as an ideal eco-friendly approach for the control of mosquitoes. This is the first report on the mosquito repellent activity of the reported A. racemosus - E. indica plants.

396) Impact of climate and mosquito vector abundance on sylvatic arbovirus circulation dynamics in senegal
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Althouse B.M., Hanley K.A., Diallo M., Sall A.A., Ba Y., Faye O., Diallo D., Watts D.M., Weaver S.C., Cummings D.A.T.
Assunto: Arbovirus, climate, mosquito
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Immunology ; Zika virus - Chikungunya Fever ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, v. 92, n. 1, p. 88-97, jan. 2015
ISSN: 0002-9637
Resumo: Sylvatic arboviruses have been isolated in Senegal over the last 50 years. The ecological drivers of the pattern and frequency of virus infection in these species are largely unknown. We used time series analysis and Bayesian hierarchical count modeling on a long-term arbovirus dataset to test associations between mosquito abundance, weather variables, and the frequency of isolation of dengue, yellow fever, chikungunya, and Zika viruses. We found little correlation between mosquito abundance and viral isolations. Rainfall was a negative predictor of dengue virus (DENV) isolation but a positive predictor of Zika virus isolation. Temperature was a positive predictor of yellow fever virus (YFV) isolations but a negative predictor of DENV isolations. We found slight interference between viruses, with DENV negatively associated with concurrent YFV isolation and YFV negatively associated with concurrent isolation of chikungunya virus. These findings begin to characterize some of the ecological associations of sylvatic arboviruses with each other and climate and mosquito abundance.

397) Potent antibody protection against an emerging alphavirus threat
Autor: Kielian Margaret, Saphire Erica Ollmann
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Cell ; Chikungunya virus - Proteins ; Chikungunya virus - Antibodies ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Immunology
Fonte: Cell, v. 163, n. 5, p. 1053-1054, 2015
ISSN: 1097-4172
Resumo: Chikungunya virus recently caused large outbreaks world-wide. In this issue of Cell, Fox et al. describe several potently neutralizing antibodies against multiple alphaviruses. The structure of the virus in complex with one of the antibodies reveals the antibody-induced rearrangement - crosslinking of the viral surface proteins that result in neutralization.

398) Wolbachia do not induce reactive oxygen species-dependent immune pathway activation in Aedes albopictus
Autor: Molloy, Jennifer C Jennifer Jennifer C Molloy Molloy C Molloy, Jennifer C , Sinkins, Steven P Steven Steven P Sinkins Sinkins P Sinkins, Steven P
Assunto: Antioxidants; Viral diseases; Viruses; Hosts; Strains; Phenotypes; Aquatic insects; Public health; Disease transmission; Data processing; Reactive oxygen species; Endosymbionts; Dengue; Vectors; Immune response; Infection; Wolbachia; Drosophila melanogaster; Aedes albopictus; Arbovirus; Mosquito
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Biochemistry ; Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - Immune response ; Aedes aegypti - Viral infections ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Immunology ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Viruses, v. 7, n. 8, p. 4624-4639, 2015.
ISSN: 1999-4915
Resumo: Aedes albopictus is a major vector of dengue (DENV) and chikungunya (CHIKV) viruses, causing millions of infections annually. It naturally carries, at high frequency, the intracellular inherited bacterial endosymbiont Wolbachia strains wAlbA and wAlbB; transinfection with the higher-density Wolbachia strain wMel from Drosophila melanogaster led to transmission blocking of both arboviruses. The hypothesis that reactive oxygen species (ROS)-induced immune activation plays a role in arbovirus inhibition in this species was examined. In contrast to previous observations in Ae. aegypti, elevation of ROS levels was not observed in either cell lines or mosquito lines carrying the wild-type Wolbachia or higher-density Drosophila Wolbachia strains. There was also no upregulation of genes controlling innate immune pathways or with antioxidant/ROS-producing functions. These data suggest that ROS-mediated immune activation is not an important component of the viral transmission-blocking phenotype in this species.

399) ?? T cells play a protective role in chikungunya virus-induced disease
Autor: Long Kristin M, Ferris Martin T, Whitmore Alan C, Montgomery Stephanie A, Thurlow Lance R, McGee Charles E, Rodriguez Carlos A, Lim Jean K, Heise Mark T
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Cell ; Chikungunya virus - Cytopathology ; Chikungunya virus - Cytokines ; Chikungunya virus - Inflammation ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Vaccine ; Chikungunya virus - Epidemic ; Chikungunya virus - Immunology
Fonte: Journal of Virology, v. 90, n. 1, p. 433-443, 2015
ISSN: 1098-5514
Resumo: Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is an alphavirus responsible for causing epidemic outbreaks of polyarthralgia in humans. Because CHIKV is initially introduced via the skin, where ?? T cells are prevalent, we evaluated the response of these cells to CHIKV infection. CHIKV infection led to a significant increase in ?? T cells in the infected foot - draining lymph node that was associated with the production of proinflammatory cytokines - chemokines in C57BL/6J mice. ?? T cell(-/-) mice demonstrated exacerbated CHIKV disease characterized by less weight gain - greater foot swelling than occurred in wild-type mice, as well as a transient increase in monocytes - altered cytokine/chemokine expression in the foot. Histologically, ?? T cell(-/-) mice had increased inflammation-mediated oxidative damage in the ipsilateral foot - ankle joint compared to wild-type mice which was independent of differences in CHIKV replication. These results suggest that ?? T cells play a protective role in limiting the CHIKV-induced inflammatory response - subsequent tissue - joint damage. Recent epidemics, including the 2004 to 2007 outbreak - the spread of CHIKV to naive populations in the Caribbean - Central - South America with resultant cases imported into the United States, have highlighted the capacity of CHIKV to cause explosive epidemics where the virus can spread to millions of people - rapidly move into new areas. These studies identified ?? T cells as important to both recruitment of key inflammatory cell populations - dampening the tissue injury due to oxidative stress. Given the importance of these cells in the early response to CHIKV, this information may inform the development of CHIKV vaccines - therapeutics.

400) Seroprevalence and entomological study on Chikungunya virus at the Croatian littoral
Autor: Vilibic-Cavlek Tatjana, Pem-Novosel Iva, Kaic Bernard, Babi?-Erceg Andrea, Kucinar Jasmina, Klobucar Ana, Medic Alan, Pahor Djana, Barac-Juretic Katija, Gjenero-Margan Ira
Assunto: Chikungunya virus; Croatia; Entomology; Seroprevalence
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Pathogenesis ; Chikungunya virus - Proteins ; Chikungunya virus - RNA ; Chikungunya virus - Antibodies ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya virus - Real Time PCR ; Chikungunya virus - RT-PCR ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Transmission ; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever ; Chikungunya virus - Epidemiology ; Chikungunya virus - Immunology ; Chikungunya virus - Public health
Fonte: Acta microbiologica et immunologica Hungarica, v. 62, n. 2, p. 199-206, 2015
ISSN: 1217-8950
Resumo: During 2011-2012, a total of 1008 serum samples from r-omly selected inhabitants of seven Croatian counties located on the Adriatic Coast were tested for the presence of chikungunya virus (CHIKV) IgG antibodies using indirect immunofluorescence assay. Nine participants (0.9%) from four counties were found to be seropositive to CHIKV. Seroprevalence varied from 0.5% to 1.8% between counties. Additionally, a total of 3,699 mosquitoes were captured in 126 localities from August 16 to September 24, 2011. Three mosquito species were found: Ae. albopictus (3010/81.4%), Cx. pipiens (688/18.6%) - only one specimen of the Cs. longiareolata. Female mosquitoes (N = 1,748) were pooled. All pools tested negative for CHIKV RNA using a real-time RT-PCR.

401) Specific management of post-chikungunya rheumatic disorders: A retrospective study of 159 cases in Reunion Island from 2006-2012
Autor: Javelle Emilie, Ribera Anne, Degasne Isabelle, Gaüzère Bernard-Alex, Marimoutou Catherine, Simon Fabrice
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Pathogenesis ; Chikungunya virus - Infectious diseases ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever ; Chikungunya virus - Epidemiology ; Chikungunya virus - Public health
Fonte: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, v. 9, n. 3, p. e0003603, 2015
ISSN: 1935-2735
Resumo: Since 2003, the tropical arthritogenic chikungunya (CHIK) virus has become an increasingly medical - economic burden in affected areas as it can often result in long-term disabilities. The clinical spectrum of post-CHIK (pCHIK) rheumatic disorders is wide. Evidence-based recommendations are needed to help physicians manage the treatment of afflicted patients. We conducted a 6-year case series retrospective study in Reunion Isl- of patients referred to a rheumatologist due to continuous rheumatic or musculoskeletal pains that persisted following CHIK infection. These various disorders were documented in terms of their clinical - therapeutic courses. Post-CHIK de novo chronic inflammatory rheumatisms (CIRs) were identified according to validated criteria. We reviewed 159 patient medical files. Ninety-four patients (59%) who were free of any articular disorder prior to CHIK met the CIR criteria: rheumatoid arthritis (n=40), spondyloarthritis (n=33), undifferentiated polyarthritis (n=21). Bone lesions detectable by radiography occurred in half of the patients (median time: 3.5 years pCHIK). A positive therapeutic response was achieved in 54 out of the 72 patients (75%) who were treated with methotrexate (MTX). Twelve out of the 92 patients (13%) received immunomodulatory biologic agents due to failure of contra-indication of MTX treatment. Other patients mainly presented with mechanical shoulder or knee disorders, bilateral distal polyarthralgia that was frequently associated with oedema at the extremities - tunnel syndromes. These pCHIK musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) were managed with pain-killers, local -/or general anti-inflammatory drugs, - physiotherapy. Rheumatologists in Reunion Isl- managed CHIK rheumatic disorders in a pragmatic manner following the outbreak in 2006. This retrospective study describes the common mechanical - inflammatory pCHIK disorders. We provide a diagnostic - therapeutic algorithm to help physicians deal with chronic patients, - to limit both functional - economic impacts. The therapeutic indication of MTX in pCHIK CIR could be approved in future efficacy trials.

402) Meta-analysis of studies on chemical, physical and biological agents in the control of Aedes aegypti
Autor: Lima Estelita Pereira, Goulart Marília Oliveira Fonseca, Rolim Neto Modesto Leite
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever ; Chikungunya virus - Dengue ; Chikungunya virus - Epidemic ; Chikungunya virus - Public health
Fonte: BMC Public Health, v. 15, p. 858, 2015
ISSN: 1471-2458
Resumo: Aedes aegypti is a vector of international concern because it can transmit to humans three important arboviral diseases: yellow fever, dengue - chikungunya. Epidemics that are repeated year after year in a variety of urban centers indicate that there are control failures, allowing the vector to continue exp-ing. To identify the most effective vector control strategies - the factors that contributed to the success or failure of each strategy, we carried out a systematic review with meta-analysis of articles published in 12 databases, from 1974 to the month of December 2013. We evaluated the association between the use of whatever chemical substance, mechanical agent, biological or integrated actions against A. aegypti - the control of the vector, as measured by 10 indicators. We found 2,791 articles, but after careful selection, only 26 studies remained for analysis related to control interventions implemented in 15 countries, with 5 biological, 5 chemical, 3 mechanical - 13 integrated strategies. The comparison among all of them, indicated that the control of A. aegypti is significantly associated with the type of strategy used, - that integrated interventions consist of the most effective method for controlling A. aegypti. The most effective control method was the integrated approach, considering the influence of eco-bio-social determinants in the virus-vector-man epidemiological chain, - community involvement, starting with community empowerment as active agents of vector control.

403) Aedes aegypti salivary gland extract ameliorates experimental inflammatory bowel disease
Autor: Sales-Campos, Helioswilton; de Souza, Patricia Reis; Basso, Paulo Jose; Ramos, Anderson Daniel; Nardini, Viviani; Lazo Chica, Javier Emilio; Capurro, Margareth Lara; Sa-Nunes, Anderson; de Barros Cardoso, Cristina Ribeiro
Assunto: Inflammatory bowel disease; Aedes aegypti; Saliva; Therapy
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Biochemistry ; Aedes aegypti - Pathogenesis ; Aedes aegypti - T lymphocytes ; Aedes aegypti - Immune response ; Aedes aegypti - Immunology
Fonte: International Immunopharmacology, v. 26, n. 1, p. 13-22, 2015
ISSN: 1567-5769
Resumo: Current therapies for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are not totally effective, resulting in persistent and recurrent disease for many patients. Mosquito saliva contains immunomodulatory molecules and therein could represent a novel therapy for IBD. Here, we demonstrated the therapeutic activity of salivary gland extract (SGE) of Aedes aegypti on dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis. For this purpose, C57BL/6 male mice were exposed to 3% DSS in drinking water and treated with SGE at early (days 3-5) or late (days 5-8) time points, followed by euthanasia on days 6 and 9, respectively, for sample collection. The results showed an improvement in clinical disease outcome and postmortem scores after SGE treatment accompanied by the systemic reduction in peripheral blood lymphocytes, with no impact on bone marrow and mesenteric lymph nodes cellularity or macrophages toxicity. Moreover, a local diminishment of IFN-gamma, TNE-alpha, IL-1 beta and IL-5 cytokines together with a reduction in the inflammatory area were observed in the colon of SGE-treated mice. Strikingly, early treatment with SGE led to mice protection from a late DSS re-challenging, as observed by decreased clinical and postmortem scores, besides reduced circulating lymphocytes, indicating that the mosquito saliva may present components able to prevent disease relapse. Indeed, high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) experiments pointed to a major SGE pool fraction (F3) able to ameliorate disease signs. In conclusion, SGE and its components might represent a source of important immunomodulatory molecules with promising therapeutic activity for IBD. (C) 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

404) Tackling the growing threat of dengue: Phyllanthus niruri-mediated synthesis of silver nanoparticles and their mosquitocidal properties against the dengue vector Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae)
Autor: Suresh, Udaiyan; Murugan, Kadarkarai; Benelli, Giovanni;Nicoletti, Marcello; Barnard, Donald R; Panneerselvam, Chellasamy; Kumar, Palanisamy Mahesh; Subramaniam, Jayapal; Dinesh, Devakumar; Chandramohan, Balamurugan
Assunto: Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy; Green synthesis; Mosquitocidal nanoparticles; Mosquito-borne diseases; Nanobiotechnologies; Phyllanthaceae; UV-vis spectroscopy; X-ray diffraction
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Viral infections ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Epidemiology ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Parasitology Research, v. 114, n. 4, p. 1551-1562, 2015.
ISSN: 0932-0113
Resumo: Mosquitoes are vectors of devastating pathogens and parasites, causing millions of deaths every year. Dengue is a mosquito-borne viral infection found in tropical and subtropical regions around the world. Recently, transmission has strongly increased in urban and semiurban areas, becoming a major international public health concern. Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) is the primary vector of dengue. The use of synthetic insecticides to control Aedes mosquitoes lead to high operational costs and adverse nontarget effects. In this scenario, eco-friendly control tools are a priority. We proposed a novel method to synthesize silver nanoparticles using the aqueous leaf extract of Phyllanthus niruri, a cheap and nontoxic material. The UV-vis spectrum of the aqueous medium containing silver nanostructures showed a peak at 420 nm corresponding to the surface plasmon resonance band of nanoparticles. SEM analyses of the synthesized nanoparticles showed a mean size of 30-60 nm. EDX spectrum showed the chemical composition of the synthesized nanoparticles. XRD highlighted that the nanoparticles are crystalline in nature with face-centered cubic geometry. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) of nanoparticles exhibited prominent peaks 3,327.63, 2,125.87, 1,637.89, 644.35, 597.41, and 554.63 cm super(-1). In laboratory assays, the aqueous extract of P. niruri was toxic against larval instars (I-IV) and pupae of A. aegypti. LC sub(50) was 158.24 ppm (I), 183.20 ppm (II), 210.53 ppm (III), 210.53 ppm (IV), and 358.08 ppm (pupae). P. niruri-synthesized nanoparticles were highly effective against A. aegypti, with LC sub(50) of 3.90 ppm (I), 5.01 ppm (II), 6.2 ppm (III), 8.9 ppm (IV), and 13.04 ppm (pupae). In the field, the application of silver nanoparticles (10 LC sub(50)) lead to A. aegypti larval reduction of 47.6 %, 76.7 % and 100 %, after 24, 48, and 72 h, while the P. niruri extract lead to 39.9 %, 69.2 % and 100 % of reduction, respectively. In adulticidal experiments, P. niruri extract and nanoparticles showed LC sub(50) and LC sub(90) of 174.14 and 6.68 ppm and 422.29 and 23.58 ppm, respectively. Overall, this study highlights that the possibility to employ P. niruri leaf extract and green-synthesized silver nanoparticles in mosquito control programs is concrete, since both are effective at lower doses if compared to synthetic products currently marketed, thus they could be an advantageous alternative to build newer and safer tools against dengue vectors.

405) IFIT1 differentially interferes with translation and replication of alphavirus genomes and promotes induction of type I interferon
Autor: Reynaud Josephine M, Kim Dal Young, Atasheva Svetlana, Rasalouskaya Aliaksandra, White James P, Diamond Michael S, Weaver Scott C, Frolova Elena I, Frolov Ilya
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Cell ; Chikungunya virus - Cytopathology ; Chikungunya virus - Genome ; Chikungunya virus - RNA ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Vaccine ; Chikungunya virus - Immunology
Fonte: PLoS Pathogens, v. 11, n. 4, p. e1004863, 2015
ISSN: 1553-7374
Resumo: Alphaviruses are a group of widely distributed human - animal pathogens. It is well established that their replication is sensitive to type I IFN treatment, but the mechanism of IFN inhibitory function remains poorly understood. Using a new experimental system, we demonstrate that in the presence of IFN-?, activation of interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs) does not interfere with either attachment of alphavirus virions to the cells, or their entry - nucleocapsid disassembly. However, it strongly affects translation of the virion-delivered virus-specific RNAs. One of the ISG products, IFIT1 protein, plays a major role in this translation block, although an IFIT1-independent mechanism is also involved. The 5'UTRs of the alphavirus genomes were found to differ significantly in their ability to drive translation in the presence of increased concentration of IFIT1. Prior studies have shown that adaptation of naturally circulating alphaviruses to replication in tissue culture results in accumulation of mutations in the 5'UTR, which increase the efficiency of the promoter located in the 5'end of the genome. Here, we show that these mutations also decrease resistance of viral RNA to IFIT1-induced translation inhibition. In the presence of higher levels of IFIT1, alphaviruses with wt 5'UTRs became potent inducers of type I IFN, suggesting a new mechanism of type I IFN induction. We applied this knowledge of IFIT1 interaction with alphaviruses to develop new attenuated variants of Venezuelan equine encephalitis - chikungunya viruses that are more sensitive to the antiviral effects of IFIT1, - thus could serve as novel vaccine c-idates.

406) Molecular modeling and docking study to elucidate novel Chikungunya virus nsP2 protease inhibitors
Autor: Agarwal T, Asthana Somya, Bissoyi A
Assunto: AutoDock4.2; Chikungunya; Homology modeling; Molecular dynamics simulation; nsP2 protease
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Vaccine
Fonte: Indian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, v. 77, n. 4, p. 453-460, 2015
ISSN: 0250-474X
Resumo: Chikungunya is one of the tropical viral infections that severely affect the Asian - African countries. Absence of any suitable drugs or vaccines against Chikungunya virus till date makes it essential to identify - develop novel leads for the same. Recently, nsP2 cysteine protease has been classified as a crucial drug target to combat infections caused by Alphaviruses including Chikungunya virus due to its involvement viral replication. Here in, we investigated the structural aspects of the nsP2 protease through homology modeling based on nsP2 protease from Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus. Further, the lig-s were virtually screened based on various pharmacological, ADME/Tox filters - subjected to docking with the modeled Chikungunya nsP2 protease using AutoDock4.2. The interaction profiling of lig- with the protein was carried out using LigPlot(+). The results demonstrated that the lig- with PubChem Id (CID_5808891) possessed highest binding affinity towards Chikungunya nsP2 protease with a good interaction profile with the active site residues. We hereby propose that these compounds could inhibit the nsP2 protease by binding to its active site. Moreover, they may provide structural scaffold for the design of novel leads with better efficacy - specificity for the nsP2 protease.

407) Chikungunya virus mutation, Indonesia, 2011
Autor: Maha Masri Sembiring, Susilarini Ni Ketut, Hariastuti Nur Ika
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - DNA ; Chikungunya virus - Genome ; Chikungunya virus - Pathogenesis ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever ; Chikungunya virus - Epidemiology ; Chikungunya virus - Public health
Fonte: Emerging Infectious Diseases, v. 21, n. 2, p. 379-381, 2015
ISSN: 1080-6059
Resumo:

408) Aea/RACK1 expression and localization in response to stress in C6/36 HT mosquito cells
Autor: González-Calixto Cecilia, Cázares-Raga Febe E, Cortés-Martínez Leticia, Del Angel Rosa María, Medina-Ramírez Fern-o, Mosso Clemente, Ocádiz-Ruiz Ramón, Valenzuela Jesús G, Rodríguez Mario Henry, Hernández-Hernández Fidel de la Cruz
Assunto: Aedes mosquito; C6/36 HT cells; Receptor for Activated C Kinase (RACK1); Scaffold protein; Stress conditions
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Biosynthesis ; Chikungunya virus - Cell ; Chikungunya virus - Molecular structure ; Chikungunya virus - Protein synthesis ; Chikungunya virus - Proteins ; Chikungunya virus - Infectious diseases ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever ; Chikungunya virus - Dengue
Fonte: Journal of Proteomics, v. 119, p. 45-60, 2015
ISSN: 1876-7737
Resumo: The Receptor for Activated C Kinase 1 (RACK1), a scaffold protein member of the tryptophan-aspartate (WD) repeat family, folds in a seven-bladed ?-propeller structure that permits the association of proteins to form active complexes. Mosquitoes of the genus Aedes sp., are vectors of virus producing important diseases such as: dengue, chikungunya - yellow fever. Based on the highly conserved gene sequence of AeaeRACK1 of the mosquito Aedes aegypti we characterized the mRNA - protein of the homologous AealRACK1 from the Ae. albopictus-derived cell line C6/36 HT. Two protein species differing in MW/pI values were observed at 35kDa/8.0 - 36kDa/6.5. The behavior of AealRACK1 was studied inducing stress with serum deprivation - the glucocorticoid dexamethasone. Both stressors induced increase of the expression of AealRACK1 mRNA - proteins. In serum-deprived cells AealRACK1 protein was located cortically near the plasma membrane in contrast to dexamethasone-treated cells where the protein formed a dotted pattern in the cytoplasm. In addition, 33 protein partners were identified by immunoprecipitation - mass spectrometry. Most of the identified proteins were ribosomal, involved in signaling pathways - stress responses. Our results suggest that AealRACK1 in C6/36 HT cells respond to stress increasing its synthesis - producing phosphorylated activated form. Insect cells adapt to numerous environmental stressors, including chemicals - invasion of pathogenic microorganisms among others, coordinating cellular - organismal responses. Individual cells sense the environment using receptors that trigger signaling pathways that regulate expression of specific effector proteins -/or cellular responses as movement or secretion. In the coordination of responses to stress, scaffold proteins are pivotal molecules that recruit other proteins forming active complexes. The Receptor for Activated C Kinase 1 (RACK1) is the best studied member of the conserved tryptophan-aspartate (WD) repeat family. RACK1 folds in a seven-bladed ?-propeller structure - it could be activated during stress, participating in different signaling pathways. The presence - activities of RACK1 in mosquitoes had not been documented before, in this work the molecule is demonstrated in an Aedes albopictus-derived cell line - its reaction to stress is observed under the effect of serum deprivation - the presence of glucocorticoid analog dexamethasone, a chemical used to cause stress in vitro.

409) Chikungunya virus infections
Autor: Cabié André, Ledrans Martine, Abel Sylvie
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever ; Chikungunya virus - Public health
Fonte: The New England Journal of Medicine, v. 373, n. 1, p. 94, 2015
ISSN: 1533-4406
Resumo:

410) Modeling the impact on virus transmission of Wolbachia-mediated blocking of dengue virus infection of Aedes aegypti
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Ferguson, Neil M.; Duong Thi Hue Kien; Clapham, Hannah; Aguas, Ricardo; Vu Tuan Trung; Tran Nguyen Bich Chau; Popovici, Jean; Ryan, Peter A.; O'Neill, Scott L.; McGraw, Elizabeth A.; Vo Thi Long; Le Thi Dui; Nguyen, Hoa L.; Nguyen Van Vinh Chau; Wills, Bridget; Simmons, Cameron P.
Assunto: Population; Mosquito; Establishment; Survival; Fever; Host
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Infectious diseases ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Science Translational Medicine, v. 7, n. 279, 2015
ISSN: 1946-6234
Resumo: Dengue is the most common arboviral infection of humans and is a public health burden in more than 100 countries. Aedes aegypti mosquitoes stably infected with strains of the intracellular bacterium Wolbachia are resistant to dengue virus (DENV) infection and are being tested in field trials. To mimic field conditions, we experimentally assessed the vector competence of A. aegypti carrying the Wolbachia strains wMel and wMelPop after challenge with viremic blood from dengue patients. We found that wMelPop conferred strong resistance to DENV infection of mosquito abdomen tissue and largely prevented disseminated infection. wMel conferred less resistance to infection of mosquito abdomen tissue, but it did reduce the prevalence of mosquitoes with infectious saliva. A mathematical model of DENV transmission incorporating the dynamics of viral infection in humans and mosquitoes was fitted to the data collected. Model predictions suggested that wMel would reduce the basic reproduction number, R-0, of DENV transmission by 66 to 75%. Our results suggest that establishment of wMelPop-infected A. aegypti at a high frequency in a dengue-endemic setting would result in the complete abatement of DENV transmission. Establishment of wMel-infected A. aegypti is also predicted to have a substantial effect on transmission that would be sufficient to eliminate dengue in low or moderate transmission settings but may be insufficient to achieve complete control in settings where R0 is high. These findings develop a framework for selecting Wolbachia strains for field releases and for calculating their likely impact.

411) Stress granule components G3BP1 and G3BP2 play a proviral role early in Chikungunya virus replication
Autor: Scholte Florine E M, Tas Ali, Albulescu Irina C, ?usinaite Eva, Merits Andres, Snijder Eric J, van Hemert Martijn J
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Biosynthesis ; Chikungunya virus - Cell ; Chikungunya virus - DNA ; Chikungunya virus - Genome ; Chikungunya virus - Pathogenesis ; Chikungunya virus - Protein synthesis ; Chikungunya virus - Proteins ; Chikungunya virus - RNA ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya virus - Real Time PCR ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Vaccine ; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever
Fonte: Journal of Virology, v. 89, n. 8, p. 4457-4469, 2015
ISSN: 1098-5514
Resumo: Stress granules (SGs) are protein-mRNA aggregates that are formed in response to environmental stresses, resulting in translational inhibition. SGs are generally believed to play an antiviral role - are manipulated by many viruses, including various alphaviruses. GTPase-activating protein (SH3 domain)-binding protein 1 (G3BP1) is a key component - commonly used marker of SGs. Its homolog G3BP2 is a less extensively studied SG component. Here, we demonstrate that Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) infection induces cytoplasmic G3BP1- - G3BP2-containing granules that differ from bona fide SGs in terms of morphology, composition, - behavior. For several Old World alphaviruses it has been shown that nonstructural protein 3 (nsP3) interacts with G3BPs, presumably to inhibit SG formation, - we have confirmed this interaction in CHIKV-infected cells. Surprisingly, CHIKV also relied on G3BPs for efficient replication, as simultaneous depletion of G3BP1 - G3BP2 reduced viral RNA levels, CHIKV protein expression, - viral progeny titers. The G3BPs colocalized with CHIKV nsP2 - nsP3 in cytoplasmic foci, but no colocalization with nsP1, nsP4, or dsRNA was observed. Furthermore, G3BPs could not be detected in a cellular fraction enriched for CHIKV replication/transcription complexes, suggesting that they are not directly involved in CHIKV RNA synthesis. Depletion of G3BPs did not affect viral entry, translation of incoming genomes, or nonstructural polyprotein processing but resulted in severely reduced levels of negative-str-ed (- consequently also positive-str-ed) RNA. This suggests a role for the G3BPs in the switch from translation to genome amplification, although the exact mechanism by which they act remains to be explored. Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) causes a severe polyarthritis that has affected millions of people since its reemergence in 2004. The lack of approved vaccines or therapeutic options - the ongoing explosive outbreak in the Caribbean underline the importance of better underst-ing CHIKV replication. Stress granules (SGs) are cytoplasmic protein-mRNA aggregates formed in response to various stresses, including viral infection. The RNA-binding proteins G3BP1 - G3BP2 are essential SG components. SG formation - the resulting translational inhibition are generally considered an antiviral response, - many viruses manipulate or block this process. Late in infection, we - others have observed CHIKV nonstructural protein 3 in cytoplasmic G3BP1- - G3BP2-containing granules. These virally induced foci differed from true SGs - did not appear to represent replication complexes. Surprisingly, we found that G3BP1 - G3BP2 were also needed for efficient CHIKV replication, likely by facilitating the switch from translation to genome amplification early in infection.

412) Molecular characterization of Chikungunya virus circulating in urban and rural areas of West Bengal, India after its re-emergence in 2006
Autor: Taraphdar Debjani, Chatterjee Shyamalendu
Assunto: Chikungunya virus; India; Molecular characterization; West Bengal
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Cell ; Chikungunya virus - Genome ; Chikungunya virus - Pathogenesis ; Chikungunya virus - RNA ; Chikungunya virus - Infectious diseases ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya virus - Molecular methods ; Chikungunya virus - RT-PCR ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Transmission ; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever ; Chikungunya virus - Epidemiology ; Chikungunya virus - Public health
Fonte: Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, v. 109, n. 3, p. 197-202, 2015
ISSN: 1878-3503
Resumo: In the state of West Bengal, chikungunya virus (CHIKV) has re-emerged in 2006 after its last occurrence in 1963-1965 in this state. The virus rapidly affected almost every district of this state, with high morbidity. Based on complete sequences of structural region of CHIKV genome, we determined the molecular characterization of the virus circulating in this state from 2006-2012. CHIKV was isolated from 20 acute CHIKV RT-PCR positive serum samples in C6/36 mosquito cell line. These samples were collected from 20 patients with a clinical history of ?2 days of fever - chikungunya-like illness. Those patients were residing in some outbreak areas in the state of West Bengal during 2006-2012. Isolation was confirmed through RT-PCR - sequencing. Two sub-lineages of East-central-southern African (ECSA) genotype of CHIKV strains were circulating simultaneously in this state during the study period; one type was circulating in rural areas of the state from 2006 whereas another type was isolated from the metropolitan city of Kolkata in 2011 - 2012. The mutational pattern of those CHIKV strains suggests that the transmission of the viruses might be facilitated by different species of Aedes mosquitoes. Our results represent an important first step towards underst-ing the circulating strains of CHIKV in the state of West Bengal with the geographical variation.

413) Zika: the new arbovirus threat for Latin America.
Autor: Rodriguez-Morales Alfonso J
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Pathogenesis ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Journal of Infection in Developing Countries, v. 9, n. 6, p. 84-85, 2015
ISSN: 1972-2680
Resumo:

414) Sero-prevalence and cross-reactivity of Chikungunya virus specific anti-E2EP3 antibodies in arbovirus-infected patients
Autor: Kam Yiu-Wing, Pok Kwoon-Yong, Eng Kai Er, Tan Li-Kiang, Kaur Simrandeep, Lee Wendy W L, Leo Yee-Sin, Ng Lee-Ching, Ng Lisa F P
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Arbovirus ; Chikungunya virus - Biochemistry ; Chikungunya virus - Pathogenesis ; Chikungunya virus - Proteins ; Chikungunya virus - Antibodies ; Chikungunya virus - Serology ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya virus - Serology ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Epidemic ; Chikungunya virus - Epidemiology ; Chikungunya virus - Immunology ; Chikungunya virus - Public health
Fonte: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, v. 9, n. 1, p. e3445, 2015
ISSN: 1935-2735
Resumo: Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) - clinically-related arboviruses cause large epidemics with serious economic - social impact. As clinical symptoms of CHIKV infections are similar to several flavivirus infections, good detection methods to identify CHIKV infection are desired for improved treatment - clinical management. The strength of anti-E2EP3 antibody responses was explored in a longitudinal study on 38 CHIKV-infected patients. We compared their anti-E2EP3 responses with those of patients infected with non-CHIKV alphaviruses, or flaviviruses. E2EP3 cross-reactive samples from patients infected with non-CHIKV viruses were further analyzed with an in vitro CHIKV neutralization assay. CHIKV-specific anti-E2EP3 antibody responses were detected in 72% to 100% of patients. Serum samples from patients infected with other non-CHIKV alphaviruses were cross-reactive to E2EP3. Interestingly, some of these antibodies demonstrated clearly in vitro CHIKV neutralizing activity. Contrastingly, serum samples from flaviviruses-infected patients showed a low level of cross-reactivity against E2EP3. Using CHIKV E2EP3 as a serology marker not only allows early detection of CHIKV specific antibodies, but would also allow the differentiation between CHIKV infections - flavivirus infections with 93% accuracy, thereby allowing precise acute febrile diagnosis - improving clinical management in regions newly suffering from CHIKV outbreaks including the Americas.

415) Sequence-specific modifications enhance the broad-spectrum antiviral response activated by RIG-I agonists
Autor: Chiang Cindy, Beljanski Vladimir, Yin Kevin, Olagnier David, Ben Yebdri Fethia, Steel Courtney, Goulet Marie-Line, DeFilippis Victor R, Streblow Daniel N, Haddad Elias K, Trautmann Lydie, Ross Ted, Lin Rongtuan, Hiscott John
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Cell ; Chikungunya virus - Flaviviridae ; Chikungunya virus - Immune response ; Chikungunya virus - Molecular structure ; Chikungunya virus - Pathogenesis ; Chikungunya virus - RNA ; Chikungunya virus - Immune response ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Vaccine ; Chikungunya virus - Dengue ; Chikungunya virus - Immunology
Fonte: Journal of Virology, v. 89, n. 15, p. 8011-8025, 2015
ISSN: 1098-5514
Resumo: The cytosolic RIG-I (retinoic acid-inducible gene I) receptor plays a pivotal role in the initiation of the immune response against RNA virus infection by recognizing short 5'-triphosphate (5'ppp)-containing viral RNA - activating the host antiviral innate response. In the present study, we generated novel 5'ppp RIG-I agonists of varieous lengths, structures, - sequences - evaluated the generation of the antiviral - inflammatory responses in human epithelial A549 cells, human innate immune primary cells, - murine models of influenza - chikungunya viral pathogenesis. A 99-nucleotide, uridine-rich hairpin 5'pppRNA termed M8 stimulated an extensive - robust interferon response compared to other modified 5'pppRNA structures, RIG-I aptamers, or poly(I·C). Interestingly, manipulation of the primary RNA sequence alone was sufficient to modulate antiviral activity - inflammatory response, in a manner dependent exclusively on RIG-I - independent of MDA5 - TLR3. Both prophylactic - therapeutic administration of M8 effectively inhibited influenza virus - dengue virus replication in vitro. Furthermore, multiple strains of influenza virus that were resistant to oseltamivir, an FDA-approved therapeutic treatment for influenza, were highly sensitive to inhibition by M8. Finally, prophylactic M8 treatment in vivo prolonged survival - reduced lung viral titers of mice challenged with influenza virus, as well as reducing chikungunya virus-associated foot swelling - viral load. Altogether, these results demonstrate that 5'pppRNA can be rationally designed to achieve a maximal RIG-I-mediated protective antiviral response against human-pathogenic RNA viruses. The development of novel therapeutics to treat human-pathogenic RNA viral infections is an important goal to reduce spread of infection - to improve human health - safety. This study investigated the design of an RNA agonist with enhanced antiviral - inflammatory properties against influenza, dengue, - chikungunya viruses. A novel, sequence-dependent, uridine-rich RIG-I agonist generated a protective antiviral response in vitro - in vivo - was effective at concentrations 100-fold lower than prototype sequences or other RNA agonists, highlighting the robust activity - potential clinical use of the 5'pppRNA against RNA virus infection. Altogether, the results identify a novel, sequence-specific RIG-I agonist as an attractive therapeutic c-idate for the treatment of a broad range of RNA viruses, a pressing issue in which a need for new - more effective options persists.

416) Chikungunya outbreak, French Polynesia, 2014
Autor: Aubry Maite, Teissier Anita, Roche Claudine, Richard Vaea, Yan Aurore Shan, Zisou Karen, Rouault Eline, Maria Véronique, Lastère Stéphane, Cao-Lormeau Van-Mai, Musso Didier
Assunto: CHIKV; French Polynesia; Pacific; Arboviruses; Chikungunya; Chikungunya virus; Outbreak; Viruses
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Arbovirus ; Chikungunya virus - Genome ; Chikungunya virus - Pathogenesis ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever ; Chikungunya virus - Epidemiology ; Chikungunya virus - Public health
Fonte: Emerging Infectious Diseases, v. 21, n. 4, p. 724-726, 2015
ISSN: 1080-6059
Resumo:

417) Reflections on the emergence of Chikungunya virus in the United States: Time to revisit a successful paradigm for the safety of blood-derived therapies
Autor: Farrugia Albert, Kreil Thomas R
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Pathogenesis ; Chikungunya virus - Infectious diseases ; Chikungunya virus - Inflammation ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever ; Chikungunya virus - Epidemiology ; Chikungunya virus - Public health
Fonte: Transfusion, v. 55, n. 1, p. 224-226, 2015
ISSN: 1537-2995
Resumo:

418) High throughput proteomic analysis and a comparative review identify the nuclear chaperone, Nucleophosmin among the common set of proteins modulated in Chikungunya virus infection
Autor: Abraham Rachy, Mudaliar Prashant, Jaleel Abdul, Srikanth Jandhyam, Sreekumar Easwaran
Assunto: Chikungunya virus; Differential expression; LC-MS/MS; Shotgun proteomics
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Biosynthesis ; Chikungunya virus - Cell ; Chikungunya virus - Cytopathology ; Chikungunya virus - Pathogenesis ; Chikungunya virus - Protein synthesis ; Chikungunya virus - Proteins ; Chikungunya virus - Proteome ; Chikungunya virus - RNA ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya virus - Molecular methods ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Molecular screening ; Chikungunya virus - Transmission ; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever ; Chikungunya virus - Epidemic
Fonte: Journal of Proteomics, v. 120, p. 126-141, 2015
ISSN: 1876-7737
Resumo: Global re-emergence of Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) has renewed the interest in its cellular pathogenesis. We subjected CHIKV-infected Human Embryo Kidney cells (HEK293), a widely used cell-based system for CHIKV infection studies, to a high throughput expression proteomics analysis by Liquid Chromatography-t-em mass spectrometry. A total of 1047 differentially expressed proteins were identified in infected cells, consistently in three biological replicates. Proteins involved in transcription, translation, apoptosis - stress response were the major ones among the 209 proteins that had significant up-regulation. In the set of 45 down-regulated proteins, those involved in carbohydrate - lipid metabolism predominated. A STRING network analysis revealed tight interaction of proteins within the apoptosis, stress response - protein synthesis pathways. We short-listed a common set of 30 proteins that can be implicated in cellular pathology of CHIKV infection by comparing our results - results of earlier CHIKV proteomics studies. Modulation of eight proteins selected from this set was re-confirmed at transcript level. One among them, Nucleophosmin, a nuclear chaperone, showed temporal modulation - cytoplasmic aggregation upon CHIKV infection in double immunofluorescence staining - confocal microscopy. The short-listed cellular proteins will be potential c-idates for targeted study of the molecular interactions of CHIKV with host cells. Chikungunya remained as a neglected tropical disease till its re-emergence in 2005 in the La RéUnion isl-s - subsequently, in India - many parts of South East Asia. These - the epidemics that followed in subsequent years ran an explosive course leading to extreme morbidity - attributed mortality to this originally benign virus infection. Apart from classical symptoms of acute fever - debilitating polyarthralgia lasting for several weeks, a number of complications were documented. These included aphthous-like ulcers - vesiculo-bullous eruptions on the skin, hepatic involvement, central nervous system complications such as encephalopathy - encephalitis, - transplacental transmission. The disease has recently spread to the Americas with its initial documentation in the Caribbean isl-s. The Asian genotype of this positive-str-ed RNA virus of the Alphavirus genus has been attributed in these outbreaks. However, the disease ran a similar course as the one caused by the East, Central - South African (ECSA) genotype in the other parts of the world. Studies have documented a number of mutations in the re-emerging strains of the virus that enhances mosquito adaptability - modulates virus infectivity. This might support the occurrence of fiery outbreaks in the absence of herd immunity in affected population. Several research groups work to underst- the pathogenesis of chikungunya - the mechanisms of complications using cellular - animal models. A few proteomics approaches have been employed earlier to underst- the protein level changes in the infected cells. Our present study, which couples a high throughput proteomic analysis - a comparative review of these earlier studies, identifies a few critical molecules as hypothetical c-idates that might be important in this infection - for future study.

419) Towards antivirals against Chikungunya virus
Autor: Abdelnabi Rana, Neyts Johan, Delang Leen
Assunto: Antiviral therapy; Arbidol; Chikungunya virus; Favipiravir; Monoclonal antibodies; Ribavirin
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Antibodies ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Vaccine ; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever
Fonte: Antiviral Research, v. 121, p. 59-68, 2015
ISSN: 1872-9096
Resumo: Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) has re-emerged in recent decades, causing major outbreaks of chikungunya fever in many parts of Africa - Asia, - since the end of 2013 also in Central - South America. Infections are usually associated with a low mortality rate, but can proceed into a painful chronic stage, during which patients may suffer from polyarthralgia - joint stiffness for weeks - even several years. There are no vaccines or antiviral drugs available for the prevention or treatment of CHIKV infections. Current therapy therefore consists solely of the administration of analgesics, antipyretics - anti-inflammatory agents to relieve symptoms. We here review molecules that have been reported to inhibit CHIKV replication, either as direct-acting antivirals, host-targeting drugs or those that act via a yet unknown mechanism. This article forms part of a symposium in Antiviral Research on Chikungunya discovers the New World.""

420) Potential sexual transmission of Zika virus.
Autor: Musso Didier,Roche Claudine,Robin Emilie,Nhan Tuxuan,Teissier Anita,Cao-Lormeau Van-Mai
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Pathogenesis ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Sexual ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Emerging Infectious Diseases, v. 21, n. 2, p. 359-361, 2015
ISSN: 1080-6059
Resumo: In December 2013, during a Zika virus (ZIKV) outbreak in French Polynesia, a patient in Tahiti sought treatment for hematospermia, and ZIKV was isolated from his semen. ZIKV transmission by sexual intercourse has been previously suspected. This observation supports the possibility that ZIKV could be transmitted sexually.

421) Aging in personal and social immunity: do immune traits senesce at the same rate?
Autor: Reavey, Catherine E.; Warnock, Neil D.; Garbett, Amy P.; Cotter, Sheena C.
Assunto: Aging; defensin; Ecological immunology; Insect; Lifespan; Lysozyme; Nicrophorus; Parental care; Phenoloxidase; Wounding
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Immune response ; Aedes aegypti - Molecular structure ; Aedes aegypti - Immunology
Fonte: Ecology and Evolution, v. 5, n. 19, p. 4365-4375, 2015
ISSN: 2045-7758
Resumo: How much should an individual invest in immunity as it grows older? Immunity is costly and its value is likely to change across an organism's lifespan. A limited number of studies have focused on how personal immune investment changes with age in insects, but we do not know how social immunity, immune responses that protect kin, changes across lifespan, or how resources are divided between these two arms of the immune response. In this study, both personal and social immune functions are considered in the burying beetle, Nicrophorus vespilloides. We show that personal immune function declines (phenoloxidase levels) or is maintained (defensin expression) across lifespan in nonbreeding beetles but is maintained (phenoloxidase levels) or even upregulated (defensin expression) in breeding individuals. In contrast, social immunity increases in breeding burying beetles up to middle age, before decreasing in old age. Social immunity is not affected by a wounding challenge across lifespan, whereas personal immunity, through PO, is upregulated following wounding to a similar extent across lifespan. Personal immune function may be prioritized in younger individuals in order to ensure survival until reproductive maturity. If not breeding, this may then drop off in later life as state declines. As burying beetles are ephemeral breeders, breeding opportunities in later life may be rare. When allowed to breed, beetles may therefore invest heavily in staying alive in order to complete what could potentially be their final reproductive opportunity. As parental care is important for the survival and growth of offspring in this genus, staying alive to provide care behaviors will clearly have fitness payoffs. This study shows that all immune traits do not senesce at the same rate. In fact, the patterns observed depend upon the immune traits measured and the breeding status of the individual.

422) An entomological review of invasive mosquitoes in Europe
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Medlock, JM; Hansford, KM; Versteirt, V;Cull, B; Kampen, H; Fontenille, D; Hendrickx, G; Zeller, H; Van Bortel, W; Schaffner, F
Assunto: Entomology, Mosquitoes, Nonnative species, Insect control, Europe
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Immune response ; Zika virus - Pathogenesis ; Zika virus - DNA ; Zika virus - Antibodies ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Molecular methods ; Zika virus - PCR detection ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Chikungunya Fever ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Bulletin of Entomological Research, v. 105, n. 6, p. 637-663, 2015.
ISSN: 0007-4853
Resumo: Among the invasive mosquitoes registered all over the world, Aedes species are particularly frequent and important. As several of them are potential vectors of disease, they present significant health concerns for 21st century Europe. Five species have established in mainland Europe, with two (Aedes albopictus and Aedes japonicus) becoming widespread and two (Ae. albopictus and Aedes aegypti) implicated in disease transmission to humans in Europe. The routes of importation and spread are often enigmatic, the ability to adapt to local environments and climates are rapid, and the biting nuisance and vector potential are both an ecomonic and public health concern. Europeans are used to cases of dengue and chikungunya in travellers returning from the tropics, but the threat to health and tourism in mainland Europe is substantive. Coupled to that are the emerging issues in the European overseas territorities and this paper is the first to consider the impacts in the remoter outposts of Europe. If entomologists and public health authorities are to address the spread of these mosquitoes and mitigate their health risks they must first be prepared to share information to better understand their biology and ecology, and share data on their distribution and control successes. This paper focusses in greater detail on the entomological and ecological aspects of these mosquitoes to assist with the risk assessment process, bringing together a large amount of information gathered through the ECDC VBORNET project.

423) Therapeutics and vaccines against Chikungunya virus
Autor: Ahola Tero, Courderc Therese, Ng Lisa F P, Hallengärd David, Powers Ann, Lecuit Marc, Esteban Mariano, Merits Andres, Roques Pierre, Liljeström Peter
Assunto: Antibodies; Antiviral; Attenuated virus; Chikungunya; DNA chimeric viruses; Polymerase; Protease; Vaccine; Virus-like particles
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - DNA ; Chikungunya virus - Proteins ; Chikungunya virus - Antibodies ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Vaccine
Fonte: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases, v. 15, n. 4, p. 250-257, 2015
ISSN: 1557-7759
Resumo: Currently, there are no licensed vaccines or therapies available against chikungunya virus (CHIKV), - these were subjects discussed during a CHIKV meeting recently organized in Langkawi, Malaysia. In this review, we chart the approaches taken in both areas. Because of a sharp increase in new data in these fields, the present paper is complementary to previous reviews by Weaver et al. in 2012 - Kaur - Chu in 2013 . The most promising antivirals so far discovered are reviewed, with a special focus on the virus-encoded replication proteins as potential targets. Within the vaccines in development, our review emphasizes the various strategies in parallel development that are unique in the vaccine field against a single disease.

424) Deltamethrin resistance mechanisms in Aedes aegypti populations from three french overseas territories worldwide
Autor: Dusfour, Isabelle ; Zorrilla, Pilar ; Guidez, Amandine ; Issaly, Jean ; Girod, Romain ; Guillaumot, Laurent ; Robello, Carlos ; Strode, Clare
Assunto: Insecticides, Mutations, Pest control, Home range, Public health, Dengue
Descritores: Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, v. 9, n. 11, 2015
ISSN: 1935-2727
Resumo: Aedes aegypti is vector of Dengue, Chikungunya and Zika viruses, all causing emerging or re-emerging diseases worldwide. Fighting these diseases relies on the control of the vector. Therefore, insecticides have been extensively used worldwide, resulting in the development of insecticide resistance. In the French overseas territories, resistance to pyrethroids has been monitored for many years with high levels in the South American French territories. We then investigated the mechanisms underlying this resistance in populations from French Guiana, Guadeloupe and New Caledonia. Transcription levels of detoxification genes were measured and alongside screening for target site mutations. Upregulation of cytochrome P450 genes and carboxylesterases were observed in all three populations. Mutations related to pyrethroid resistance in position 1016 and 1534 of the voltage-gated sodium channel gene were also observed. French Guiana and Guadeloupe populations presented a closer profile of resistance mechanisms whereas the New Caledonia population had a more restricted profile. Such differences can be explained by different vector control practices, regional insecticide uses and genetic backgrounds. These results are also compared with others obtained from other parts of the world and are discussed with the perspective of integrative research on vector competence.

425) Fighting back against chikungunya
Autor: Rudd Penny A, Mahalingam Suresh
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Pathogenesis ; Chikungunya virus - Proteins ; Chikungunya virus - Antibodies ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Vaccine ; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever ; Chikungunya virus - Immunology
Fonte: The Lancet. Infectious Diseases, v. 15, n. 54, p. 88-89, 2015
ISSN: 1474-4457
Resumo:

426) Tracking dengue virus intra-host genetic diversity during human-to-mosquito transmission
Autor: Sim, Shuzhen; Aw, Pauline P. K.; Wilm, Andreas; Teoh, Garrett; Hue, Kien Duong Thi; Nguyen, Nguyet Minh; Nagarajan, Niranjan; Simmons, Cameron P.; Hibberd, Martin L.
Assunto: Population genetics; Human diseases; Viral diseases; Environmental impact; Genetic diversity; Hosts; Aquatic insects; Disease transmission; Public health; Genomes; RNA viruses; Infection; Salivary gland; Population dynamics; Nucleotides; Adaptability; Dengue; Evolution
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - RNA ; Aedes aegypti - Infectious diseases ; Aedes aegypti - Viral infections ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue
Fonte: Plos Neglected Tropical Diseases, v. 9, n. 9, 2015.
ISSN: 1935-2727
Resumo: Dengue virus (DENV) infection of an individual human or mosquito host produces a dynamic population of closely-related sequences. This intra-host genetic diversity is thought to offer an advantage for arboviruses to adapt as they cycle between two very different host species, but it remains poorly characterized. To track changes in viral intra-host genetic diversity during horizontal transmission, we infected Aedes aegypti mosquitoes by allowing them to feed on DENV2-infected patients. We then performed whole-genome deep-sequencing of human- and matched mosquito-derived DENV samples on the Illumina platform and used a sensitive variant-caller to detect single nucleotide variants (SNVs) within each sample. >90% of SNVs were lost upon transition from human to mosquito, as well as from mosquito abdomen to salivary glands. Levels of viral diversity were maintained, however, by the regeneration of new SNVs at each stage of transmission. We further show that SNVs maintained across transmission stages were transmitted as a unit of two at maximum, suggesting the presence of numerous variant genomes carrying only one or two SNVs each. We also present evidence for differences in selection pressures between human and mosquito hosts, particularly on the structural and NS1 genes. This analysis provides insights into how population drops during transmission shape RNA virus genetic diversity, has direct implications for virus evolution, and illustrates the value of high-coverage, whole-genome next-generation sequencing for understanding viral intra-host genetic diversity. Dengue virus (DENV) is transmitted between humans through the bite of infected female Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. Virus populations experience significant drops in size and are subject to differing selection pressures as they cycle between human and mosquito hosts. Subsequent changes in viral intra-host genetic diversity may have consequences for the adaptability and fitness of the virus population as a whole but are poorly understood. To study the impact of human-to-mosquito transmission on DENV populations, we allowed mosquitoes to feed directly on patients with acute dengue infections, then deep-sequenced DENV populations from patient plasma samples and from the abdomens and salivary glands of corresponding mosquitoes. These matched samples allowed us to estimate the size of the population drop that occurs during establishment of infection in the mosquito, track changes in viral intra-host variant repertoires at different stages in transmission, and investigate the possibility of host-specific immune selection pressures acting on the virus population. These novel insights improve our understanding of DENV population dynamics during horizontal transmission.

427) West nile virus encephalitis 16 years later
Autor: Kleinschmidt-DeMasters Bette K, Beckham J David
Assunto: Arbovirus; Epidemic; Infection; Neuropathology
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Arbovirus ; Chikungunya virus - Cytopathology ; Chikungunya virus - Flaviviridae ; Chikungunya virus - Genome ; Chikungunya virus - RNA ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Dengue ; Chikungunya virus - Epidemic
Fonte: Brain Pathology, v. 25, n. 5, p. 625-633, 2015
ISSN: 1750-3639
Resumo: Arboviruses (Arthropod-borne viruses) include several families of viruses (Flaviviridae, Togaviradae, Bunyaviradae, Reoviradae) that are spread by arthropod vectors, most commonly mosquitoes, ticks - s-flies. The RNA genome allows these viruses to rapidly adapt to ever-changing host - environmental conditions. Thus, these virus families are largely responsible for the recent expansion in geographic range of emerging viruses including West Nile virus (WNV), dengue virus - Chikungunya virus. This review will focus on WNV, especially as it has progressively spread westward in North America since its introduction in New York in 1999. By 2003, WNV infections in humans had reached almost all lower 48 contiguous United States (US) - since that time, fluctuations in outbreaks have occurred. Cases decreased between 2008 - 2011, followed by a dramatic flair in 2012, with the epicenter in the Dallas-Fort Worth region of Texas. The 2012 outbreak was associated with an increase in reported neuroinvasive cases. Neuroinvasive disease continues to be a problem particularly in the elderly - immunocompromised populations, although WNV infections also represented the second most frequent cause of pediatric encephalitis in these same years. Neuropathological features in cases from the 2012 epidemic highlight the extent of viral damage that can occur in the CNS.

428) Viral exanthems.
Autor: Keighley Caitlin L,Saunderson Rebecca B,Kok Jen,Dwyer Dominic E
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Cytopathology ; Zika virus - Pathogenesis ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Serology ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Serology ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Epidemiology
Fonte: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases, v. 28, n. 2, p. 139-150, 2015
ISSN: 1473-6527
Resumo: Determining the viral cause of a rash presents significant diagnostic challenges. We review contemporary literature on viral exanthems and suggest a structured approach to aid diagnosis. Strains responsible for, and the clinical presentation of, enteroviral infections have diverged from classic descriptions. The causative relationship between antibiotic administration and rash in Epstein-Barr virus infection has been recently questioned. Major measles virus outbreaks have recently occurred in Europe and the USA. The largest Ebola virus outbreak in West Africa has resulted in importation of the virus to other countries and secondary local transmission. Autochthonous transmission of Chikungunya virus has occurred in nonendemic areas, including Europe, the Caribbean and Americas. Zika virus has re-emerged in the Pacific with local transmission from imported cases. Climate change, global warming and spillover of zoonotic viruses are contributing to the emergence and spread of viral diseases. Important clues to the diagnosis of viral exanthems include their distribution and morphology, geographic location and potential exposure to vector-borne or blood-borne viruses. Diagnosis is commonly made via serology, nucleic acid tests or, rarely, viral culture. Skin biopsy is not usually required. In general, viral exanthems are self-limiting and treatment is supportive.

429) Chikungunya virus infection and bilateral stromal keratouveitis
Autor: Hayek Stéphanie, Rousseau Antoine, Bouthry Elise, Prat Christine M, Labetoulle Marc
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Pathogenesis ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever ; Chikungunya virus - Public health
Fonte: JAMA Ophthalmology, v. 133, n. 7, p. 849-850, 2015
ISSN: 2168-6173
Resumo:

430) Neutralizing monoclonal antibodies block Chikungunya virus entry and release by targeting an epitope critical to viral pathogenesis
Autor: Jin Jing, Liss Nathan M, Chen Dong-Hua, Liao Maofu, Fox Julie M, Shimak Raeann M, Fong Rachel H, Chafets Daniel, Bakkour Sonia, Keating Sheila, Fomin Marina E, Muench Marcus O, Sherman Michael B, Doranz Benjamin J, Diamond Michael S, Simmons Graham
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Biochemistry ; Chikungunya virus - Cell ; Chikungunya virus - Cytopathology ; Chikungunya virus - Pathogenesis ; Chikungunya virus - Antibodies ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Immunology
Fonte: Cell Reports, v. 13, n. 11, p. 2553-2564, 2015
ISSN: 2211-1247
Resumo: We evaluated the mechanism by which neutralizing human monoclonal antibodies inhibit chikungunya virus (CHIKV) infection. Potently neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) blocked infection at multiple steps of the virus life cycle, including entry - release. Cryo-electron microscopy structures of Fab fragments of two human NAbs - chikungunya virus-like particles showed a binding footprint that spanned independent domains on neighboring E2 subunits within one viral spike, suggesting a mechanism for inhibiting low-pH-dependent membrane fusion. Detailed epitope mapping identified amino acid E2-W64 as a critical interaction residue. An escape mutation (E2-W64G) at this residue rendered CHIKV attenuated in mice. Consistent with these data, CHIKV-E2-W64G failed to emerge in vivo under the selection pressure of one of the NAbs, IM-CKV063. As our study suggests that antibodies engaging the residue E2-W64 can potently inhibit CHIKV at multiple stages of infection, antibody-based therapies or immunogens that target this region might have protective value.

431) Vector-borne diseases in Haiti: A review
Autor: Ben-Chetrit Eli, Schwartz Eli
Assunto: Chikungunya; Dengue; Filaria; Haiti; Malaria
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Infectious diseases ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Transmission ; Chikungunya virus - Dengue ; Chikungunya virus - Public health
Fonte: Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease, v. 13, n. 2, p. 150-158, 2015
ISSN: 1873-0442
Resumo: Haiti lies on the western third of the isl- of Hispaniola in the Caribbean, - is one of the poorest nations in the Western hemisphere. Haiti attracts a lot of medical attention - support due to severe natural disasters followed by disastrous health consequences. Vector-borne infections are still prevalent there with some unique aspects comparing it to Latin American countries - other Caribbean isl-s. Although vector-borne viral diseases such as dengue - recently chikungunya can be found in many of the Caribbean isl-s, including Haiti, there is an apparent distinction of the vector-borne parasitic diseases. Contrary to neighboring Carribbean isl-s, Haiti is highly endemic for malaria, lymphatic filariasis - mansonellosis. Affected by repeat natural disasters, poverty - lack of adequate infrastructure, control of transmission within Haiti - prevention of dissemination of vector-borne pathogens to other regions is challenging. In this review we summarize some aspects concerning diseases caused by vector-borne pathogens in Haiti.

432) Rapid metagenomic identification of viral pathogens in clinical samples by real-time nanopore sequencing analysis
Autor: Greninger Alexander L, Naccache Samia N, Federman Scot, Yu Guixia, Mbala Placide, Bres Vanessa, Stryke Doug, Bouquet Jerome, Somasekar Sneha, Linnen Jeffrey M, Dodd Roger, Mulembakani Prime, Schneider Bradley S, Muyembe-Tamfum Jean-Jacques, Stramer Susan L, Chiu Charles Y
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Genome ; Chikungunya virus - Infectious diseases ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever ; Chikungunya virus - Public health
Fonte: Genome Medicine, v. 7, n. 1, p. 99, 2015
ISSN: 1756-994X
Resumo: We report unbiased metagenomic detection of chikungunya virus (CHIKV), Ebola virus (EBOV), - hepatitis C virus (HCV) from four human blood samples by MinION nanopore sequencing coupled to a newly developed, web-based pipeline for real-time bioinformatics analysis on a computational server or laptop (MetaPORE). At titers ranging from 10(7)-10(8) copies per milliliter, reads to EBOV from two patients with acute hemorrhagic fever - CHIKV from an asymptomatic blood donor were detected within 4 to 10 min of data acquisition, while lower titer HCV virus (1 × 10(5) copies per milliliter) was detected within 40 min. Analysis of mapped nanopore reads alone, despite an average individual error rate of 24 % (range 8-49 %), permitted identification of the correct viral strain in all four isolates, - 90 % of the genome of CHIKV was recovered with 97-99 % accuracy. Using nanopore sequencing, metagenomic detection of viral pathogens directly from clinical samples was performed within an unprecedented <6 hr sample-to-answer turnaround time, - in a timeframe amenable to actionable clinical - public health diagnostics.

433) Waiting for chikungunya fever in Argentina: Spatio-temporal risk maps
Autor: Carbajo Aníbal E, Vezzani Darío
Assunto: Aedes aegypti; Vector-borne diseases; Alphavirus; South America
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Pathogenesis ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Transmission ; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever ; Chikungunya virus - Dengue ; Chikungunya virus - Public health
Fonte: Memo?rias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, v. 110, n. 2, p. 259-262, 2015
ISSN: 1678-8060
Resumo: Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) transmission has been detected in America in 2013 - recently reached south up to Bolivia, Brazil - Paraguay, bordering countries of Argentina. The presence of the mosquito Aedes aegypti in half of the country together with the regional context drove us to make a rapid assessment of transmission risk. Temperature thresholds for vector breeding - for virus transmission, together with adult activity from the literature, were mapped on a monthly basis to estimate risk. Transmission of chikungunya by Ae. aegypti in the world was seen at monthly mean temperatures from 21-34ºC, with the majority occurring between 26-28ºC. In Argentina temperatures above 21ºC are observed since September in the northeast, exp-ing south until January - retreating back to the northeast in April. The maximum area under risk encompasses more than half the country - around 32 million inhabitants. Vector adult activity was registered where monthly means temperatures exceeded 13ºC, in the northeast all over the year - in the northern half from September-May. The models herein proposed show that conditions for transmission are already present. Considering the regional context - the historic inability to control dengue in the region, chikungunya fever illness seems unavoidable.

434) Molecular functions of human endogenous retroviruses in health and disease
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Suntsova, Maria; Garazha, Andrew; Ivanova, Alena; Kaminsky, Dmitry; Zhavoronkov, Alex; Buzdin, Anton
Assunto: Molecular biology, Genomics, Viruses, Ribonucleic acid - RNA
Descritores: Zika virus - Cell ; Zika virus - Genome ; Zika virus - Immune response ; Zika virus - Molecular structure ; Zika virus - Pathogenesis ; Zika virus - DNA ; Zika virus - Proteome ; Zika virus - RNA ; Zika Virus - Biosynthesis ; Zika virus - Protein synthesis ; Zika virus - Proteins ; Zika virus - Antibodies ; Zika virus - Autoimmunity ; Zika virus - Cytokines ; Zika virus - Immunology ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - T lymphocytes ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Molecular methods ; Zika virus - PCR detection ; Zika virus - Real Time PCR ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - RT-PCR ; Zika virus - Molecular screening ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Head size
Fonte: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences, v. 72, n. 19, p. 3653-3675, 2015.
ISSN: 1420-682X
Resumo: Human endogenous retroviruses (HERVs) and related genetic elements form 504 distinct families and occupy ~8 % of human genome. Recent success of high-throughput experimental technologies facilitated understanding functional impact of HERVs for molecular machinery of human cells. HERVs encode active retroviral proteins, which may exert important physiological functions in the body, but also may be involved in the progression of cancer and numerous human autoimmune, neurological and infectious diseases. The spectrum of related malignancies includes, but not limits to, multiple sclerosis, psoriasis, lupus, schizophrenia, multiple cancer types and HIV. In addition, HERVs regulate expression of the neighboring host genes and modify genomic regulatory landscape, e.g., by providing regulatory modules like transcription factor binding sites (TFBS). Indeed, recent bioinformatic profiling identified ~110,000 regulatory active HERV elements, which formed at least ~320,000 human TFBS. These and other peculiarities of HERVs might have played an important role in human evolution and speciation. In this paper, we focus on the current progress in understanding of normal and pathological molecular niches of HERVs, on their implications in human evolution, normal physiology and disease. We also review the available databases dealing with various aspects of HERV genetics.

435) Infectious disease surveillance update.
Autor: Zwizwai Ruth
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: The Lancet Infectious Diseases, v. 15, n. 12, p. 1385, 2015
ISSN: 1474-4457
Resumo:

436) Chikungunya virus infection amongst the acute encephalitis syndrome cases in West Bengal, India
Autor: Taraphdar D, Roy B K, Chatterjee S
Assunto: AES cases; Chikungunya virus; India
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Pathogenesis ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever ; Chikungunya virus - Immunology ; Chikungunya virus - Public health
Fonte: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology, v. 33, n. 5, p. 153-156, 2015
ISSN: 1998-3646
Resumo: Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) infection from the acute encephalitis syndrome cases is an uncommon form - has been observed in the year 2010-11 from West Bengal, India. The case-1 - case-2 had the acute encephalitis syndrome; case-3 was of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis whereas the case-4 had the symptoms of meningo-encephalopathy with bulbar involvement. We are reporting four cases with neurological complications involving central nervous system (CNS) due to CHIKV infection from this state for the first time. The virus has spread almost every districts of this state rapidly. At this stage, these cases are public health threat.

437) Stumbling towards a diagnosis
Autor: Wakerley B R,Wilder-Smith E P,Yuki N
Assunto: Guillain-Barre syndrome
Descritores: Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Pathogenesis ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Proteins ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Antibodies ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Immunology
Fonte: Practical Neurology, v. 15, n. 3, p. 236-239, 2015
ISSN: 1474-7766
Resumo:

438) Microbial ecology of Antarctic aquatic systems
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Cavicchioli, Ricardo
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Cell ; Zika virus - Genome ; Zika virus - Molecular structure ; Zika virus - DNA ; Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - Proteins ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Molecular methods ; Zika virus - PCR detection ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Head size
Fonte: Nature Reviews Microbiology, v. 13, n. 11, p. 691-706, 2015.
ISSN: 1740-1526
Resumo: The Earth's biosphere is dominated by cold environments, and the cold biosphere is dominated by microorganisms. Microorganisms in cold Southern Ocean waters are recognized for having crucial roles in global biogeochemical cycles, including carbon sequestration, whereas microorganisms in other Antarctic aquatic biomes are not as well understood. In this Review, I consider what has been learned about Antarctic aquatic microbial ecology from 'omic' studies. I assess the factors that shape the biogeography of Antarctic microorganisms, reflect on some of the unusual biogeochemical cycles that they are associated with and discuss the important roles that viruses have in controlling ecosystem function.

439) Anopheles gambiae blood feeding initiates an anticipatory defense response to plasmodium berghei
Autor: Upton, Leanna M.; Povelones, Michael; Christophides, George K.
Assunto: Mosquito; Malaria; Innate immunity; Ecdysone; Blood feeding
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Immune response ; Aedes aegypti - Molecular structure ; Aedes aegypti - Immune response
Fonte: Journal of Innate Immunity, v. 7, n. 1, p. 74-86, 2015
ISSN: 1662-811X
Resumo: Mosquitoes have potent innate defense mechanisms that protect them from infection by diverse pathogens. Much remains unknown about how different pathogens are sensed and specific responses triggered. Leucine-Rich repeat IMmune proteins (LRIMs) are a mosquito-specific family of putative innate receptors. Although some LRIMs have been implicated in mosquito immune responses, the function of most family members is largely unknown. We screened Anopheles gambiae LRIMs by RNAi for effects on mosquito infection by rodent malaria and found that LRIM9 is a Plasmodium berghei antagonist with phenotypes distinct from family members LRIM1 and APL1C, which are key components of the mosquito complement-like pathway. LRIM9 transcript and protein levels are significantly increased after blood feeding but are unaffected by Plasmodium or midgut microbiota. Interestingly, LRIM9 in the hemolymph is strongly upregulated by direct injection of the ecdysteroid, 20-hydroxyecdysone. Our data suggest that LRIM9 may define a novel anti-Plasmodium immune defense mechanism triggered by blood feeding and that hormonal changes may alert the mosquito to bolster its defenses in anticipation of exposure to blood-borne pathogens. (C) 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel

440) Induction of defensin response to dengue infection in Aedes aegypti
Autor: Wasinpiyamongkol, Ladawan; Misse, Dorothee; Luplertlop, Natthanej
Assunto: Peptides; Infection; Blood; Defensins; Dengue; Immune response; Antimicrobial peptides; Immune system; Antimicrobial agents; Aedes aegypti; Dengue virus type 2
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - Immune response ; Aedes aegypti - Infectious diseases ; Aedes aegypti - Viral infections ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Immunology ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Entomological Science, v. 18, n. 2, p. 199-206, 2015.
ISSN: 1343-8786
Resumo: Innate immune-related defensin peptide expression, the major antimicrobial peptide (AMP) in the dengue vector mosquito Aedes aegypti, was analyzed following infection by dengue virus type 2 (strain 16681) (DENV-2). In vitro, the mosquito cell line C6/36 was exposed to dengue virus at different multiplicities of infection (MOI) in an hour; it was found that the expression level of defensin transcripts was dependent upon viral dose. In addition, using both polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and Western blotting assays to determine defensin transcription and translation at a series of times post-inoculation, we found that the time course of defensin transcripts correlated with the expression of defensin peptide post-infection. In vitro, female Ae. aegypti mosquitoes were fed different meals (DENV-2 infected blood, non-infectious blood and sugar) at 14 days post-feeding, to determine defensin transcription in response to dengue infection, by surface-enhanced laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (SELDI-TOF-MS) assay. The results showed that a peak of 4.25 kDa peptide, composed of defensin, was predominantly induced by DENV-2 infected blood-fed mosquitoes. We observed that DENV-2 could trigger the defensin peptide, defined molecularly as an innate immune response. Therefore, this peptide may be involved in dengue infection and/or transmission. Improved understanding of the mosquito's responses to dengue virus should strengthen our understanding of this vector's innate immune system.

441) Chikungunya virus and the global spread of a mosquito-borne disease
Autor: Weaver Scott C, Lecuit Marc
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Pathogenesis ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Transmission ; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever ; Chikungunya virus - Epidemiology ; Chikungunya virus - Public health
Fonte: The New England Journal of Medicine, v. 372, n. 13, p. 1231-1239, 2015
ISSN: 1533-4406
Resumo:

442) Preparation of vesicular stomatitis virus pseudotype with Chikungunya virus envelope protein
Autor: Tong W, Yin X-X, Lee B-J, Li Y-G
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Biosynthesis ; Chikungunya virus - Cell ; Chikungunya virus - Genome ; Chikungunya virus - Pathogenesis ; Chikungunya virus - Proteins ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Vaccine ; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever ; Chikungunya virus - Epidemic
Fonte: Acta Virologica, v. 59, n. 2, p. 189-193, 2015
ISSN: 0001-723X
Resumo: Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a mosquito-transmitted alphavirus that causes Chikungunya fever (CHIKF) in millions of people mainly in developing countries. CHIKF is characterized by high fever, fatigue, headache, nausea, vomiting, rash, myalgia - severe arthralgia. To date, there is no specific treatment - no licensed vaccine against CHIKV infection. In this study, we developed a safe, efficient - easy neutralization assay of CHIKV based on vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) pseudotype with CHIKV envelope protein - the green fluorescent protein (GFP) or luciferase as reporter gene, which could be used under a reduced safety level. The VSV pseudotype can be applied to the epidemic survey by measuring the expression of GFP or luciferase activity in infected cells. This system can also be used to study the mechanisms of virus entry.

443) Multiple circulating infections can mimic the early stages of viral hemorrhagic fevers and possible human exposure to filoviruses in Sierra Leone prior to the 2014 outbreak
Autor: Boisen Matthew L, Schieffelin John S, Goba Augustine, Oottamasathien Darin, Jones Abigail B, Shaffer Jeffrey G, Hastie Kathryn M, Hartnett Jessica N, Momoh Mambu, Fullah Mohammed, Gabiki Michael, Safa Sidiki, Zandonatti Michelle, Fusco Marnie, Bornholdt Zach, Abelson Dafna, Gire Stephen K, Andersen Kristian G, Tariyal Ridhi, Stremlau Mathew, Cross Robert W, Geisbert Joan B, Pitts Kelly R, Geisbert Thomas W, Kulakoski Peter, Wilson Russell B, Henderson Lee, Sabeti Pardis C, Grant Donald S, Garry Robert F, Saphire Erica O, Branco Luis M, Khan Sheik Humarr
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Cytopathology ; Chikungunya virus - DNA ; Chikungunya virus - Pathogenesis ; Chikungunya virus - Proteins ; Chikungunya virus - RNA ; Chikungunya virus - Antibodies ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya virus - Serological diagnosis ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever ; Chikungunya virus - Dengue ; Chikungunya virus - Epidemiology ; Chikungunya virus - Public health
Fonte: Viral Immunology, v. 28, n. 1, p. 19-31, 2015
ISSN: 1557-8976
Resumo: Lassa fever (LF) is a severe viral hemorrhagic fever caused by Lassa virus (LASV). The LF program at the Kenema Government Hospital (KGH) in Eastern Sierra Leone currently provides diagnostic services - clinical care for more than 500 suspected LF cases per year. Nearly two-thirds of suspected LF patients presenting to the LF Ward test negative for either LASV antigen or anti-LASV immunoglobulin M (IgM), - therefore are considered to have a non-Lassa febrile illness (NLFI). The NLFI patients in this study were generally severely ill, which accounts for their high case fatality rate of 36%. The current studies were aimed at determining possible causes of severe febrile illnesses in non-LF cases presenting to the KGH, including possible involvement of filoviruses. A seroprevalence survey employing commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay tests revealed significant IgM - IgG reactivity against dengue virus, chikungunya virus, West Nile virus (WNV), Leptospira, - typhus. A polymerase chain reaction-based survey using sera from subjects with acute LF, evidence of prior LASV exposure, or NLFI revealed widespread infection with Plasmodium falciparum malaria in febrile patients. WNV RNA was detected in a subset of patients, - a 419 nt amplicon specific to filoviral L segment RNA was detected at low levels in a single patient. However, 22% of the patients presenting at the KGH between 2011 - 2014 who were included in this survey registered anti-Ebola virus (EBOV) IgG or IgM, suggesting prior exposure to this agent. The 2014 Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak is already the deadliest - most widely dispersed outbreak of its kind on record. Serological evidence reported here for possible human exposure to filoviruses in Sierra Leone prior to the current EVD outbreak supports genetic analysis that EBOV may have been present in West Africa for some time prior to the 2014 outbreak.

444) Multifaceted innate immune responses engaged by astrocytes, microglia and resident dendritic cells against Chikungunya neuroinfection
Autor: Das Trina, Hoarau Jean Jacques, Jaffar B-jee Marie Christine, Maquart Marianne, Gasque Philippe
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Cell ; Chikungunya virus - Immune response ; Chikungunya virus - Pathogenesis ; Chikungunya virus - Cytokines ; Chikungunya virus - Immune response ; Chikungunya virus - Immunopathology ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever ; Chikungunya virus - Immunology
Fonte: The Journal of General Virology, v. 96, n. Pt 2, p. 294-310, 2015
ISSN: 1465-2099
Resumo: Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) has recently affected millions of people in the Indian Ocean, with rare cases of encephalopathy - encephalitis occurring in neonates. In the study described herein, the capacity of mouse brain cells to control infection through innate immune antiviral responses was assessed. In vitro, CHIKV principally infected a subpopulation of mouse GFAP+ primary astrocytes. Oligodendrocytes - neurons could also be infected. An innate immune response was engaged by CHIKV-infected astrocytes with elevated expression of mRNAs for IFN-?-?, inflammatory cytokines (e.g. IL-1?, IL-12, IL-10, IL-24) - proapoptotic factors (e.g. TNF-?, FasL, Lymphotoxin B). Programmed cell death through the intrinsic caspase-9 pathway was observed by immunofluorescence in infected astrocytes - neurons but not in oligodendrocytes. Interestingly, microglia did not replicate CHIKV but responded by elevated mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activity. Intracerebroventricular injection of CHIKV in neonate mice led to the infection of astrocytes. The astrogliosis response was accompanied by a dendritic CD206+ cell mobilization restricted to the site of infection. The results of this study support the paradigm that a multifaceted innate immune response can be mobilized by both professional immune - glial cells to control CHIKV neuroinfection events in neonates.

445) Viral exanthems
Autor: Keighley Caitlin L, Saunderson Rebecca B, Kok Jen, Dwyer Dominic E
Assunto: Exanthem; Gianotti-Crosti syndrome; Rash; Viral infection; Virus
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Cytopathology ; Chikungunya virus - Pathogenesis ; Chikungunya virus - Infectious diseases ; Chikungunya virus - Serology ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya virus - Serology ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Transmission ; Chikungunya virus - Epidemiology
Fonte: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases, v. 28, n. 2, p. 139-150, 2015
ISSN: 1473-6527
Resumo: Determining the viral cause of a rash presents significant diagnostic challenges. We review contemporary literature on viral exanthems - suggest a structured approach to aid diagnosis. Strains responsible for, - the clinical presentation of, enteroviral infections have diverged from classic descriptions. The causative relationship between antibiotic administration - rash in Epstein-Barr virus infection has been recently questioned. Major measles virus outbreaks have recently occurred in Europe - the USA. The largest Ebola virus outbreak in West Africa has resulted in importation of the virus to other countries - secondary local transmission. Autochthonous transmission of Chikungunya virus has occurred in nonendemic areas, including Europe, the Caribbean - Americas. Zika virus has re-emerged in the Pacific with local transmission from imported cases. Climate change, global warming - spillover of zoonotic viruses are contributing to the emergence - spread of viral diseases. Important clues to the diagnosis of viral exanthems include their distribution - morphology, geographic location - potential exposure to vector-borne or blood-borne viruses. Diagnosis is commonly made via serology, nucleic acid tests or, rarely, viral culture. Skin biopsy is not usually required. In general, viral exanthems are self-limiting - treatment is supportive.

446) Seroepidemiological survey of Chikungunya in and around the regions of Bijapur (Vijayapura and North Karnataka)
Autor: Mudurangaplar Bharath, Peerapur Basavaraj V
Assunto: Arboviral; IgM ELISA; Viral fever
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Antibodies ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever
Fonte: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research, v. 9, n. 5, p. DC01-DC02, 2015
ISSN: 2249-782X
Resumo: Chikungunya is a debilitating, non-fatal, mosquito borne viral fever caused by Chikungunya virus (CHIVA). The disease is transmitted to humans by the bite of Aedes aegypti - Aedes albopictus mosquitoes. Severe outbreaks of Chikungunya have been reported in several countries of Africa - Asia. Chikungunya fever is characterized by fever with sudden onset, arthralgia, rash, headache - myalgia. However, arthralgia is painful - long-lasting, affecting primarily the peripheral joints. To find out the prevalence of Chikungunya fever in - around the regions of Bijapur district. The study was conducted from April 2011 to December 2014. Five hundred serum samples were collected from cases with pyrexia - arthralgia. Serum samples were tested for Chikungunya antibodies by Chikungunya IgM ELISA. Out of 500 samples 33 samples were confirmed positive for Chikungunya IgM antibodies. The prevalence rate of Chikungunya was 6.6% with maximum number of cases in the year 2013 (8.5%) - age group 15 to 40 (8.3%). Females (6.9%) were more affected than males. Thus, continuous sero-epidomological surveillance is needed for the control of Chikungunya fever.

447) The potential for the establishment of new arbovirus transmission cycles in Europe
Autor: Higgs Stephen, Vanlandingham Dana L
Assunto: Arbovirus; Europe
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Arbovirus ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Transmission ; Chikungunya virus - Epidemiology
Fonte: Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, v. 109, n. 9, p. 543-544, 2015
ISSN: 1878-3503
Resumo: Mosquito-borne viruses are an increasing health threat to humans, - potentially other vertebrates, in areas where they have not previously existed or from which they had been eradicated. Chikungunya virus emergence exemplifies how multiple factors can act synergistically resulting in rapid, large-scale redistribution - establishment. Despite our increased capacity to collect - analyze large amounts of data, we still lack epidemiological models to facilitate accurate predictions of when - where new diseases may occur. Models focusing on climate changes may have long-term value; however, there is an urgent need for mathematical modeling of viral epidemiology to enable forecasting immediate or near-term threats.

448) Role of pentraxin 3 in shaping arthritogenic alphaviral disease: From enhanced viral replication to immunomodulation
Autor: Foo Suan-Sin, Chen Weiqiang, Taylor Adam, Sheng Kuo-Ching, Yu Xing, Teng Terk-Shin, Reading Patrick C, Blanchard Helen, Garlanda Cecilia, Mantovani Alberto, Ng Lisa F P, Herrero Lara J, Mahalingam Suresh
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Biochemistry ; Chikungunya virus - Cell ; Chikungunya virus - Pathogenesis ; Chikungunya virus - Proteins ; Chikungunya virus - Inflammation ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya virus - Real Time PCR ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Immunology
Fonte: PLoS Pathogens, v. 11, n. 2, p. e1004649, 2015
ISSN: 1553-7374
Resumo: The rising prevalence of arthritogenic alphavirus infections, including chikungunya virus (CHIKV) - Ross River virus (RRV), - the lack of antiviral treatments highlight the potential threat of a global alphavirus p-emic. The immune responses underlying alphavirus virulence remain enigmatic. We found that pentraxin 3 (PTX3) was highly expressed in CHIKV - RRV patients during acute disease. Overt expression of PTX3 in CHIKV patients was associated with increased viral load - disease severity. PTX3-deficient (PTX3(-/-)) mice acutely infected with RRV exhibited delayed disease progression - rapid recovery through diminished inflammatory responses - viral replication. Furthermore, binding of the N-terminal domain of PTX3 to RRV facilitated viral entry - replication. Thus, our study demonstrates the pivotal role of PTX3 in shaping alphavirus-triggered immunity - disease - provides new insights into alphavirus pathogenesis.

449) Chikungunya virus infections
Autor: Weaver Scott C, Lecuit Marc
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever ; Chikungunya virus - Public health
Fonte: The New England Journal of Medicine, v. 373, n. 1, p. 94-95, 2015
ISSN: 1533-4406
Resumo:

450) Maternal Germline-Specific Genes in the Asian Malaria Mosquito Anopheles stephensi: Characterization and Application for Disease Control
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Biedler, James K.; Qi, Yumin; Pledger, David; James, Anthony A.; Tu, Zhijian
Assunto: Vector Control; Vector-Borne Disease; Transcriptome; An. Stephensi; Gene Drive
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Arbovirus ; Aedes aegypti - DNA ; Aedes aegypti - Genome ; Aedes aegypti - RNA ; Aedes aegypti - Infectious diseases
Fonte: G3-Genes Genomes Genetics, v. 5, n. 2, p. 157-166, 2015
ISSN: 2160-1836
Resumo: Anopheles stephensi is a principal vector of urban malaria on the Indian subcontinent and an emerging model for molecular and genetic studies of mosquito biology. To enhance our understanding of female mosquito reproduction, and to develop new tools for basic research and for genetic strategies to control mosquito-borne infectious diseases, we identified 79 genes that displayed previtellogenic germline-specific expression based on RNA-Seq data generated from 11 life stage-specific and sex-specific samples. Analysis of this gene set provided insights into the biology and Evolution of female reproduction. Promoters from two of these candidates, vitellogenin receptor and nanos, were used in independent transgenic cassettes for the expression of artificial microRNAs against suspected mosquito maternal-effect genes, discontinuous actin hexagon and myd88. We show these promoters have early germline-specific expression and demonstrate 73% and 42% knockdown of myd88 and discontinuous actin hexagon mRNA in ovaries 48 hr after blood meal, respectively. Additionally, we demonstrate maternal-specific delivery of mRNA and protein to progeny embryos. We discuss the application of this system of maternal delivery of mRNA/miRNA/protein in research on mosquito reproduction and embryonic development, and for the development of a gene drive system based on maternal-effect dominant embryonic arrest.

451) Risks to the Americas associated with the continued expansion of Chikungunya virus
Autor: Powers Ann M
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Pathogenesis ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever ; Chikungunya virus - Epidemiology ; Chikungunya virus - Public health
Fonte: The Journal of General Virology, v. 96, Pt 1, p. 1-5, 2015
ISSN: 1465-2099
Resumo: Chikungunya virus is a mosquito-borne virus that has been responsible for over 2 million human infections during the past decade. This virus, which previously had a geographical range primarily restricted to sub-Saharan Africa, the Indian subcontinent - South East Asia, has recently moved to subtropical latitudes as well as the western hemisphere. This expansion into novel habitats brings unique risks associated with further spread of the virus - the disease it causes.

452) Genomic assays for identification of Chikungunya virus in blood donors, Puerto Rico, 2014
Autor: Chiu Charles Y, Bres Vanessa, Yu Guixia, Krysztof David, Naccache Samia N, Lee Deanna, Pfeil Jacob, Linnen Jeffrey M, Stramer Susan L
Assunto: ViroChip microarray; Blood donor; Chikungunya virus; Next-generation sequencing; Transcription-mediated amplification; Transfusion-transmitted infection; Viruses; Whole-genome sequencing
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Genome ; Chikungunya virus - Pathogenesis ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya virus - Molecular methods ; Chikungunya virus - PCR detection ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Molecular screening ; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever ; Chikungunya virus - Epidemic ; Chikungunya virus - Epidemiology ; Chikungunya virus - Immunology
Fonte: Emerging Infectious Diseases, v. 21, n. 8, p. 1409-1413, 2015
ISSN: 1080-6059
Resumo: A newly developed transcription-mediated amplification assay was used to detect chikungunya virus infection in 3 of 557 asymptomatic donors (0.54%) from Puerto Rico during the 2014-2015 Caribbean epidemic. Viral detection was confirmed by using PCR, microarray, - next-generation sequencing. Molecular clock analysis dated the emergence of the Puerto Rico strains to early 2013.

453) Utilization of an eilat virus-based chimera for serological detection of chikungunya infection
Autor: Erasmus Jesse H, Needham James, Raychaudhuri Syamal, Diamond Michael S, Beasley David W C, Morkowski Stan, Salje Henrik, Fernandez Salas Ildefonso, Kim Dal Young, Frolov Ilya, Nasar Farooq, Weaver Scott C
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Cell ; Chikungunya virus - Cytopathology ; Chikungunya virus - Infectious diseases ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Vaccine ; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever ; Chikungunya virus - Immunology ; Chikungunya virus - Public health
Fonte: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, v. 9, n. 10, p. e0004119, 2015
ISSN: 1935-2735
Resumo: In December of 2013, chikungunya virus (CHIKV), an alphavirus in the family Togaviridae, was introduced to the isl- of Saint Martin in the Caribbean, resulting in the first autochthonous cases reported in the Americas. As of January 2015, local - imported CHIKV has been reported in 50 American countries with over 1.1 million suspected cases. CHIKV causes a severe arthralgic disease for which there are no approved vaccines or therapeutics. Furthermore, the lack of a commercially available, sensitive, - affordable diagnostic assay limits surveillance - control efforts. To address this issue, we utilized an insect-specific alphavirus, Eilat virus (EILV), to develop a diagnostic antigen that does not require biosafety containment facilities to produce. We demonstrated that EILV/CHIKV replicates to high titers in insect cells - can be applied directly in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays without inactivation, resulting in highly sensitive detection of recent - past CHIKV infection, - outperforming traditional antigen preparations.

454) Arboviral infections diagnosed in a European area colonized by Aedes albopictus (2009-2013, Catalonia, Spain)
Autor: Valerio Lluís, Roure Sílvia, Fernández-Rivas Gema, Ballesteros Angel-Luis, Ruiz Jessica, Moreno Nemesio, Bocanegra Cristina, Sabrià Miquel, Pérez-Quilez Olga, de Ory Fernando, Molina Israel
Assunto: Arboviral diseases; Chikungunya; Dengue; Europe; Spain
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Arbovirus ; Chikungunya virus - Infectious diseases ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Dengue ; Chikungunya virus - Epidemiology
Fonte: Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease, v. 13, n. 5, p. 415-421, 2015
ISSN: 1873-0442
Resumo: The invasive mosquito Aedes albopictus, with proven vectorial ability to transmit European autochthonous cycles of dengue - chikungunya virus, has currently colonized every coastal department of Eastern Spain. The main objective of the study was to define the epidemiological - clinical characteristics as well as the trends of these two arboviral diseases in a European area heavily colonized by Ae. albopictus. A voluntarily-based, prospective - multicenter surveillance study was performed in all medical units of the North Metropolitan area of Barcelona (406,000 inhabitants, Catalonia; Spain) with diagnostic capability from 2009 to 2013. Since any possible increase in arboviral cases could be justified by changes in traveling behaviors along the study period (especially longer trips) the trend showed by these two arboviral diseases was compared with that displayed by malaria cases during the same period. 38 out of 52 (73.1%) suspected cases could be serologically confirmed (IgM+): dengue 34/38 (89.5%) - chikungunya 4/38 (11.5%). No autochthonous cases were identified. The overall incidence of both arboviruses was 0.19 cases/10,000 inhabitants-year (95% CI: 0.07-0.3); dengue = 0.17 cases/10,000 inhabitants-year (95% CI: 0.05-0.3), - chikungunya = 0.02 cases/10,000 inhabitants-year (95% CI: 0.001-0.03). The Incidence Relative Risk of arboviral disease between 2009 - 2013 shown a significant trend (IRR = 1.27. IC 95%: 1.01-1.59; p = 0.043) when compared with that displayed by malaria (IRR = 1.04. IC 95%: 0.924-1.192). If no unexpected circumstances concur, the arboviral disease incidence tax would equal that of malaria about 2021-2022. The incidence of dengue - chikungunya is steadily increasing in the North Metropolitan area of Barcelona, a region densely colonized by Ae. albopictus, at the entire expense of imported cases (especially Visiting Friends - Relatives travelers). To date, no secondary autochthonous cases have been identified -, thus, they have not taken part in this rise.

455) Travelers with Chikungunya virus infection returning to Northwest Italy from the Caribbean and Central America during June-November 2014
Autor: Burdino Elisa, Ruggiero Tina, Milia Maria Grazia, Proietti Alex, Sergi Giuseppina, Torta Ilaria, Calleri Guido, Caramello Pietro, Tiberti Donatella, Ghisetti Valeria
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Infectious diseases ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Vaccine ; Chikungunya virus - Epidemic
Fonte: Journal of Travel Medicine, v. 22, n. 5, p. 341-344, 2015
ISSN: 1708-8305
Resumo: Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) has recently emerged in the Caribbean. In Italy, CHIKV vector is documented in the Po river valley; therefore, a risk for autochthonous outbreaks is present. We report a case series of seven imported CHIKV infections in travelers returning from the Caribbean - Latin America occurring between June - November 2014, in the area of Turin, Northwest Italy, 3 years after the last imported cases were reported. These cases are a reminder of the need to always consider CHIKV infection in travelers from these epidemic areas as well as the importance of a prompt diagnosis.

456) Myeloid cell arg1 inhibits control of arthritogenic Alphavirus infection by suppressing Antiviral T cells
Autor: Burrack Kristina S, Tan Jeslin J L, McCarthy Mary K, Her Zhisheng, Berger Jennifer N, Ng Lisa F P, Morrison Thomas E
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Cell ; Chikungunya virus - Immune response ; Chikungunya virus - Immune response ; Chikungunya virus - Inflammation ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Epidemic ; Chikungunya virus - Immunology ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever
Fonte: PLoS Pathogens, v. 11, n. 10, p. e1005191, 2015
ISSN: 1553-7374
Resumo: Arthritogenic alphaviruses, including Ross River virus (RRV) - chikungunya virus (CHIKV), are responsible for explosive epidemics involving millions of cases. These mosquito-transmitted viruses cause inflammation - injury in skeletal muscle - joint tissues that results in debilitating pain. We previously showed that arginase 1 (Arg1) was highly expressed in myeloid cells in the infected - inflamed musculoskeletal tissues of RRV- - CHIKV-infected mice, - specific deletion of Arg1 from myeloid cells resulted in enhanced viral control. Here, we show that Arg1, along with other genes associated with suppressive myeloid cells, is induced in PBMCs isolated from CHIKV-infected patients during the acute phase as well as the chronic phase, - that high Arg1 expression levels were associated with high viral loads - disease severity. Depletion of both CD4 - CD8 T cells from RRV-infected Arg1-deficient mice restored viral loads to levels detected in T cell-depleted wild-type mice. Moreover, Arg1-expressing myeloid cells inhibited virus-specific T cells in the inflamed - infected musculoskeletal tissues, but not lymphoid tissues, following RRV infection in mice, including suppression of interferon-? - CD69 expression. Collectively, these data enhance our underst-ing of the immune response following arthritogenic alphavirus infection - suggest that immunosuppressive myeloid cells may contribute to the duration or severity of these debilitating infections.

457) Identification, molecular cloning, and analysis of full-length hepatitis C virus transmitted/founder genotypes 1, 3, and 4
Autor: Stoddard Mark B, Li Hui, Wang Shuyi, Saeed Mohsan, Andrus Linda, Ding Wenge, Jiang Xinpei, Learn Gerald H, von Schaewen Markus, Wen Jessica, Goepfert Paul A, Hahn Beatrice H, Ploss Alexander, Rice Charles M, Shaw George M
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Cell ; Chikungunya virus - DNA ; Chikungunya virus - Flaviviridae ; Chikungunya virus - Genome ; Chikungunya virus - Pathogenesis ; Chikungunya virus - RNA ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Transmission ; Chikungunya virus - Vaccine ; Chikungunya virus - Dengue
Fonte: mBio, v. 6, n. 2, p. e02518, 2015
ISSN: 2150-7511
Resumo: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is characterized by persistent replication of a complex mixture of viruses termed a quasispecies." Transmission is generally associated with a stringent population bottleneck characterized by infection by limited numbers of "transmitted/founder" (T/F) viruses. Characterization of T/F genomes of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) has been integral to studies of transmission, immunopathogenesis, - vaccine development. Here, we describe the identification of complete T/F genomes of HCV by single-genome sequencing of plasma viral RNA from acutely infected subjects. A total of 2,739 single-genome-derived amplicons comprising 10,966,507 bp from 18 acute-phase - 11 chronically infected subjects were analyzed. Acute-phase sequences diversified essentially r-omly, except for the poly(U/UC) tract, which was subject to polymerase slippage. Fourteen acute-phase subjects were productively infected by more than one genetically distinct virus, permitting assessment of recombination between replicating genomes. No evidence of recombination was found among 1,589 sequences analyzed. Envelope sequences of T/F genomes lacked transmission signatures that could distinguish them from chronic infection viruses. Among chronically infected subjects, higher nucleotide substitution rates were observed in the poly(U/UC) tract than in envelope hypervariable region 1. Fourteen full-length molecular clones with variable poly(U/UC) sequences corresponding to seven genotype 1a, 1b, 3a, - 4a T/F viruses were generated. Like most unadapted HCV clones, T/F genomes did not replicate efficiently in Huh 7.5 cells, indicating that additional cellular factors or viral adaptations are necessary for in vitro replication. Full-length T/F HCV genomes - their progeny provide unique insights into virus transmission, virus evolution, - virus-host interactions associated with immunopathogenesis. Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infects 2% to 3% of the world's population - exhibits extraordinary genetic diversity. This diversity is mirrored by HIV-1, where characterization of transmitted/founder (T/F) genomes has been instrumental in studies of virus transmission, immunopathogenesis, - vaccine development. Here, we show that despite major differences in genome organization, replication strategy, - natural history, HCV (like HIV-1) diversifies essentially r-omly early in infection, - as a consequence, sequences of actual T/F viruses can be identified. This allowed us to capture by molecular cloning the full-length HCV genomes that are responsible for infecting the first hepatocytes - eliciting the initial immune responses, weeks before these events could be directly analyzed in human subjects. These findings represent an enabling experimental strategy, not only for HCV - HIV-1 research, but also for other RNA viruses of medical importance, including West Nile, chikungunya, dengue, Venezuelan encephalitis, - Ebola viruses."

458) Psychiatric morbidity in patients with Chikungunya fever: First report from India
Autor: Bhatia M S, Gautam Priyanka, Jhanjee Anurag
Assunto: Alpha virus; Complications; Depression; Viral illness
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Arbovirus ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever
Fonte: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research, v. 9, n. 10, p. VC01-VC03, 2015
ISSN: 2249-782X
Resumo: Chikungunya fever is an acute illness caused by an arbovirus - has various complications like neurological, psychological, dermatological - even multi organ failure. Psychiatric co-morbidity is not very well studied till now. This is the first report from India. Aim of the study was to assess the psychiatric morbidity during or after the onset of Chikungunya fever. Patients referred from Medicine department with confirmed diagnosis of Chikungunya fever were recruited, after taking informed consent. Patient's socio-demographic characteristics were noted - Psychiatric co-morbidity was assessed by complete history taking - mental status examination, using WHO International Classification of Diseases, 10(th) edition (ICD -10) of Mental - Behavioural Disorders, Diagnostic criteria for research. The age range of the study group was found to be 23-48 years. Fourteen (70%) were males - 6 (30%) were females. Five (25%) patients were diagnosed with depressive disorder, 3 (15%) patients had Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD), 2 (10%) patients GAD with Panic attacks, 1(5%) patients phobic disorder (claustrophobia), 3 (15%) patients Somatoform Disorder, 3 (15%), Neurasthenia (Fatigue Syndrome), etc. Two (10%) patients presented with vague somatic complaints which did not fit into any of the diagnostic category. Chikungunya fever can result in significant psychiatric morbidity, mainly in the form of depressive episode, anxiety disorder - even long persisting illnesses like somato-form disorders. Further research is required to know about the phenomenology or the neurobiology of the psychiatric disorders occurring in the course of this illness.

459) Updates on chikungunya epidemiology, clinical disease, and diagnostics
Autor: Sam I-Ching, Kümmerer Beate M, Chan Yoke-Fun, Roques Pierre, Drosten Christian, AbuBakar Sazaly
Assunto: Arthralgia; Chikungunya; Epidemiology; Genotype; Molecular diagnostics; Serologic tests; Signs and symptoms
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Serology ; Chikungunya virus - Serology ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Transmission ; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever ; Chikungunya virus - Epidemic ; Chikungunya virus - Epidemiology
Fonte: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases, v. 15, n. 4, p. 223-230, 2015
ISSN: 1557-7759
Resumo: Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is an Aedes-borne alphavirus, historically found in Africa - Asia, where it caused sporadic outbreaks. In 2004, CHIKV reemerged in East Africa - spread globally to cause epidemics, including, for the first time, autochthonous transmission in Europe, the Middle East, - Oceania. The epidemic strains were of the East/Central/South African genotype. Strains of the Asian genotype of CHIKV continued to cause outbreaks in Asia - spread to Oceania -, in 2013, to the Americas. Acute disease, mainly comprising fever, rash, - arthralgia, was previously regarded as self-limiting; however, there is growing evidence of severe but rare manifestations, such as neurological disease. Furthermore, CHIKV appears to cause a significant burden of long-term morbidity due to persistent arthralgia. Diagnostic assays have advanced greatly in recent years, although there remains a need for simple, accurate, - affordable tests for the developing countries where CHIKV is most prevalent. This review focuses on recent important work on the epidemiology, clinical disease - diagnostics of CHIKV.

460) Biology of Zika virus infection in human skin cells
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Hamel R., Dejarnac O., Wichit S., Ekchariyawat P., Neyret A., Luplertlop N., Perera-Lecoin M., Surasombatpattana P., Talignani L., Thomas F., Cao-Lormeau V.-M., Choumet V., Briant L., Desprès P., Amara A., Yssel H., Missé D.
Assunto: Arbovirus, skin cell, virus cell interaction, virus infection, Zika virus, Zika virus infection
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Cell ; Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Immune response ; Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - Immune response ; Zika virus - Immunology ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Journal of Virology, v. 89, n. 17, p. 8880-8896, 2015
ISSN: 1098-5514 (electronic),0022-538X
Resumo: Zika virus (ZIKV) is an emerging arbovirus of the Flaviviridae family, which includes dengue, West Nile, yellow fever, and Japanese encephalitis viruses, that causes a mosquito-borne disease transmitted by the Aedes genus, with recent outbreaks in the South Pacific. Here we examine the importance of human skin in the entry of ZIKV and its contribution to the induction of antiviral immune responses. We show that human dermal fibroblasts, epidermal keratinocytes, and immature dendritic cells are permissive to the most recent ZIKV isolate, responsible for the epidemic in French Polynesia. Several entry and/or adhesion factors, including DC-SIGN, AXL, Tyro3, and, to a lesser extent, TIM-1, permitted ZIKV entry, with a major role for the TAM receptor AXL. The ZIKV permissiveness of human skin fibroblasts was confirmed by the use of a neutralizing antibody and specific RNA silencing. ZIKV induced the transcription of Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3), RIG-I, and MDA5, as well as several interferonstimulated genes, including OAS2, ISG15, and MX1, characterized by strongly enhanced beta interferon gene expression. ZIKV was found to be sensitive to the antiviral effects of both type I and type II interferons. Finally, infection of skin fibroblasts resulted in the formation of autophagosomes, whose presence was associated with enhanced viral replication, as shown by the use of Torin 1, a chemical inducer of autophagy, and the specific autophagy inhibitor 3-methyladenine. The results presented herein permit us to gain further insight into the biology of ZIKV and to devise strategies aiming to interfere with the pathology caused by this emerging flavivirus.

461) Chikungunya virus outbreak, Dominica, 2014
Autor: Ahmed Shalauddin, Francis Lorraine, Ricketts R Paul, Christian Trudy, Polson-Edwards Karen, Olowokure Babatunde
Assunto: Chikungunya; Dominica; Mosquito; Outbreaks; Vectorborne infections; Virus; Viruses
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Pathogenesis ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever ; Chikungunya virus - Epidemiology ; Chikungunya virus - Public health
Fonte: Emerging Infectious Diseases, v. 21, n. 5, p. 909-911, 2015
ISSN: 1080-6059
Resumo:

462) Emergence of zika virus
Autor: Nhan, Tu-Xuan; Musso, Didier
Assunto: Zika virus; ZIKV; Arbovirus; Emerging; French Polynesia; Chikungunya virus; Aedes-Albopictus; Potential vector; February 2014; Yellow-Fever; Transmission; Dengue; Infections; Outbreak
Descritores: Zika virus - Serological diagnosis ; Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Biochemistry ; Zika virus - Chikungunya Fever ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Virologie, v. 19, n. 5, p. 225-235, 2015.
ISSN: 1267-8694
Resumo: Zika virus (ZIKV) is an arthropod-borne virus (arbovirus) of the family Flaviviridae, genus Flavivirus, transmitted by the bite of infected mosquitoes. ZIKV was first isolated from a non-human primate in 1947, ZIKV infections in humans were sporadic during 60 years before emerging in the Pacific in 2007 and 2013 and in Brazil in 2015. Due to a non-specific clinical presentation, Zika fever can be misdiagnosed with other arboviruses such as dengue and chikungunya. ZIKV infections were associated with mild illness before the large French Polynesia outbreak in 2013-2014 in which severe neurological complications were reported. Routine laboratory diagnosis of Zika fever relies on the detection of specific ZIKV RNA by PCR. Serological diagnosis is complicated due to cross reactivity with other flaviviruses. ZIKV adapted to an urban cycle involving humans and domestic mosquito vectors that are widely distributed, such as Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus. This adaptation highlights the potential for ZIKV to emerge in tropical, intertropical and also temperate areas.

463) Structural studies of Chikungunya virus-like particles complexed with human antibodies: Neutralization and cell-to-cell transmission
Autor: Porta Jason, Mangala Prasad Vidya, Wang Cheng-I, Akahata Wataru, Ng Lisa F P, Rossmann Michael G
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Cell ; Chikungunya virus - RNA ; Chikungunya virus - Antibodies ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Transmission ; Chikungunya virus - Vaccine ; Chikungunya virus - Immunology
Fonte: Journal of Virology, v. 90, n. 3, p. 1169-1177, 2015
ISSN: 1098-5514
Resumo: Chikungunya virus is a positive-str-ed RNA alphavirus. Structures of chikungunya virus-like particles in complex with strongly neutralizing antibody Fab fragments (8B10 - 5F10) were determined using cryo-electron microscopy - X-ray crystallography. By fitting the crystallographically determined structures of these Fab fragments into the cryo-electron density maps, we show that Fab fragments of antibody 8B10 extend radially from the viral surface - block receptor binding on the E2 glycoprotein. In contrast, Fab fragments of antibody 5F10 bind the tip of the E2 B domain - lie tangentially on the viral surface. Fab 5F10 fixes the B domain rigidly to the surface of the virus, blocking exposure of the fusion loop on glycoprotein E1 - therefore preventing the virus from becoming fusogenic. Although Fab 5F10 can neutralize the wild-type virus, it can also bind to a mutant virus without inhibiting fusion or attachment. Although the mutant virus is no longer able to propagate by extracellular budding, it can, however, enter the next cell by traveling through junctional complexes without being intercepted by a neutralizing antibody to the wild-type virus, thus clarifying how cell-to-cell transmission can occur. Alphaviral infections are transmitted mainly by mosquitoes. Chikungunya virus (CHIKV), which belongs to the Alphavirus genus, has a wide distribution in the Old World that has exp-ed in recent years into the Americas. There are currently no vaccines or drugs against alphaviral infections. Therefore, a better underst-ing of CHIKV - its associated neutralizing antibodies will aid in the development of effective treatments.

464) Asymptomatic humans transmit dengue virus to mosquitoes
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Duong, Veasna; Lambrechts, Louis; Paul, Richard E.; Ly, Sowath; Lay, Rath Srey; Long, Kanya C.; Huy, Rekol; Tarantola, Arnaud; Scott, Thomas W.; Sakuntabhai, Anavaj; Buchy, Philippe
Assunto: Mosquito experimental infection; Cambodia; Aedes aegypti; Human-to-mosquito transmission; Dengue
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Infectious diseases
Fonte: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, v. 112, n. 47, p. 14688-14693, 2015
ISSN: 0027-8424
Resumo: Three-quarters of the estimated 390 million dengue virus (DENV) infections each year are clinically inapparent. People with inapparent dengue virus infections are generally considered dead-end hosts for transmission because they do not reach sufficiently high viremia levels to infect mosquitoes. Here, we show that, despite their lower average level of viremia, asymptomatic people can be infectious to mosquitoes. Moreover, at a given level of viremia, DENV-infected people with no detectable symptoms or before the onset of symptoms are significantly more infectious to mosquitoes than people with symptomatic infections. Because DENV viremic people without clinical symptoms may be exposed to more mosquitoes through their undisrupted daily routines than sick people and represent the bulk of DENV infections, our data indicate that they have the potential to contribute significantly more to virus transmission to mosquitoes than previously recognized.

465) Peptide motif analysis predicts alphaviruses as triggers for rheumatoid arthritis
Autor: Hogeboom Charissa
Assunto: Alphavirus; HLA DRB1; Molecular mimicry; Rheumatoid arthritis (RA); STAT1 inhibition; Shared epitope
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Biosynthesis ; Chikungunya virus - Cell ; Chikungunya virus - Molecular structure ; Chikungunya virus - Pathogenesis ; Chikungunya virus - Proteins ; Chikungunya virus - T lymphocytes ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Epidemiology ; Chikungunya virus - Immunology
Fonte: Molecular Immunology, v. 68, n. 2, Pt B, p. 465-475, 2015
ISSN: 1872-9142
Resumo: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) develops in response to both genetic - environmental factors. The strongest genetic determinant is HLA-DR, where polymorphisms within the P4 - P6 binding pockets confer elevated risk. However, low disease concordance across monozygotic twin pairs underscores the importance of an environmental factor, probably infectious. The goal of this investigation was to predict the microorganism most likely to interact with HLA-DR to trigger RA under the molecular mimicry hypothesis. A set of 185 structural proteins from viruses or intracellular bacteria was scanned for regions of sequence homology with a collagen peptide that binds preferentially to DR4; c-idates were then evaluated against a motif required for T cell cross-reactivity. The plausibility of the predicted agent was evaluated by comparison of microbial prevalence patterns to epidemiological characteristics of RA. Peptides from alphavirus capsid proteins provided the closest fit. Variations in the P6 position suggest that the HLA binding preference may vary by species, with Ross River virus, Chikungunya virus, - Mayaro virus peptides binding preferentially to DR4, - peptides from Sindbis/Ockelbo virus showing stronger affinity to DR1. The predicted HLA preference is supported by epidemiological studies of post-infection chronic arthralgia. Parallels between the cytokine profiles of RA - chronic alphavirus infection are discussed.

466) Increase in cases of Guillain-Barré syndrome during a Chikungunya outbreak, French Polynesia, 2014 to 2015
Autor: Oehler Erwan, Fournier Emmanuel, Leparc-Goffart Isabelle, Larre Philippe, Cubizolle Stéphanie, Sookhareea Chantal, Lastère Stéphane, Ghawche Frédéric
Assunto: French Polynesia; Chikungunya; Chikungunya virus; Clinic; Outbreaks; Vector-borne infections; Viral infections
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Serology ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya virus - RT-PCR ; Chikungunya virus - Serology ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever ; Chikungunya virus - Dengue
Fonte: Euro Surveillance, v. 20, n. 48, 2015
ISSN: 1560-7917
Resumo: During the recent chikungunya fever outbreak in French Polynesia in October 2014 to March 2015, we observed an abnormally high number of patients with neurological deficit. Clinical presentation - complementary exams were suggestive of Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) for nine patients. All nine had a recent dengue-like syndrome - tested positive for chikungunya virus (CHIKV) in serology or RT-PCR. GBS incidence was increased four- to nine-fold during this period, suggesting a link to CHIKV infection.

467) The Chikungunya virus capsid protein contains linear B cell epitopes in the nand and c-terminal regions that are dependent on an intact c-terminus for antibody recognition
Autor: Goh Lucas Y H, Hobson-Peters Jody, Prow Natalie A, Baker Kelly, Piyasena Thisun B H, Taylor Carmel T, Rana Ashok, Hastie Marcus L, Gorman Jeff J, Hall Roy A
Assunto: C-terminus; N-terminus; Capsid protein; Chikungunya virus; Epitope mapping; Linear B cell epitope; Monoclonal antibodies
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Cell ; Chikungunya virus - Molecular structure ; Chikungunya virus - Pathogenesis ; Chikungunya virus - RNA ; Chikungunya virus - Antibodies ; Chikungunya virus - Infectious diseases ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Public health
Fonte: Viruses, v. 7, n. 6, p. 2943-2964, 2015
ISSN: 1999-4915
Resumo: Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is an arthropod-borne agent that causes severe arthritic disease in humans - is considered a serious health threat in areas where competent mosquito vectors are prevalent. CHIKV has recently been responsible for several millions of cases of disease, involving over 40 countries. The recent re-emergence of CHIKV - its potential threat to human health has stimulated interest in better underst-ing of the biology - pathogenesis of the virus, - requirement for improved treatment, prevention - control measures. In this study, we mapped the binding sites of a panel of eleven monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) previously generated towards the capsid protein (CP) of CHIKV. Using N- - C-terminally truncated recombinant forms of the CHIKV CP, two putative binding regions, between residues 1-35 - 140-210, were identified. Competitive binding also revealed that five of the CP-specific mAbs recognized a series of overlapping epitopes in the latter domain. We also identified a smaller, N-terminally truncated product of native CP that may represent an alternative translation product of the CHIKV 26S RNA - have potential functional significance during CHIKV replication. Our data also provides evidence that the C-terminus of CP is required for authentic antigenic structure of CP. This study shows that these anti-CP mAbs will be valuable research tools for further investigating the structure - function of the CHIKV CP.

468) Mechanisms of innate immune evasion in re-emerging RNA viruses
Autor: Ma Daphne Y, Suthar Mehul S
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Biosynthesis ; Chikungunya virus - Cell ; Chikungunya virus - Pathogenesis ; Chikungunya virus - Proteins ; Chikungunya virus - RNA ; Chikungunya virus - Cytokines ; Chikungunya virus - Infectious diseases ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Vaccine ; Chikungunya virus - Immunology ; Chikungunya virus - Public health
Fonte: Current Opinion in Virology, v. 12, p. 26-37, 2015
ISSN: 1879-6265
Resumo: Recent outbreaks of Ebola, West Nile, Chikungunya, Middle Eastern Respiratory - other emerging/re-emerging RNA viruses continue to highlight the need to further underst- the virus-host interactions that govern disease severity - infection outcome. As part of the early host antiviral defense, the innate immune system mediates pathogen recognition - initiation of potent antiviral programs that serve to limit virus replication, limit virus spread - activate adaptive immune responses. Concordantly, viral pathogens have evolved several strategies to counteract pathogen recognition - cell-intrinsic antiviral responses. In this review, we highlight the major mechanisms of innate immune evasion by emerging - re-emerging RNA viruses, focusing on pathogens that pose significant risk to public health.

469) Establishment and characterization of two new cell lines from the mosquito Armigeres subalbatus (Coquillett) (Diptera: Culicidae)
Autor: Hoshino, Keita; Isawa, Haruhiko; Kuwata, Ryusei; Tajima, Shigeru; Takasaki, Tomohiko; Iwabuchi, Kikuo; Sawabe, Kyoko; Kobayashi, Mutsuo; Sasaki, Toshinori
Assunto: Cell line; Mosquito; Armigeres subalbatus; Flavivirus
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - DNA ; Aedes aegypti - Immunology
Fonte: In Vitro Cellular & Developmental Biology-Animal, v. 51, n. 7, p. 672-679, 2015
ISSN: 1071-2690
Resumo: Armigeres subalbatus (Coquillett) is a medically important mosquito and a model species for immunology research. We successfully established two cell lines from the neonate larvae of A. subalbatus using two different media. To our knowledge, this is the first report of an established Armigeres mosquito cell line. The cell lines, designated as Ar-3 and Ar-13, consist of adherent and diploid cells with compact colonies. Both these cell lines grow slowly after passage at a split ratio of 1:5 and a population doubling time of 2.7 and 3.0 d, respectively. Random amplified polymorphic DNA polymerase chain reaction (RAPD-PCR) was used to confirm that these lines correspond to the species of origin and are clearly distinct from seven other insect cell lines. Furthermore, reverse-transcription PCR was used to demonstrate that the Ar-3 cell line is susceptible to the Japanese encephalitis virus and two insect flaviviruses associated with Culex and Aedes mosquitoes but relatively insensitive to dengue virus. These data indicate that the newly established cell lines are cellular models of A. subalbatus as well as beneficial tools for the propagation of viruses associated with the Armigeres mosquito.

470) Meteorologically driven simulations of dengue epidemics in San Juan, PR
Autor: Morin, Cory W.; Monaghan, Andrew J.; Hayden, Mary H.; Barrera, Roberto; Ernst, Kacey
Assunto: Human diseases; Climate; Viruses; Disease control; Disease transmission; Public health; Temperature effects; Weather; Data processing; Mathematical models; Replication; Rainfall; Statistical analysis; Vectors; Population dynamics; Habitat; Climatic conditions; Models; Dengue; Meteorology; Rain; Ecology; Numerical simulations; Monte Carlo method; Weather forecasting; Dengue virus; Aedes aegypti
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Infectious diseases ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Epidemic
Fonte: Plos Neglected Tropical Diseases, v. 9, n. 8, 2015.
ISSN: 1935-2727
Resumo: Meteorological factors influence dengue virus ecology by modulating vector mosquito population dynamics, viral replication, and transmission. Dynamic modeling techniques can be used to examine how interactions among meteorological variables, vectors and the dengue virus influence transmission. We developed a dengue fever simulation model by coupling a dynamic simulation model for Aedes aegypti, the primary mosquito vector for dengue, with a basic epidemiological Susceptible-Exposed-Infectious-Recovered (SEIR) model. Employing a Monte Carlo approach, we simulated dengue transmission during the period of 2010-2013 in San Juan, PR, where dengue fever is endemic. The results of 9600 simulations using varied model parameters were evaluated by statistical comparison (r2) with surveillance data of dengue cases reported to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. To identify the most influential parameters associated with dengue virus transmission for each period the top 1% of best-fit model simulations were retained and compared. Using the top simulations, dengue cases were simulated well for 2010 (r2 = 0.90, p = 0.03), 2011 (r2 = 0.83, p = 0.05), and 2012 (r2 = 0.94, p = 0.01); however, simulations were weaker for 2013 (r2 = 0.25, p = 0.25) and the entire four-year period (r2 = 0.44, p = 0.002). Analysis of parameter values from retained simulations revealed that rain dependent container habitats were more prevalent in best-fitting simulations during the wetter 2010 and 2011 years, while human managed (i.e. manually filled) container habitats were more prevalent in best-fitting simulations during the drier 2012 and 2013 years. The simulations further indicate that rainfall strongly modulates the timing of dengue (e.g., epidemics occurred earlier during rainy years) while temperature modulates the annual number of dengue fever cases. Our results suggest that meteorological factors have a time-variable influence on dengue transmission relative to other important environmental and human factors. Numerous studies have investigated meteorological and climatic influences on mosquito transmitted viruses. However, dengue ecology is complex, necessitating an understanding of the interactions among components in the system. We estimate dengue fever cases in San Juan, Puerto Rico using a mathematical model informed by relationships among meteorology, land cover, and interactions among human hosts, mosquitoes, and the dengue viruses identified from the literature. Because some of these relationships are not well known or static, we performed several thousand simulations and compared model output to dengue fever cases reported to the Centers for Diseases Control and Prevention. The model replicated reported dengue cases well, but factors related to dengue transmission patterns varied between years. During wetter years, precipitation-filled containers were the primary immature mosquito habitat in the model. Conversely, during drier years, containers filled with water by humans were the most important habitat. In warmer years there was an increased number of dengue cases that peaked following higher rainfall. These results reveal that current climatic conditions modify the relative influence of human and climatic factors on dengue transmission patterns. This knowledge can be used to develop forecasting tools for dengue outbreaks and enhance mosquito control campaigns based on weather predictions.

471) Chikungunya outbreak in Montpellier, France, September to October 2014
Autor: Delisle E, Rousseau C, Broche B, Leparc-Goffart I, L'Ambert G, Cochet A, Prat C, Foulongne V, Ferre J B, Catelinois O, Flusin O, Tchernonog E, Moussion I E, Wieg-t A, Septfons A, Mendy A,Moyano M B,Laporte L,Maurel J,Jourdain F,Reynes J,Paty M C,Golliot F
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Pathogenesis ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya virus - Real Time PCR ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever ; Chikungunya virus - Dengue ; Chikungunya virus - Epidemic ; Chikungunya virus - Epidemiology ; Chikungunya virus - Public health
Fonte: Euro Surveillance, v. 20, n. 17, 2015
ISSN: 1560-7917
Resumo: In October 2014, an outbreak of 12 autochthonous chikungunya cases, 11 confirmed - 1 probable, was detected in a district of Montpellier, a town in the south of France colonised by the vector Aedes albopictus since 2010. A case returning from Cameroon living in the affected district was identified as the primary case. The epidemiological investigations - the repeated vector control treatments performed in the area - around places frequented by cases helped to contain the outbreak. In 2014, the chikungunya - dengue surveillance system in mainl- France was challenged by numerous imported cases due to the chikungunya epidemic ongoing in the Caribbean Isl-s. This first significant outbreak of chikungunya in Europe since the 2007 Italian epidemic, however, was due to an East Central South African (ECSA) strain, imported by a traveller returning from West Africa. Important lessons were learned from this episode, which reminds us that the threat of a chikungunya epidemic in southern Europe is real.

472) Long-term arthralgia after Mayaro virus infection correlates with sustained pro-inflammatory cytokine response
Autor: Santiago Felix W, Halsey Eric S, Siles Crystyan, Vilcarromero Stalin, Guevara Carolina, Silvas Jesus A, Ramal Cesar, Ampuero Julia S, Aguilar Patricia V
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Cytopathology ; Chikungunya virus - Immune response ; Chikungunya virus - Immune response ; Chikungunya virus - Infectious diseases ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus
Fonte: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, v. 9, n. 10, p. e0004104, 2015
ISSN: 1935-2735
Resumo: Mayaro virus (MAYV), an alphavirus similar to chikungunya virus (CHIKV), causes an acute debilitating disease which results in the development of long-term arthralgia in more than 50% of infected individuals. Currently, the immune response - its role in the development of MAYV-induced persistent arthralgia remain unknown. In this study, we evaluated the immune response of individuals with confirmed MAYV infection in a one-year longitudinal study carried out in Loreto, Peru. We report that MAYV infection elicits robust immune responses that result in the development of a strong neutralizing antibody response - the secretion of pro-inflammatory immune mediators. The composition of these inflammatory mediators, in some cases, differed to those previously observed for CHIKV. Key mediators such as IL-13, IL-7 - VEGF were strongly induced following MAYV infection - were significantly increased in subjects that eventually developed persistent arthralgia. Although a strong neutralizing antibody response was observed in all subjects, it was not sufficient to prevent the long-term outcomes of MAYV infection. This study provides initial immunologic insight that may eventually contribute to prognostic tools - therapeutic treatments against this emerging pathogen.

473) Chikungunya virus infections among travelers-United States, 2010-2013
Autor: Lindsey Nicole P, Prince Harry E, Kosoy Olga, Laven Janeen, Messenger Sharon, Staples J Erin, Fischer Marc
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever ; Chikungunya virus - Epidemiology ; Chikungunya virus - Public health
Fonte: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, v. 92, n. 1, p. 82-87,2015
ISSN: 1476-1645
Resumo: Chikungunya virus is an emerging threat to the United States because humans are amplifying hosts - competent mosquito vectors are present in many regions of the country. We identified laboratory-confirmed chikungunya virus infections with diagnostic testing performed in the United States from 2010 through 2013. We described the epidemiology of these cases - determined which were reported to ArboNET. From 2010 through 2013, 115 laboratory-confirmed chikungunya virus infections were identified. Among 55 cases with known travel history, 53 (96%) reported travel to Asia - 2 (4%) to Africa. No locally-acquired infections were identified. Six patients had detectable viremia after returning to the United States. Only 21% of identified cases were reported to ArboNET, with a median of 72 days between illness onset - reporting. Given the risk of introduction into the United States, healthcare providers - public health officials should be educated about the recognition, diagnosis, - timely reporting of chikungunya virus disease cases.

474) Skin infections in returned travelers: An update
Autor: Zimmerman Robert F, Belanger Elizabeth S, Pfeiffer Christopher D
Assunto: Skin infection; Travel medicine; Cutaneous larva migrans; Cutaneous leishmaniasis; Tungiasis; Myiasis; Antibiotic resistance; Skin and soft tissue infection; Measles; Chikungunya
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Infectious diseases ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever ; Chikungunya virus - Dengue ; Chikungunya virus - Epidemiology
Fonte: Current Infectious Disease Reports, v. 17, n. 3, p. 467, 2015
ISSN: 1523-3847
Resumo: Dermatologic manifestations of travel-related illness are particularly vexing due to the broad differential diagnosis - clinicians' unfamiliarity with uncommonly seen diseases. This paper aims to educate - update the reader on selected infectious diseases in the returned traveler whose disease manifestations are primarily dermatologic. First, the evolving epidemiology of these infections is examined; underst-ing the geographic distribution of infectious etiologies helps refine - narrow the differential diagnosis. This is followed by a discussion of six important clinical syndromes including cutaneous larva migrans (CLM), cutaneous leishmaniasis, tungiasis, myiasis, antibiotic-resistant skin - soft tissue infection, - selected infections associated with fever - rash (e.g., measles, chikungunya virus infection, dengue fever, rickettsial spotted fevers). Familiarity with these syndromes - a situational awareness of their epidemiology will facilitate a prompt, accurate diagnosis - lead to appropriate treatment - prevention of further disease spread.

475) Envelope specific T cell responses & cytokine profiles in chikungunya patients hospitalized with different clinical presentations
Autor: Tripathy Anuradha S, Tandale Babasaheb V, Balaji Saravana S, Hundekar Supriya L, Ramdasi Ashwini Y, Arankalle Vidya A
Assunto: Atypical/severe chikungunya infection; Cytokines; E2 specific response
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Biosynthesis ; Chikungunya virus - Cell ; Chikungunya virus - Immune response ; Chikungunya virus - Pathogenesis ; Chikungunya virus - Protein synthesis ; Chikungunya virus - Proteins ; Chikungunya virus - Cytokines ; Chikungunya virus - Immune response ; Chikungunya virus - T lymphocytes ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever ; Chikungunya virus - Immunology ; Chikungunya virus - Public health
Fonte: The Indian Journal of Medical Research, v. 141, n. 2, p. 205-212, 2015
ISSN: 0971-5916
Resumo: Since the 2006 massive outbreaks, chikungunya (CHIK) is a major public health concern in India. The aim of this study was to assess envelope specific immune responses in patients with chikungunya infection. This study included 46 hospitalized patients with chikungunya virus infection (encephalitis, n=22, other systemic involvement, OSI, n=12, classical, n=12) - six controls from Ahmedabad city, Gujarat, India. T cell responses - the levels of Th1, pro/ anti-inflammatory cytokines against the CHIK virus envelope antigens were assessed by lymphocyte proliferation assay - by cytometric bead array in flow cytometry, respectively. Lymphoproliferative response was uniform among the patients. Comparisons of cytokines revealed significantly higher levels of interleukin (IL)-4 - IL-5 in encephalitis, OSI - classical patients versus controls. The levels of tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-? were higher in classical patients categories compared to the controls. Interferon (IFN)-? levels were lower in encephalitis patients versus control. Our findings showed recognition of T cell epitopes on the envelope region of chikungunya virus by all patient categories. Lower level of IFN-? may be associated with the severity of disease in these patients.

476) Monoclonal antibodies specific for the capsid protein of Chikungunya virus suitable for multiple applications
Autor: Goh Lucas Y H, Hobson-Peters Jody, Prow Natalie A, Gardner Joy, Bielefeldt-Ohmann Helle, Suhrbier Andreas, Hall Roy A
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Biochemistry ; Chikungunya virus - Biosynthesis ; Chikungunya virus - Cell ; Chikungunya virus - Molecular structure ; Chikungunya virus - Pathogenesis ; Chikungunya virus - Proteins ; Chikungunya virus - Antibodies ; Chikungunya virus - Infectious diseases ; Chikungunya virus - Inflammation ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever ; Chikungunya virus - Epidemic ; Chikungunya virus - Immunology
Fonte: The Journal of General Virology, v. 96, Pt 3, p. 507-512, 2015
ISSN: 1465-2099
Resumo: Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a mosquito-borne pathogen responsible for epidemics of debilitating arthritic disease. The recent outbreak (2004-2014) resulted in an estimated 1.4-6.5 million cases, with imported cases reported in nearly 40 countries. The development of CHIKV-specific diagnostics - research tools is thus highly desirable. Herein we describe the generation - characterization of the first mAbs specific for the capsid protein (CP) of CHIKV. The antibodies recognized isolates representing the major genotypes of CHIKV, as well as several other alphaviruses, - were reactive in a range of assays including ELISA, Western blot, immunofluorescence - immunohistochemistry (IHC). We have also used the anti-CP mAb 5.5G9 in IHC studies to show that capsid antigen is persistently expressed 30 days post-infection in cells with macrophage morphology in a mouse model of chronic CHIKV disease. These antibodies may thus represent useful tools for further research, including investigations into the structure - function of CHIKV CP, - as valuable reagents for CHIKV detection in a range of settings.

477) Estimating air travel-associated importations of dengue virus into Italy
Autor: Quam Mikkel B, Khan Kamran, Sears Jennifer, Hu Wei, Rocklöv Joacim, Wilder-Smith Annelies
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Flaviviridae ; Chikungunya virus - Pathogenesis ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Transmission ; Chikungunya virus - Dengue ; Chikungunya virus - Epidemiology ; Chikungunya virus - Public health
Fonte: Journal of Travel Medicine, v. 22, n. 3, p. 186-193, 2015
ISSN: 1708-8305
Resumo: Southern Europe is increasingly at risk for dengue emergence, given the seasonal presence of relevant mosquito vectors - suitable climatic conditions. For example, Aedes mosquitoes, the main vector for both dengue - chikungunya, are abundant in Italy, - Italy experienced the first ever outbreak of chikungunya in Europe in 2007. We set out to estimate the extent of dengue virus importations into Italy via air travelers. We attempted to quantify the number of dengue virus importations based on modeling of published estimates on dengue incidence in the countries of disembarkation - analysis of data on comprehensive air travel from these countries into Italy's largest international airport in Rome. From 2005 to 2012, more than 7.3 million air passengers departing from 100 dengue-endemic countries arrived in Rome. Our Importation Model, which included air traveler volume, estimated the incidence of dengue infections in the countries of disembarkation, - the probability of infection coinciding with travel accounted for an average of 2,320 (1,621-3,255) imported dengue virus infections per year, of which 572 (381-858) were apparent" dengue infections - 1,747 (1,240-2,397) "inapparent." Between 2005 - 2012, we found an increasing trend of dengue virus infections imported into Rome via air travel, which may pose a potential threat for future emergence of dengue in Italy, given that the reoccurring pattern of peak importations corresponds seasonally with periods of relevant mosquito vector activity. The observed increasing annual trends of dengue importation - the consistent peaks in late summer underpin the urgency in determining the threshold levels for the vector - infected human populations that could facilitate novel autochthonous transmission of dengue in Europe."

478) Bacterial exposure at the larval stage induced sexual immune dimorphism and priming in adult Aedes aegypti mosquitoes
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Moreno-Garcia, Miguel; Vargas, Valeria; Ramirez-Bello, Inci; Hernandez-Martinez, Guadalupe; Lanz-Mendoza, Humberto
Assunto: Messenger - RNA expression; Yellow fever mosquito; Drosophila - Melanogaster; Escherichia -Coli; Nitric - Oxide; Trade - Offs; Antimicrobial peptides; Ecological immunology; Anopheles -Albimanus; Batemans principle
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Immune response ; Aedes aegypti - Immunology ; Aedes aegypti - Sexual
Fonte: Plos One, v. 10, n. 7, 2015
ISSN: 1932-6203
Resumo: Gender differences in the immune response of insects are driven by natural selection for females and sexual selection for males. These natural forces entail a multitude of extrinsic and intrinsic factors involved in a genotype-environment interaction that results in sex-biased expression of the genes shared by males and females. However, little is known about how an infection at a particular ontogenetic stage may influence later stages, or how it may impact sexual immune dimorphism. Using Aedes aegypti mosquitoes, the aim of the present study was to analyze the effect of a bacterial exposure at the larval stage on adult immunity in males and females. The parameters measured were phenoloxidase activity, nitric oxide production, antimicrobial activity, and the antimicrobial peptide transcript response. As a measure of the immune response success, the persistence of injected bacteria was also evaluated. The results show that males, as well as females, were able to enhance survival in the adult stage as a result of being exposed at the larval stage, which indicates a priming effect. Moreover, there was a differential gender immune response, evidenced by higher PO activity in males as well as higher NO production and greater antimicrobial activity in females. The greater bacterial persistence in females suggests a gender-specific strategy for protection after a previous experience with an elicitor. Hence, this study provides a primary characterization of the complex and gender-specific immune response of male and female adults against a bacterial challenge in mosquitoes primed at an early ontogenetic stage.

479) Post-licensure surveillance of quadrivalent live attenuated influenza vaccine United States, Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS), July 2013-June 2014.
Autor: Haber Penina; Moro Pedro L.; Cano Maria; Lewis Paige; Stewart Brock; Shimabukuro Tom T.
Assunto: Live attenuated influenza vaccine, Post-licensure surveillance, Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System, Vaccine safety
Descritores: Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Pathogenesis ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Infectious diseases ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Viral infections ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Vaccine ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Epidemiology ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Immunology ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Public health
Fonte: Vaccine, v. 33, n. 16, p. 1987-1992, 2015
ISSN: 1873-2518
Resumo: Quadrivalent live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV4) was approved in 2012 for healthy persons aged 2-49 years. Beginning with the 2013-2014 influenza season, LAIV4 replaced trivalent live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV3). We analyzed LAIV4 reports to VAERS, a national spontaneous reporting system. LAIV4 reports in 2013-2014 were compared to LAIV3 reports from the previous three influenza seasons. Medical records were reviewed for non-manufacturer serious reports (i.e., death, hospitalization, prolonged hospitalization, life-threatening illness, permanent disability) and reports of selected conditions of interest. We conducted Empirical Bayesian data mining to identify disproportional reporting for LAIV4. In 2013-2014, 12.7 million doses of LAIV4 were distributed and VAERS received 779 reports in individuals aged 2-49 years; 95% were non-serious. Expired drug administered (42%), fever (13%) and cough (8%) were most commonly reported in children aged 2-17 years when LAIV4 was administered alone, while headache (18%), expired drug administered (15%) and exposure during pregnancy (12%) were most common in adults aged 18-49 years. We identified one death report in a child who died from complications of cerebellar vascular tumors. Among non-death serious reports, neurologic conditions were common in children and adults. In children, seizures (3) and Guillain-Barré syndrome (2) were the most common serious neurologic outcomes. We identified three serious reports of asthma/wheezing following LAIV4 in children. Data mining detected disproportional reporting for vaccine administration errors and for influenza illness in children. Our analysis of VAERS reports for LAIV4 did not identify any concerning patterns. The data mining finding for reports of influenza illness is consistent with low LAIV4 vaccine effectiveness observed for influenza A disease in children in 2013-2014. Reports of LAIV4 administration to persons in whom the vaccine is not recommended (e.g., pregnant women) indicate the need for education, training and screening regarding indications.

480) Detection of zika virus infection in Thailand, 2012-2014
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Buathong R., Hermann L., Thaisomboonsuk B., Rutvisuttinunt W., Klungthong C., Chinnawirotpisan P., Manasatienkij W., Nisalak A., Fernandez S., Yoon I.-K., Akrasewi P., Plipat T.
Assunto: Flaviviridae infection (diagnosis), positive-strand RNA virus, Zika virus, zika virus infection (diagnosis)
Descritores: Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Phylogenesis ; Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - Serology ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Serological diagnosis ; Zika virus - Serology ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, v. 93, n. 2, p. 380-383, aug. 2015
ISSN: 0002-9637
Resumo: Zika virus (ZIKV) is an emerging mosquito-borne pathogen with reported cases in Africa, Asia, and large outbreaks in the Pacific. No autochthonous ZIKV infections have been confirmed in Thailand. However, there have been several cases reported in travelers returning from Thailand. Here we report seven cases of acute ZIKV infection in Thai residents across the country confirmed by molecular or serological testing including sequence data. These endemic cases, combined with previous reports in travelers, provide evidence that ZIKV is widespread throughout Thailand.

481) Chikungunya, a paradigm of neglected tropical disease that emerged to be a new health global risk
Autor: Rougeron Virginie, Sam I-Ching, Caron Mélanie, Nkoghe Dieudonné, Leroy Eric, Roques Pierre
Assunto: Chikungunya
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Pathogenesis ; Chikungunya virus - Infectious diseases ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Vaccine ; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever ; Chikungunya virus - Epidemiology ; Chikungunya virus - Immunology ; Chikungunya virus - Public health
Fonte: Journal of Clinical Virology, v. 64, p. 144-152, 2015
ISSN: 1873-5967
Resumo: Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is an alphavirus of the Togaviridae family that causes chronic - incapacitating arthralgia in human populations. Since its discovery in 1952, CHIKV was responsible for sporadic - infrequent outbreaks. However, since 2005, global Chikungunya outbreaks have occurred, inducing some fatalities - associated with severe - chronic morbidity. Chikungunya is thus considered as an important re-emerging public health problem in both tropical - temperate countries, where the distribution of the Aedes mosquito vectors continues to exp-. This review highlights the most recent advances in our knowledge - underst-ing of the epidemiology, biology, treatment - vaccination strategies of CHIKV.

482) Detection of zika virus in saliva.
Autor: Musso Didier,Roche Claudine,Nhan Tu-Xuan,Robin Emilie,Teissier Anita,Cao-Lormeau Van-Mai
Assunto: Arbovirus, French Polynesia, PCR, Saliva, ZIKV, Zika
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Pathogenesis ; Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Molecular methods ; Zika virus - PCR detection ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - RT-PCR ; Zika virus - Molecular screening ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Journal of Clinical Virology, v. 68, p. 53-55, 2015
ISSN: 1873-5967
Resumo: During the largest Zika virus (ZIKV) outbreak ever reported that occurred from October 2013 to March 2014 in French Polynesia, we observed that several patients presenting the symptoms of acute phase Zika fever were tested negative in blood by ZIKV real-time PCR (RT-PCR). As we have previously detected ZIKV RNA in the saliva of a young child, we investigated the use of saliva as an alternative sample for routine ZIKV RNA detection. Over a 6 month period, 1,067 samples collected from 855 patients presenting symptoms of Zika fever (saliva only, blood only or both samples) were tested using a specific ZIKV RT-PCR. A medical questionnaire was available for most of the patients. ZIKV was more frequently detected in saliva compared to blood. For the 182 patients with both samples collected, tests were positive for 35 (19.2%) in saliva while negative in blood and tests were positive for 16 (8.8%) in blood while negative in saliva; the difference in mean days after symptoms onset and the percentage of the main symptoms of Zika fever for patients only positive in saliva or in blood was not significant. The use of saliva sample increased the rate of molecular detection of ZIKV at the acute phase of the disease but did not enlarge the window of detection of ZIKV RNA. Saliva was of particular interest when blood was difficult to collect (children and neonates especially).

483) Congenital Chikungunya virus infection in Sincelejo, Colombia: A case series
Autor: Villamil-Gómez Wilmer, Alba-Silvera Luz, Menco-Ramos Antonio, Gonzalez-Vergara Alfonso, Molinares-Palacios Tatiana, Barrios-Corrales María, Rodríguez-Morales Alfonso J
Assunto: Chikungunya; Colombia; Arbovirus; Congenital; Epidemiology
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Arbovirus ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya virus - Serological diagnosis ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever ; Chikungunya virus - Epidemiology ; Chikungunya virus - Public health
Fonte: Journal of Tropical Pediatrics, v. 61, n. 5, p. 386-392, 2015
ISSN: 1465-3664
Resumo: Congenital chikungunya virus (CHIK) infection has been infrequently reported, even more so during the current 2013-15 outbreak in Latin America. In this study, the consequences of CHIK on pregnancy outcomes - particularly consequences in infants born to infected women were assessed in a case series from a single private institution in the north of Colombia. During September 2014 to February 2015, seven pregnant women with serological - reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction-positive test for CHIK delivered eight infants with CHIK. These newborns required admission to pediatric intensive care, - related support, owing to severe clinical manifestations, which included respiratory distress, sepsis, necrotizing enterocolitis, meningoencephalitis, myocarditis, edema, bullous dermatitis - pericarditis. There were three deaths (case fatality rate of 37.5%). Pregnant women - newborns with CHIK long term should be followed up, given the implications of chronic sequelae (e.g. chronic inflammatory rheumatism in women) as well as recently described neurocognitive impairment in infants.

484) Use of centrifugal filter devices to concentrate dengue virus in mosquito per os infection experiments
Autor: Richard, Vaea; Viallon, Jerome; Cao-Lormeau, Van-Mai
Assunto: Human diseases; Viral diseases; Hosts; Aquatic insects; Disease transmission; Public health; Filters; Feeding; Bites; Vectors; Saliva; Infection; Dengue virus; Aedes aegypti; Arbovirus
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Biochemistry ; Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - Infectious diseases ; Aedes aegypti - Viral infections ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue
Fonte: Plos One, v. 10, n. 9, 2015.
ISSN:
Resumo: Dengue virus (DENV) is an arbovirus transmitted to humans by the bite of infected Aedes mosquitoes. Experimental per os infection of mosquitoes with DENV is usually a preliminary step in virus/vector studies but it requires being able to prepare artificial blood-meals with high virus titers. We report here the convenient use of centrifugal filter devices to quickly concentrate DENV particles in cell-culture supernatants. The median viral titer in concentrated-supernatants was 8.50 log10 TCID50/mL. By using these DENV concentrated-supernatants to prepare infectious blood-meals in Aedes aegypti per os infection experiments, we obtained a mean mosquito-infection rate of 94%. We also evaluated the use of centrifugal filter devices to recover DENV particles from non-infectious blood-meals presented to infected mosquitoes through a feeding membrane to collect their saliva.

485) Estimating the burden of disease and the economic cost attributable to chikungunya, Colombia, 2014
Autor: Cardona-Ospina Jaime A, Villamil-Gómez Wilmer E, Jimenez-Canizales Carlos E, Castañeda-Hernández Diana M, Rodríguez-Morales Alfonso J
Assunto: Burden of illness; Chikungunya; Colombia; Disability; Illness cost; Latin America
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Infectious diseases ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Transmission ; Chikungunya virus - Public health
Fonte: Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, v. 109, n. 12, p. 793-802, 2015
ISSN: 1878-3503
Resumo: Chikungunya (CHIK) virus disease is expected to be a considerable cause of disability - economic burden in Latin America given its chronic sequelae, particularly its chronic inflammatory rheumatism. There have been no previous studies assessing CHIK costs - disability in Latin America. We calculated incidence rates for CHIK during the 2014 outbreak in Colombia using epidemiological data provided by the Colombian National Institute of Health, using demographic data from the National Administrative Department of Statistics. The burden of disease was estimated through disability adjusted life years (DALYs) lost - the costs were estimated based on the national recommendations for CHIK acute - chronic phase attention. There were a total of 106 592 cases, with incidence rates ranging from 0 to 1837.3 cases/100 000 population in different departments. An estimate was made of total DALYs lost of 40.44 to 45.14 lost/100 000 population. The 2014 outbreak estimated costs were at least US$73.6 million. Our estimates raise concerns about the effects of continued CHIK spread in Colombia - other Latin-American countries. The lack of transmission control for this disease - potential for spread means that there will be significant acute - chronic disability - related costs in the short - long term for Latin American health care systems.

486) Outbreak of Exanthematous Illness associated with Zika, Chikungunya, and Dengue viruses, Salvador, Brazil
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Cardoso C.W., Paploski I.A., Kikuti M., Rodrigues M.S., Silva M.M., Campos G.S., Sardi S.I., Kitron U., Reis M.G., Ribeiro G.S.
Assunto: chikungunya, dengue, Flaviviridae infection, rash (epidemiology), Zika virus infection
Descritores: Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Chikungunya Fever ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Emerging Infectious Diseases, v. 21, n. 12, p. 2274-2276, dec. 2015
ISSN: 1080-6059 (electronic),1080-6040
Resumo:

487) Wolbachia do not induce reactive oxygen species-dependent immune pathway activation in Aedes albopictus
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Molloy, Jennifer C.; Sinkins, Steven P.
Assunto: Mosquito; Aedes; Arbovirus; Dengue; Chikungunya; ROS
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Arbovirus ; Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - RNA ; Aedes aegypti - Immunology ; Aedes aegypti - Viral infections ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Chikungunya Fever ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue
Fonte: Viruses, v. 7, n. 8, p. 4624-4639, 2015
ISSN: 1999-4915
Resumo: Aedes albopictus is a major vector of dengue (DENV) and chikungunya (CHIKV) viruses, causing millions of infections annually. It naturally carries, at high frequency, the intracellular inherited bacterial endosymbiont Wolbachia strains wAlbA and wAlbB; transinfection with the higher-density Wolbachia strain wMel from Drosophila melanogaster led to transmission blocking of both arboviruses. The hypothesis that reactive oxygen species (ROS)-induced immune activation plays a role in arbovirus inhibition in this species was examined. In contrast to previous observations in Ae. aegypti, elevation of ROS levels was not observed in either cell lines or mosquito lines carrying the wild-type Wolbachia or higher-density DrosophilaWolbachia strains. There was also no upregulation of genes controlling innate immune pathways or with antioxidant/ROS-producing functions. These data suggest that ROS-mediated immune activation is not an important component of the viral transmission-blocking phenotype in this species.

488) Otomycosis in Iran: a review
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Gharaghani, Maral; Seifi, Zahra; Zarei Mahmoudabadi, Ali
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Cell ; Zika virus - Immune response ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Clinical examination ; Zika virus - Sexual ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Mycopathologia, v. 179, n. 5-6, p. 415-424, 2015.
ISSN: 0301-486X
Resumo: Fungal infection of the external auditory canal (otitis externa and otomycosis) is a chronic, acute, or subacute superficial mycotic infection that rarely involves middle ear. Otomycosis (swimmer's ear) is usually unilateral infection and affects more females than males. The infection is usually symptomatic and main symptoms are pruritus, otalgia, aural fullness, hearing impairment, otorrhea, and tinnitus. Fungal species such as yeasts, molds, dermatophytes, and Malassezia species are agents for otitis externa. Among molds, Aspergillus niger was described as the most common agent in the literature. Candida albicans was more prevalent than other yeast species. Otomycosis has a worldwide distribution, but the prevalence of infection is related to the geographical location, areas with tropical and subtropical climate showing higher prevalence rates. Otomycosis is a secondary infection and is more prevalent among swimmers. As a result, a higher incidence is reported in summer season, when more people interested in swimming. Incidence of otomycosis in our review ranged from 5.7 to 81 %, with a mean value of 51.3 %. Our results showed that 78.59 % of otomycosis agents were Aspergillus, 16.76 % were Candida species, and the rest (4.65 %) were other saprophytic fungi. Among Iranian patients, incidence of infection was highest in summer, followed by autumn, winter, and spring. In Iran, otomycosis was most prevalent at the age of 20-40 years and the lowest prevalence was associated with being <10 years old. The sex ratio of otomycosis in our study was (M/F) 1:1.53.

489) High seroprevalence of Chikungunya virus antibodies among pregnant women living in an urban area in Benin, West Africa
Autor: Bacci Anastasia, Marchi Serena, Fievet Nadine, Massougbodji Achille, Perrin Renè Xavier, Chippaux Jean-Philippe, Sambri Vittorio, Landini Maria Paola, Varani Stefania, Rossini Giada
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Pathogenesis ; Chikungunya virus - Proteins ; Chikungunya virus - Antibodies ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever ; Chikungunya virus - Epidemiology ; Chikungunya virus - Immunology ; Chikungunya virus - Public health
Fonte: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, v. 92, n. 6, p. 1133-1136, 2015
ISSN: 1476-1645
Resumo: The aim of this study was to investigate the seroprevalence of antichikungunya virus (anti-CHIKV) antibodies in pregnant women living in an urban area of Benin (West Africa). Results were obtained by screening sera collected in 2006 - 2007 with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for anti-CHIKV immunoglobulin G (IgG) - IgM. Positive results were confirmed by indirect immunofluorescence test - microneutralization assay. We found that a large proportion (36.1%) of pregnant women living in Cotonou had specific IgG against CHIKV, indicating a high seroprevalence of the infection in urban southern Benin, whereas no active cases of CHIKV infection were detected.

490) Cytokine kinetics of Zika virus-infected patients from acute to reconvalescent phase
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Tappe D., Pérez-Girón J.V., Zammarchi L., Rissland J., Ferreira D.F., Jaenisch T., Gómez-Medina S., Günther S., Bartoloni A., Muñoz-Fontela C., Schmidt-Chanasit J.
Assunto: kinetics, virus
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Cell ; Zika virus - Pathogenesis ; Zika virus - Cytokines ; Zika virus - Immunology ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Immunology ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Medical Microbiology and Immunology, p. 1-5, dec. 2015
ISSN: 1432-1831 (electronic),0300-8584
Resumo: Zika virus is an emerging mosquito-borne flavivirus currently causing large epidemics in the Pacific Ocean region and Brazil. Clinically, Zika fever resembles dengue fever, but is less severe. Whereas the clinical syndrome and laboratory diagnostic procedures have been described, little attention was paid to the immunology of the disease and its possible use for clinical follow-up of patients. Here, we investigate the role of cytokines in the pathogenesis of Zika fever in travelers returning from Asia, the Pacific, and Brazil. Polyfunctional T cell activation (Th1, Th2, Th9, and Th17 response) was seen during the acute phase characterized by respective cytokine level increases, followed by a decrease in the reconvalescent phase.

491) Cytostatic and genotoxic effect of temephos in human lymphocytes and HepG2 cells
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Benitez-Trinidad, A. B.; Herrera-Moreno, J. F.; Vazquez-Estrada, G.; Verdin-Betancourt, F. A.; Sordo, M.; Ostrosky-Wegman, P.; Bernal-Hernandez, Y. Y.; Medina-Diaz, I. M.; Barron-Vivanco, B. S.; Robledo-Marenco, M. L.; Salazar, A. M.; Rojas-Garcia, A. E.
Assunto: Temephos; Genotoxicity; Comet assay; Micronucleus
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - DNA ; Aedes aegypti - Immunology
Fonte: Toxicology in Vitro, v. 29, n. 4, p. 779-786, 2015
ISSN: 0887-2333
Resumo: Temephos is an organophosphorus pesticide that is used in control campaigns against Aedes aegypti mosquitoes, which transmit dengue. In spite of the widespread use of temephos, few studies have examined its genotoxic potential. The aim of this study was to evaluate the cytotoxic, cytostatic and genotoxic effects of temephos in human lymphocytes and hepatoma cells (HepG2). The cytotoxicity was evaluated with simultaneous staining (FDA/EtBr). The cytostatic and genotoxic effects were evaluated using comet assays and the micronucleus technique. We found that temephos was not cytotoxic in either lymphocytes or HepG2 cells. Regarding the cytostatic effect in human lymphocytes, temephos (10 mu M) caused a significant decrease in the percentage of binucleated cells and in the nuclear division index as well as an increase in the apoptotic cell frequency, which was not the case for HepG2 cells. The comet assay showed that temephos increased the DNA damage levels in human lymphocytes, but it did not increase the MN frequency. In contrast, in HepG2 cells, temephos increased the tail length, tail moment and MN frequency in HepG2 cells compared to control cells. In conclusion, temephos causes stable DNA damage in HepG2 cells but not in human lymphocytes. These findings suggest the importance of temephos biotransformation in its genotoxic effect. (C) 2015 Published by Elsevier Ltd.

492) Introduction and establishment of Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) in Managua, Nicaragua
Autor: Belli Alejandro, Arostegui Jorge, Garcia Jorge, Aguilar Carlos, Lugo Emperatriz, Lopez Damaris, Valle Sonia, Lopez Mercedes, Harris Eva, Coloma Josefina
Assunto: Aedes albopictus; Nicaragua; Dengue; Dissemination; Introduction
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Transmission ; Chikungunya virus - Dengue ; Chikungunya virus - Epidemiology ; Chikungunya virus - Public health
Fonte: Journal of Medical Entomology, v. 52, n. 4, p. 713-718, 2015
ISSN: 0022-2585
Resumo: Aedes aegypti (L.) is the main vector of dengue virus - more recently chikungunya virus in Latin America. However, the Asian tiger mosquito Aedes albopictus (Skuse, 1894) is exp-ing its global range - increasing its role in transmission of these diseases. In this report, we suggest that Ae. albopictus was introduced to the Department of Managua, Nicaragua, in 2010 via two independent routes - demonstrate its dissemination - establishment in urban neighborhoods by 2012. The coexistence of two competent vector species could alter the epidemiology of dengue - chikungunya as well as indicate the need for new strategies aimed at vector control.

493) Chikungunya outbreak in Garo Hills, Meghalaya: An epidemiological perspective
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Khan, Siraj Ahmed; Dutta, Prafulla; Topno, Rashmee; Borah, Jani; Chowdhury, Purvita; Mahanta, Jagadish
Assunto: Aedes albopictus; Antibodies; CHIK; Chikungunya; Genotype; IgM; Meghalaya
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Immunology ; Aedes aegypti - RT-PCR ; Aedes aegypti - Chikungunya Fever ; Aedes aegypti - Epidemiology ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Indian Journal of Medical Research, v. 141, n. 5, p. 591-597, 2015
ISSN: 0971-5916
Resumo: hikungunya (CHIK) fever is a mosquito-borne disease caused by chikungunya virus (CHIKV). Chikungunya infection was first reported from India in 1963 from Kolkata. We report the serological and molecular evidence of an outbreak of chikungunya in northeast India that occurred in Tura, a hilly and forested terrain in Garo Hills district of Meghalaya.Methods: Blood samples (3 ml) collected from hospitalized patients during the outbreak were tested for IgM antibodies against CHIKV and followed up four months later. A repeat survey was carried out in the same area after four months from where cases had been reported. Blood samples were also collected from people with history of fever and body ache in the last four months. Persons showing IgM positivity against CHIKV in the repeat survey were followed up one and a half years later. All samples were also processed by RT-PCR assay for CHIK Envelope (E) 1 gene. Immature mosquitoes were collected, link reared and identified with standard keys. Virus incrimination studies were done on Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus mosquitoes collected during the survey.Results: Fever, headache and joint pain were the primary clinical presentations. Twenty three (35.93 %) of 64 samples reported during the outbreak were IgM positive for CHIK. Three samples showed PCR amplification. All these were IgM positive. The sequenced E1 gene revealed that the strains belonged to East Central South African (ECSA) genotype.Interpretation & conclusions: Field survey done after four months revealed that some individuals still had joint pain associated with episodes of headache and fever. It could be inferred that these persons might have contracted infection during the CHIK outbreak four months ago or during the intervening period which caused persistence of sequelae. ECSA genotype was found to be involved in the outbreak. Aedes albopictus was the predominant mosquito species collected during the outbreak.

494) Reappearance of chikungunya, formerly called dengue, in the Americas
Autor: Halstead Scott B
Assunto: Aedes aegypti; Aedes albopictus; Africa; American tropics; Arthropod-borne viruses; Arthropodborne viruses; Chikungunya; Dengue; Flavivirus; History of medicine; Mosquitoborne; Mosquitoes; The Americas; Togavirus; Vectorborne; Viruses; Zoonoses
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Flaviviridae ; Chikungunya virus - Infectious diseases ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever ; Chikungunya virus - Dengue ; Chikungunya virus - Epidemiology
Fonte: Emerging Infectious Diseases, v. 21, n. 4, p. 557-561, 2015
ISSN: 1080-6059
Resumo: After an absence of ?200 years, chikungunya returned to the American tropics in 2013. The virus is maintained in a complex African zoonotic cycle but escapes into an urban cycle at 40- to 50-year intervals, causing global p-emics. In 1823, classical chikungunya, a viral exanthem in humans, occurred on Zanzibar, - in 1827, it arrived in the Caribbean - spread to North - South America. In Zanzibar, the disease was known as kidenga pepo, Swahili for a sudden cramp-like seizure caused by an evil spirit; in Cuba, it was known as dengue, a Spanish homonym of denga. During the eighteenth century, dengue (present-day chikungunya) was distinguished from breakbone fever (present-day dengue), another febrile exanthem. In the twentieth century, experiments resulted in the recovery - naming of present-day dengue viruses. In 1952, chikungunya virus was recovered during an outbreak in Tanzania, but by then, the virus had lost its original name to present-day dengue viruses.

495) Transmission activation in non-circulative virus transmission: a general concept?
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Drucker, Martin; Then, Christiane
Assunto:
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Viral infections ; Aedes aegypti - Virus
Fonte: Current Opinion in Virology, v. 15, p. 63-68, 2015
ISSN: 1879-6257
Resumo: Many viruses are transmitted by arthropod vectors. An important mode of transmission is the noncirculative or mechanical transmission where viruses attach to the vector mouthparts for transport to a new host. It has long been assumed that noncirculative transmission is an unsophisticated mode of viral spread, and in the simplest case mere contamination of the vector mouthparts. However, emerging evidence strongly suggests that noncirculative transmission, like other transmission strategies, results from specific interactions between pathogens, hosts, and vectors. Recently, new insights into this concept have been obtained, by demonstrating that a plant virus responds instantly to the presence of its aphid vector on the host by forming transmission morphs. This novel concept, named Transmission Activation (TA), where viruses respond directly or via the host to the outside world, opens new research horizons.

496) Green-synthesized silver nanoparticles as a novel control tool against dengue virus (DEN-2) and its primary vector Aedes aegypti
Autor: Sujitha, Vasu; Murugan, Kadarkarai; Paulpandi, Manickam;Panneerselvam, Chellasamy; Suresh, Udaiyan; Roni, Mathath;Nicoletti, Marcello; Higuchi, Akon; Madhiyazhagan, Pari;Subramaniam, Jayapal; Dinesh, Devakumar; Vadivalagan, Chithravel; Chandramohan, Balamurugan; Alarfaj, Abdullah A;Munusamy, Murugan A; Barnard, Donald R; Benelli, Giovanni
Assunto: Botanical insecticides; Mosquito-borne diseases; Moringa oleifera; Silver nanoparticles; Aedes aegypti; Cytotoxicity
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - Viral infections ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Epidemiology ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Parasitology Research, v. 114, n. 9, p. 3315-3325, 2015.
ISSN: 0932-0113
Resumo: Dengue is an arthropod-borne viral infection mainly vectored through the bite of Aedes mosquitoes. Recently, its transmission has strongly increased in urban and semi-urban areas of tropical and sub-tropical regions worldwide, becoming a major international public health concern. There is no specific treatment for dengue. Its prevention and control solely depends on effective vector control measures. In this study, we proposed the green-synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNP) as a novel and effective tool against the dengue serotype DEN-2 and its major vector Aedes aegypti. AgNP were synthesized using the Moringa oleifera seed extract as reducing and stabilizing agent. AgNP were characterized using a variety of biophysical methods including UV-vis spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and sorted for size categories. AgNP showed in vitro antiviral activity against DEN-2 infecting vero cells. Viral titer was 7 log sub(10) TCID sub(50)/ml in control (AgNP-free), while it dropped to 3.2 log sub(10) TCID sub(50)/ml after a single treatment with 20 mu l/ml of AgNP. After 6 h, DEN-2 yield was 5.8 log sub(10) PFU/ml in the control, while it was 1.4 log sub(10) PFU/ml post-treatment with AgNP (20 mu l/ml). AgNP were highly effective against the dengue vector A. aegypti, with LC sub(50) values ranging from 10.24 ppm (I instar larvae) to 21.17 ppm (pupae). Overall, this research highlighted the concrete potential of green-synthesized AgNP in the fight against dengue and its primary vector A. aegypti. Further research on structure-activity relationships of AgNP against other dengue serotypes is urgently required.

497) Early events in Chikungunya virus infection-from virus cellbinding to membrane fusion
Autor: van Duijl-Richter Mareike K S, Hoornweg Tabitha E, Rodenhuis-Zybert Izabela A, Smit Jolanda M
Assunto: Chikungunya virus; Alphavirus; Cell tropism; Clathrin; Endocytosis; Entry; Entry inhibitors; Fusion; Neutralizing antibodies; Receptor
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Cell ; Chikungunya virus - Antibodies ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Vaccine
Fonte: Viruses, v. 7, n. 7, p. 3647-3674, 2015
ISSN: 1999-4915
Resumo: Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a rapidly emerging mosquito-borne alphavirus causing millions of infections in the tropical - subtropical regions of the world. CHIKV infection often leads to an acute self-limited febrile illness with debilitating myalgia - arthralgia. A potential long-term complication of CHIKV infection is severe joint pain, which can last for months to years. There are no vaccines or specific therapeutics available to prevent or treat infection. This review describes the critical steps in CHIKV cell entry. We summarize the latest studies on the virus-cell tropism, virus-receptor binding, internalization, membrane fusion - review the molecules - compounds that have been described to interfere with virus cell entry. The aim of the review is to give the reader a state-of-the-art overview on CHIKV cell entry - to provide an outlook on potential new avenues in CHIKV research.

498) Live virus Vaccines based on a yellow fever Vaccine backbone: Standardized template with key considerations for a risk/benefit assessment
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Monath, Thomas P.; Seligman, Stephen J.; Robertson, James S.; Guy, Bruno; Hayes, Edward B.; Condit, Richard C.; Excler, Jean Louis; Mac, Lisa Marie; Carbery, Baevin; Chen, Robert T.
Assunto: Vaccines; Yellow fever vaccine; Viral vector; Brighton Collaboration; Risk/benefit assessment; Vaccine safety
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Viral infections
Fonte: Vaccine, v. 33, n. 1, p. 62-72, 2015
ISSN: 0264-410X
Resumo: The Brighton Collaboration Viral Vector Vaccines Safety Working Group (V3SWG) was formed to evaluate the safety of live, recombinant viral Vaccines incorporating genes from heterologous viruses inserted into the backbone of another virus (so-called "chimeric virus Vaccines"). Many viral vector Vaccines are in advanced clinical trials. The first such Vaccine to be approved for marketing (to date in Australia, Thailand, Malaysia, and the Philippines) is a Vaccine against the flavivirus, Japanese encephalitis (JE), which employs a licensed Vaccine (yellow fever 17D) as a vector. In this Vaccine, two envelope proteins (prM-E) of YF 17D virus were exchanged for the corresponding genes of JE virus, with additional attenuating mutations incorporated into the JE gene inserts. Similar Vaccines have been constructed by inserting prM-E genes of dengue and West Nile into YF 17D virus and are in late stage clinical studies. The dengue Vaccine is, however, more complex in that it requires a mixture of four live vectors each expressing one of the four dengue serotypes. This Vaccine has been evaluated in multiple clinical trials. No significant safety concerns have been found. The Phase 3 trials met their endpoints in terms of overall reduction of confirmed dengue fever, and, most importantly a significant reduction in severe dengue and hospitalization due to dengue. However, based on results that have been published so far, efficacy in preventing serotype 2 infection is less than that for the other three serotypes. In the development of these chimeric Vaccines, an important series of comparative studies of safety and efficacy were made using the parental YF 17D Vaccine virus as a benchmark. In this paper, we use a standardized template describing the key characteristics of the novel flavivirus Vaccine vectors, in comparison to the parental YF 17D Vaccine. The template facilitates scientific discourse among key stakeholders by increasing the transparency and comparability of information. The Brighton Collaboration V3SWG template may also be useful as a guide to the evaluation of other recombinant viral vector Vaccines. (C) 2014 Published by Elsevier Ltd.

499) Genetic divergence of Chikungunya virus plaque variants from the Comoros Island (2005)
Autor: Wasonga Caroline, Inoue Shingo, Rumberia Cecilia, Michuki George, Kimotho James, Ongus Juliette R, Sang Rosemary, Musila Lillian
Assunto: Chikungunya virus; Comoros Island; Genetic variation; Variants
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Arbovirus ; Chikungunya virus - Biochemistry ; Chikungunya virus - Cell ; Chikungunya virus - Genome ; Chikungunya virus - Proteins ; Chikungunya virus - Infectious diseases ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Transmission ; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever
Fonte: Virus Genes, v. 51, n. 3, p. 323-328, 2015
ISSN: 1572-994X
Resumo: Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) from a human sample collected during the 2005 Chikungunya outbreak in the Comoros Isl-, showed distinct - reproducible large (L2) - small (S7) plaques which were characterized in this study. The parent strain - plaque variants were analysed by in vitro growth kinetics in different cell lines - their genetic similarity assessed by whole genome sequencing, comparative sequence alignment - phylogenetic analysis. In vitro growth kinetic assays showed similar growth patterns of both plaque variants in Vero cells but higher viral titres of S7 compared to L2 in C6/36 cells. Amino acids (AA) alignments of the CHIKV plaque variants - S27 African prototype strain, showed 30 AA changes in the non-structural proteins (nsP) - 22 AA changes in the structural proteins. Between L2 - S7, only two AAs differences were observed. A missense substitution (C642Y) of L2 in the nsP2, involving a conservative AA substitution - a nonsense substitution (R524X) of S7 in the nsP3, which has been shown to enhance O'nyong-nyong virus infectivity - dissemination in Anopheles mosquitoes. The phenotypic difference observed in plaque size could be attributed to one of these AA substitutions. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the parent strain - its variants clustered closely together with each other - with Indian Ocean CHIKV strains indicating circulation of isolates with close evolutionary relatedness in the same outbreak. These observations pave way for important functional studies to underst- the significance of the identified genetic changes in virulence - viral transmission in mosquito - mammalian hosts.

500) Chikungunya infection in a human immunodeficiency virus-infected kidney transplant recipient returning to Italy from the Dominican Republic
Autor: Dalla Gasperina D, Balsamo M L, Garavaglia S D, Rovida F, Baldanti F, Grossi P A
Assunto: HIV infection; Chikungunya; Organ transplantation; Travel medicine; Vector-borne disease
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Infectious diseases ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus
Fonte: Transplant Infectious Disease, v. 17, n. 6, p. 876-879, 2015
ISSN: 1399-3062
Resumo: Since December 2013, chikungunya virus (CHIKV) spread in many countries of the Western Hemisphere, - during the last year some cases of infected European travelers, coming back from the Caribbean, have been reported. The risk of acquiring severe travel-related illness is higher in immunocompromised subjects, such as patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection or solid organ transplant recipients. We reported the first case, to our knowledge, of CHIKV infection in an HIV-infected kidney transplant recipient.

501) Production of Infectious Dengue Virus in Aedes aegypti Is Dependent on the Ubiquitin Proteasome Pathway
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Choy, Milly M.; Sessions, October M.; Gubler, Duane J.; Ooi, Eng Eong
Assunto: RNA Seq; Hemorrhagic fever; Unfolded protein; Gene expression; Stress response; Translation; Vector; Cells; Replication; Inhibitors
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Genome ; Aedes aegypti - RNA ; Aedes aegypti - Infectious diseases ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Plos Neglected Tropical Diseases, v. 9, n. 11, 2015
ISSN: 1935-2735
Resumo: Dengue virus (DENV) relies on host factors to complete its life cycle in its mosquito host for subsequent transmission to humans. DENV first establishes infection in the midgut of Aedes aegypti and spreads to various mosquito organs for lifelong infection. Curiously, studies have shown that infectious DENV titers peak and decrease thereafter in the midgut despite relatively stable viral genome levels. However, the mechanisms that regulate this decoupling of infectious virion production from viral RNA replication have never been determined. We show here that the ubiquitin proteasome pathway (UPP) plays an important role in regulating infectious DENV production. Using RNA interference studies, we show in vivo that knockdown of selected UPP components reduced infectious virus production without altering viral RNA replication in the midgut. Furthermore, this decoupling effect could also be observed after RNAi knockdown in the head/thorax of the mosquito, which otherwise showed direct correlation between infectious DENV titer and viral RNA levels. The dependence on the UPP for successful DENV production is further reinforced by the observed upregulation of key UPP molecules upon DENV infection that overcome the relatively low expression of these genes after a blood meal. Collectively, our findings indicate an important role for the UPP in regulating DENV production in the mosquito vector.

502) Invasion of Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) into central Africa: What consequences for emerging diseases?
Autor: Ngoagouni Carine, Kamgang Basile, Nakouné Emmanuel, Paupy Chistophe, Kazanji Mirdad
Assunto: Aedes albopictus; Aedes aegypti; Invasive species; Arboviruses; Public health; Central Africa
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Arbovirus ; Chikungunya virus - Pathogenesis ; Chikungunya virus - Infectious diseases ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Transmission ; Chikungunya virus - Dengue ; Chikungunya virus - Epidemiology ; Chikungunya virus - Public health
Fonte: Parasites & Vectors, v. 8, p. 191, 2015
ISSN: 1756-3305
Resumo: Aedes albopictus, a mosquito native to Asia, has invaded all five continents during the past three decades. It was reported in central Africa in the 2000s, first in Cameroon, -, since then, has colonised almost all countries of the region. The species, originally considered a secondary vector of dengue viruses, has been showed to play a major role in transmission of chikungunya virus in numerous countries, including in the central African region. We review the current spread of Ae. albopictus in central Africa, its larval ecology - its impact on indigenous species such as Ae. aegypti. We explore the potential of Ae. albopictus to affect the epidemiology of emerging or re-emerging arboviruses - discuss the conventional means for its control, while emphasizing the importance of data on its susceptibility to insecticides to cope with potential outbreaks.

503) Genome mining offers a new starting point for Parasitology Research
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Lv, Zhiyue; Wu, Zhongdao; Zhang, Limei; Ji, Pengyu; Cai, Yifeng; Luo, Shiqi; Wang, Hongxi; Li, Hao
Assunto: Genomics; Parasite; Host; Drug; Vaccine; Diagnosis
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Genome ; Aedes aegypti - Infectious diseases ; Aedes aegypti - Real Time PCR ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Parasitology Research, v. 114, n. 2, p. 399-409, 2015
ISSN: 0932-0113
Resumo: Parasites including helminthes, protozoa, and medical arthropod vectors are a major cause of global infectious diseases, affecting one-sixth of the world's population, which are responsible for enormous levels of morbidity and mortality important and remain impediments to economic development especially in tropical countries. Prevalent drug resistance, lack of highly effective and practical Vaccines, as well as specific and sensitive diagnostic markers are proving to be challenging problems in parasitic disease control in most parts of the world. The impressive progress recently made in genome-wide analysis of parasites of medical importance, including trematodes of Clonorchis sinensis, Opisthorchis viverrini, Schistosoma haematobium, S. japonicum, and S. mansoni; nematodes of Brugia malayi, Loa loa, Necator americanus, Trichinella spiralis, and Trichuris suis; cestodes of Echinococcus granulosus, E. multilocularis, and Taenia solium; protozoa of Babesia bovis, B. microti, Cryptosporidium hominis, Eimeria falciformis, E. histolytica, Giardia intestinalis, Leishmania braziliensis, L. donovani, L. major, Plasmodium falciparum, P. vivax, Trichomonas vaginalis, Trypanosoma brucei and T. cruzi; and medical arthropod vectors of Aedes aegypti, Anopheles darlingi, A. sinensis, and Culex quinquefasciatus, have been systematically covered in this review for a comprehensive understanding of the genetic information contained in nuclear, mitochondrial, kinetoplast, plastid, or endosymbiotic bacterial genomes of parasites, further valuable insight into parasite-host interactions and development of promising novel drug and Vaccine candidates and preferable diagnostic tools, thereby underpinning the prevention and control of parasitic diseases.

504) Chikungunya on the move
Autor: Johansson Michael A
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Pathogenesis ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Transmission ; Chikungunya virus - Dengue ; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever ; Chikungunya virus - Epidemic ; Chikungunya virus - Epidemiology
Fonte: Trends in Parasitology, v. 31, n. 2, p. 43-45, 2015
ISSN: 1471-5007
Resumo: In December 2013, chikungunya virus (CHIKV) transmission was reported for the first time in the Americas. Since then it has spread quickly, with more than 1 million suspected - confirmed cases being reported in one year, where previously there were only sporadic travel-related cases. Transmission patterns suggest that the epidemic in the southern hemisphere is only beginning - that chikungunya will not go away anytime soon.

505) Correction: High rates of o'nyong nyong and Chikungunya virus transmission in coastal Kenya
Autor:
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Transmission
Fonte: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, v. 9, n. 4, p. e0003674, 2015
ISSN: 1935-2735
Resumo:

506) Emergence and potential for spread of Chikungunya virus in Brazil
Autor: Nunes Marcio Roberto Teixeira, Faria Nuno Rodrigues, de Vasconcelos Janaina Mota, Golding Nick, Kraemer Moritz U G, de Oliveira Layanna Freitas, Azevedo Raimunda do Socorro da Silva, da Silva Daisy Elaine Andrade, da Silva Eliana Vieira Pinto, da Silva Sandro Patroca, Carvalho Valéria Lima, Coelho Giovanini Evelim, Cruz Ana Cecília Ribeiro, Rodrigues Sueli Guerreiro, Vianez Joao Lídio da Silva Gonçalves, Nunes Bruno Tardelli Diniz, Cardoso Jedson Ferreira, Tesh Robert B, Hay Simon I, Pybus Oliver G, Vasconcelos Pedro Fernando da Costa
Assunto: Chikungunya virus; National surveillance; Public health; Spatial prediction; Statistical methods
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Cytopathology ; Chikungunya virus - Genome ; Chikungunya virus - Pathogenesis ; Chikungunya virus - RNA ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Transmission ; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever ; Chikungunya virus - Dengue ; Chikungunya virus - Epidemiology ; Chikungunya virus - Public health
Fonte: BMC Medicine, v. 13, p. 102, 2015
ISSN: 1741-7015
Resumo: In December 2013, an outbreak of Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) caused by the Asian genotype was notified in the Caribbean. The outbreak has since spread to 38 regions in the Americas. By September 2014, the first autochthonous CHIKV infections were confirmed in Oiapoque, North Brazil, - in Feira de Santana, Northeast Brazil. We compiled epidemiological - clinical data on suspected CHIKV cases in Brazil - polymerase-chain-reaction-based diagnostic was conducted on 68 serum samples from patients with symptom onset between April - September 2014. Two imported - four autochthonous cases were selected for virus propagation, RNA isolation, full-length genome sequencing, - phylogenetic analysis. We then followed CDC/PAHO guidelines to estimate the risk of establishment of CHIKV in Brazilian municipalities. We detected 41 CHIKV importations - 27 autochthonous cases in Brazil. Epidemiological - phylogenetic analyses indicated local transmission of the Asian CHIKV genotype in Oiapoque. Unexpectedly, we also discovered that the ECSA genotype is circulating in Feira de Santana. The presumed index case of the ECSA genotype was an individual who had recently returned from Angola - developed symptoms in Feira de Santana. We estimate that, if CHIKV becomes established in Brazil, transmission could occur in 94% of municipalities in the country - provide maps of the risk of importation of each strain of CHIKV in Brazil. The etiological strains associated with the early-phase CHIKV outbreaks in Brazil belong to the Asian - ECSA genotypes. Continued surveillance - vector mitigation strategies are needed to reduce the future public health impact of CHIKV in the Americas.

507) Innate Antiviral Immunity against Dengue Virus
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Makhluf, Huda; Shresta, Sujan
Assunto: Interferon; STAT1; STAT2; IRF; ISG
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - Flaviviridae ; Aedes aegypti - Immune response ; Aedes aegypti - Molecular structure ; Aedes aegypti - RNA ; Aedes aegypti - Viral infections ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue
Fonte: Critical Reviews in Immunology, v. 35, n. 3, p. 253-260, 2015
ISSN: 1040-8401
Resumo: Dengue virus (DENV), the most prevalent mosquito-borne viral diseases in humans worldwide, causes dengue fever, a mild form of the disease, as well as dengue hemorrhagic fever/dengue shock syndrome, a more severe form which can be life-threatening. The four serotypes of DENV (DENV1-4) are positive-sense, single stranded RNA virus belonging to the Flaviviridae family and are transmitted by Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus mosquitoes. Together, they are estimated to cause almost 100 million symptomatic cases, 2.1 million cases of dengue hemorrhagic fever/dengue shock syndrome, and 21,000 deaths per year worldwide. There are currently no effective Vaccines or antiviral treatment for DENV. Innate immune defenses play a key role in controlling DENV infection in the early stages. Herein we review the innate antiviral immunity against DENV by delineating the intracellular mechanisms of the immune response and the evasion mechanisms evolved by the virus. A better understanding of the innate immune response will impact the development of novel animal models, antiviral drugs as well as potential targeted adjuvants for DENV Vaccines.

508) Laboratory-confirmed dengue fever and chikungunya fever cases at the Narita Airport Quarantine Station in 2013
Autor: Furuichi Mieko, Makie Toshio, Honma Yasuko, Isoda Takayoshi, Miyake Satoru
Assunto: Dengue fever; Chikungunya fever; Thermography; Blood tests
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Cytopathology ; Chikungunya virus - Flaviviridae ; Chikungunya virus - Pathogenesis ; Chikungunya virus - RNA ; Chikungunya virus - Infectious diseases ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya virus - PCR detection ; Chikungunya virus - Real Time PCR ; Chikungunya virus - RT-PCR ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever ; Chikungunya virus - Dengue ; Chikungunya virus - Public health
Fonte: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases, v. 68, n. 2, p. 142-144, 2015
ISSN: 1884-2836
Resumo: Fourteen patients were laboratory-confirmed cases of imported infectious diseases at the Narita Airport Quarantine Station in 2013. Blood tests were performed on 283 subjects suspected of having imported infectious diseases. Of these, 11 were diagnosed as having dengue fever (dengue) - 3 as having chikungunya fever (chikungunya) using real-time RT-PCR. The possible countries from which dengue virus infections were contracted were Thail-, Laos, Sri Lanka, - some other countries in Southeast Asia - South Asia. The 3 chikungunya cases were also diagnosed in individuals that returned from Southeast Asia. Most of the patients with dengue had a fever of over 38?. The other symptoms were generalized fatigue, dull headache, pain behind the eyes, arthralgia, - digestive symptoms. Four of the patients were unaware of any mosquito bites. The information obtained from the confirmed cases showed that it is important to consider both the destination to which individuals travelled - the clinical symptoms, regardless of whether the subjects were aware of mosquito bites. The detection rate of chikungunya at the Quarantine Station was higher than that of dengue in all reported cases in Japan.

509) Chikungunya nsP2 protease is not a papain-like cysteine protease and the catalytic dyad cysteine is interchangeable with a proximal serine
Autor: Saisawang Chonticha, Saitornuang Sawanan, Sillapee Pornpan, Ubol Sukathida, Smith Duncan R, Ketterman Albert J
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Molecular structure ; Chikungunya virus - Infectious diseases ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever
Fonte: Scientific Reports, v. 5, p. 17125, 2015
ISSN: 2045-2322
Resumo: Chikungunya virus is the pathogenic alphavirus that causes chikungunya fever in humans. In the last decade millions of cases have been reported around the world from Africa to Asia to the Americas. The alphavirus nsP2 protein is multifunctional - is considered to be pivotal to viral replication, as the nsP2 protease activity is critical for proteolytic processing of the viral polyprotein during replication. Classically the alphavirus nsP2 protease is thought to be papain-like with the enzyme reaction proceeding through a cysteine/histidine catalytic dyad. We performed structure-function studies on the chikungunya nsP2 protease - show that the enzyme is not papain-like. Characterization of the catalytic dyad cysteine residue enabled us to identify a nearby serine that is catalytically interchangeable with the dyad cysteine residue. The enzyme retains activity upon alanine replacement of either residue but a replacement of both cysteine - serine residues results in no detectable activity. Protein dynamics appears to allow the use of either the cysteine or the serine residue in catalysis. This switchable dyad residue has not been previously reported for alphavirus nsP2 proteases - would have a major impact on the nsP2 protease as an anti-viral target.

510) Molecular Characterization Of An Apolipophorin-Iii Gene From The Chinese Oak Silkworm, Antheraea Pernyi (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae)
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Liu, Qiu-Ning; Lin, Kun-Zhang; Yang, Lin-Nan; Dai, Li-Shang; Wang, Lei; Sun, Yu; Qian, Cen; Wei, Guo-Qing; Liu, Dong-Ran; Zhu, Bao-Jian; Liu, Chao-Liang
Assunto: Antheraea Pernyi; Apolipophorin III; Expression; Immune Response
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - DNA ; Aedes aegypti - Immune response ; Aedes aegypti - Molecular structure ; Aedes aegypti - RNA ; Aedes aegypti - Immunology
Fonte: Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology, v. 88, n. 3, p. 155-167, 2015
ISSN: 0739-4462
Resumo: Apolipophorin-III (ApoLp-III) acts in lipid transport, lipoprotein metabolism, and innate immunity in insects. In this study, an ApoLp-III gene of Antheraea pernyi pupae (Ap-ApoLp-III) was isolated and characterized. The full-length cDNA of Ap-ApoLp-III is 687 bp, including a 5-untranslated region (UTR) of 40 bp, 3-UTR of 86 bp and an open reading frame of 561 bp encoding a polypeptide of 186 amino acids that contains an Apolipophorin-III precursor domain (PF07464). The deduced Ap-apoLp-III protein Sequence has 68, 59, and 23% identity with its orthologs of Manduca sexta, Bombyx mori, and Aedes aegypti, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the Ap-apoLp-III was close to that of Bombycoidea. qPCR analysis revealed that Ap-ApoLp-III expressed during the four developmental stages and in integument, fat body, and ovaries. After six types of microorganism infections, expression levels of the Ap-ApoLp-III gene were upregulated significantly at different time points compared with control. RNA interference (RNAi) of Ap-ApoLp-III showed that the expression of Ap-ApoLp-III was significantly downregulated using qPCR after injection of E. coli. We infer that the Ap-ApoLp-III gene acts in the innate immunity of A. pernyi. (C) 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

511) Immuno-chromatographic wicking assay for the rapid detection of Chikungunya viral antigens in mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae)
Autor: Hinson Juanita M, Davé Sonia, McMenamy Scott S, Davé Kirti, Turell Michael J
Assunto: Arbovirus; Dipstick; Rapid detection; Surveillance; Wicking assay
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Arbovirus ; Chikungunya virus - Pathogenesis ; Chikungunya virus - Infectious diseases ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Public health
Fonte: Journal of Medical Entomology, v. 52, n. 4, p. 699-704, 2015
ISSN: 0022-2585
Resumo: The outbreak of disease caused by chikungunya virus (CHIKV) in 2006 - the recent spread of this virus to the Americas in 2013 indicate the potential for this virus to spread - cause significant disease. However, there are currently no accurate - reliable field-usable, diagnostic methods to provide critical, real-time information for early detection of CHIKV within the vector populations in order to implement appropriate vector control - personal protective measures. In this article, we report the ability of an immuno-chromatographic assay developed by VecTOR Test Systems Inc. to detect CHIKV in a pool of female Aedes mosquitoes containing a single CHIKV-infected mosquito. The CHIKV dipstick assay was simple to use, did not require a cold chain, - provided clear results within 1 h. It was highly specific - did not cross-react with samples spiked with a variety of other alpha, bunya, - flaviviruses. The CHIKV assay can provide real-time critical information on the presence of CHIKV in mosquitoes to public health personnel. Results from this assay will allow a rapid threat assessment - the focusing of vector control measures in high-risk areas.

512) Neurovirulence comparison of Chikungunya virus isolates of the Asian and East/Central/South African genotypes from Malaysia
Autor: Wei Chiam Chun, Fun Chan Yoke, Chai Ong Kien, Thong Wong Kum, Sam I-Ching
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Cytopathology ; Chikungunya virus - Neurovirulence ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever
Fonte: The Journal of General Virology, v. 96, n. 11, p. 3243-3254, 2015
ISSN: 1465-2099
Resumo: Chikungunya virus (CHIKV), an alphavirus of the family Togaviridae, causes fever, polyarthritis - rash. There are three genotypes: West African, Asian - East/Central/South African (ECSA). The latter two genotypes have caused global outbreaks in recent years. Recent ECSA CHIKV outbreaks have been associated with severe neurological disease, but it is not known if different CHIKV genotypes are associated with different neurovirulence. In this study, the neurovirulence of Asian (MY/06/37348) - ECSA (MY/08/065) strains of CHIKV isolated in Malaysia were compared. Intracerebral inoculation of either virus into suckling mice was followed by virus titration, histopathology - gene expression analysis of the harvested brains. Both strains of CHIKV replicated similarly, yet mice infected with MY/06/37348 showed higher mortality. Histopathology findings showed that both CHIKV strains spread within the brain (where CHIKV antigen was localized to astrocytes - neurons) - beyond to skeletal muscle. In MY/06/37348-infected mice, apoptosis, which is associated with neurovirulence in alphaviruses, was observed earlier in brains. Comparison of gene expression showed that a pro-apoptotic gene (eIF2?K2) was upregulated at higher levels in MY/06/37348-infected mice, while genes involved in anti-apoptosis (BIRC3), antiviral responses - central nervous system protection (including CD40, IL-10RA, MyD88 - PYCARD) were upregulated more highly in MY/08/065-infected mice. In conclusion, the higher mortality observed following MY/06/37348 infection in mice is due not to higher viral replication in the brain, but to differentially expressed genes involved in host immune responses. These findings may help to identify therapeutic strategies - biomarkers for neurological CHIKV infections.

513) Insect Inhibitor-of-Apoptosis (IAP) Proteins Are Negatively Regulated by Signal-Induced N-Terminal Degrons Absent within Viral IAP Proteins
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Vandergaast, Rianna; Mitchell, Jonathan K.; Byers, Nathaniel M.; Friesen, Paul D.
Assunto: Dna-Damage Response; Nuclear Polyhedrosis-Virus; Cell-Lines; Drosophila-Melanogaster; Dominant Interference; Caspase Inhibitors; Promotes Apoptosis; Ubiquitin Ligase; Effector Caspase; Aedes-Aegypti
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - DNA ; Aedes aegypti - Immune response ; Aedes aegypti - Molecular structure ; Aedes aegypti - Viral infections ; Aedes aegypti - Virus
Fonte: Journal of Virology, v. 89, n. 8, p. 4481-4493, 2015
ISSN: 0022-538X
Resumo: Inhibitor-of-apoptosis (IAP) proteins are key regulators of the innate antiviral response by virtue of their capacity to respond to signals affecting cell survival. In insects, wherein the host IAP provides a primary restriction to apoptosis, diverse viruses trigger rapid IAP depletion that initiates caspase-mediated apoptosis, thereby limiting virus multiplication. We report here that the N-terminal leader of two insect IAPs, Spodoptera frugiperda SfIAP and Drosophila melanogaster DIAP1, contain distinct instability motifs that regulate IAP turnover and apoptotic conSequences. Functioning as a protein degron, the cellular IAP leader dramatically shortened the life span of a long-lived viral IAP (Op-IAP3) when fused to its N terminus. The SfIAP degron contains mitogen-activated kinase (MAPK)-like regulatory sites, responsible for MAPK inhibitor-sensitive phosphorylation of SfIAP. Hyperphosphorylation correlated with increased SfIAP turnover independent of the E3 ubiquitin-ligase activity of the SfIAP RING, which also regulated IAP stability. Together, our findings suggest that the SfIAP phospho-degron responds rapidly to a signal-activated kinase cascade, which regulates SfIAP levels and thus apoptosis. The N-terminal leader of dipteran DIAP1 also conferred virus-induced IAP depletion by a caspase-independent mechanism. DIAP1 instability mapped to previously unrecognized motifs that are not found in lepidopteran IAPs. Thus, the leaders of cellular IAPs from diverse insects carry unique signal-responsive degrons that control IAP turnover. Rapid response pathways that trigger IAP degradation and initiate apoptosis independent of canonical prodeath gene (Reaper-Grim-Hid) expression may provide important innate immune advantages. Furthermore, the elimination of these response motifs within viral IAPs, including those of baculoviruses, explains their unusual stability and their potent antiapoptotic activity.IMPORTANCEApoptosis is an effective means by which a host controls virus infection. In insects, inhibitor-of-apoptosis (IAP) proteins act as regulatory sentinels by responding to cellular signals that determine the fate of infected cells. We discovered that lepidopteran (moth and butterfly) IAPs, which are degraded upon baculovirus infection, are controlled by a conserved phosphorylation-sensitive degron within the IAP N-terminal leader. The degron likely responds to virus-induced kinase-specific signals for degradation through SKP1/Cullin/F-box complex-mediated ubiquitination. Such signal-induced destruction of cellular IAPs is distinct from degradation caused by well-known IAP antagonists, which act to expel IAP-bound caspases. The major implication of this study is that insects have multiple signal-responsive mechanisms by which the sentinel IAPs are actively degraded to initiate host apoptosis. Such diversity of pathways likely provides insects with rapid and efficient strategies for pathogen control. Furthermore, the absence of analogous degrons in virus-encoded IAPs explains their relative stability and antiapoptotic potency.

514) Detecting the emergence of novel, zoonotic viruses pathogenic to humans
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Rosenberg, Ronald
Assunto: Ribonucleic acid-RNA, Viruses, Pathogenesis
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Cell ; Zika virus - Genome ; Zika virus - Immune response ; Zika virus - Pathogenesis ; Zika virus - DNA ; Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - Proteins ; Zika virus - Antibodies ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Molecular methods ; Zika virus - PCR detection ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Chikungunya Fever ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Head size ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences, v. 72, n. 6, p. 1115-1125, 2015.
ISSN: 1420-682X
Resumo: RNA viruses, with their high potential for mutation and epidemic spread, are the most common class of pathogens found as new causes of human illness. Despite great advances made in diagnostic technology since the 1950s, the annual rate at which novel virulent viruses have been found has remained at 2-3. Most emerging viruses are zoonoses; they have jumped from mammal or bird hosts to humans. An analysis of virus discovery indicates that the small number of novel viruses discovered annually is an artifact of inadequate surveillance in tropical and subtropical countries, where even established endemic pathogens are often misdiagnosed. Many of the emerging viruses of the future are already infecting humans but remain to be uncovered by a strategy of disease surveillance in selected populations.

515) Arthritogenic alphaviruses: new insights into arthritis and bone pathology
Autor: Chen Weiqiang, Foo Suan-Sin, Sims Natalie A, Herrero Lara J, Walsh Nicole C, Mahalingam Suresh
Assunto: Ross River virus; Alphavirus; Arthritis; Bone loss; Chikungunya virus; Inflammation
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Cell ; Chikungunya virus - Cytopathology ; Chikungunya virus - Pathogenesis ; Chikungunya virus - Proteins ; Chikungunya virus - Cytokines ; Chikungunya virus - Inflammation ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Immunology ; Chikungunya virus - Public health
Fonte: Trends in Microbiology, v. 23, n. 1, p. 35-43, 2015
ISSN: 1878-4380
Resumo: Arthritogenic alphaviral infection begins as a febrile illness - often progresses to joint pain - rheumatic symptoms that are described as polyarthritis. Alphaviral arthritis - classical arthritides share many similar cellular - immune mediators involved in their pathogenesis. Recent in vitro - in vivo evidence suggests that bone loss resulting from increased expression of bone resorption mediators may accompany alphaviral infection. In addition, several longitudinal studies have reported more severe - delayed recovery of alphaviral disease in patients with pre-existing arthritic conditions. This review aims to provide insights into alphavirus-induced bone loss - focuses on aspects of disease exacerbation in patients with underlying arthritis - on possible therapeutic targets.

516) Native wolbachia from Aedes albopictus blocks Chikungunya virus infection in cellulo
Autor: Raquin Vincent, Valiente Moro Claire, Saucereau Yoann, Tran Florence-Hélène, Potier Patrick, Mavingui Patrick
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Arbovirus ; Chikungunya virus - Cell ; Chikungunya virus - Pathogenesis ; Chikungunya virus - RNA ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Transmission ; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever ; Chikungunya virus - Dengue
Fonte: PloS One, v. 10, n. 4, p. e0125066, 2015
ISSN: 1932-6203
Resumo: Wolbachia, a widespread endosymbiont of terrestrial arthropods, can protect its host against viral - parasitic infections, a phenotype called pathogen blocking". However, in some cases Wolbachia may have no effect or even enhance pathogen infection, depending on the host-Wolbachia-pathogen combination. The tiger mosquito Aedes albopictus is naturally infected by two strains of Wolbachia, wAlbA - wAlbB, - is a competent vector for different arboviruses such as dengue virus (DENV) - chikungunya virus (CHIKV). Interestingly, it was shown in some cases that Ae. albopictus native Wolbachia strains are able to inhibit DENV transmission by limiting viral replication in salivary gl-s, but no such impact was measured on CHIKV replication in vivo. To better underst- the Wolbachia/CHIKV/Ae. albopictus interaction, we generated a cellular model using Ae. albopictus derived C6/36 cells that we infected with the wAlbB strain. Our results indicate that CHIKV infection is negatively impacted at both RNA replication - virus assembly/secretion steps in presence of wAlbB. Using FISH, we observed CHIKV - wAlbB in the same mosquito cells, indicating that the virus is still able to enter the cell in the presence of the bacterium. Further work is needed to decipher molecular pathways involved in Wolbachia-CHIKV interaction at the cellular level, but this cellular model can be a useful tool to study the mechanism behind virus blocking phenotype induced by Wolbachia. More broadly, this put into question the ecological role of Wolbachia symbiont in Ae. albopictus, but also the ability of the CHIKV to counteract Wolbachia's antiviral potential in vivo."

517) Cellular and molecular mechanisms of chikungunya pathogenesis
Autor: Lum Fok-Moon, Ng Lisa F P
Assunto: Chikungunya virus; Immune response; Immunopathogenesis; Pathology
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Biochemistry ; Chikungunya virus - Cytopathology ; Chikungunya virus - Immune response ; Chikungunya virus - Pathogenesis ; Chikungunya virus - Immune response ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Molecular screening ; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever ; Chikungunya virus - Immunology
Fonte: Antiviral Research, v. 120, p. 165-174, 2015
ISSN: 1872-9096
Resumo: Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is an arthropod-borne virus that causes chikungunya fever, a disease characterized by the onset of fever - rashes, with arthralgia as its hallmark symptom. CHIKV has re-emerged over the past decade, causing numerous outbreaks around the world. Since late 2013, CHIKV has reached the shores of the Americas, causing more than a million cases of infection. Despite concentrated efforts to underst- the pathogenesis of the disease, further outbreaks remain a threat. This review highlights important findings regarding CHIKV-associated immunopathogenesis - offers important insights into future directions. This article forms part of a symposium in Antiviral Research on Chikungunya discovers the New World.""

518) Neutralization activity of patient sera collected during the 2008-2009 Chikungunya outbreak in Thailand
Autor: Kishishita Natsuko, Sasayama Mikiko, Takeda Naokazu, Sa-Ngasang Areerat, Anuegoonpipat Atchareeya, Anantapreecha Surapee
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Cell ; Chikungunya virus - Pathogenesis ; Chikungunya virus - Proteins ; Chikungunya virus - Antibodies ; Chikungunya virus - Infectious diseases ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever ; Chikungunya virus - Epidemiology ; Chikungunya virus - Immunology ; Chikungunya virus - Public health
Fonte: Journal of Clinical Microbiology, v. 53, n. 1, p. 184-190, 2015
ISSN: 1098-660X
Resumo: Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) infection typically causes fever, rash, myalgia, - arthralgia - sometimes results in recurrent joint pain or, in severe cases, neurological disorders or death. How CHIKV infection leads to prolonged or severe symptoms is still not well understood. In this study, we examined the neutralization (NT) titer of 98 serum samples collected from patients during the 2008-2009 chikungunya outbreak in Thail-. While all serum samples showed neutralizing activity, virus was detected in 58% of the serum samples. When we analyzed a possible association between virus - antibody titers - the presence of typical symptoms of CHIKV infection, fever - joint pain, there was no significant association except that the number of patients with fever was over three times more than the number of those without fever when CHIKV was detectable in serum. This study indicates that although neutralizing antibody is critical to eliminate CHIKV, it appears not to be the main factor associated with clinical symptoms in some cases, so that other aspects of immune responses, such as those involving proinflammatory mediators - adaptive immune cells, should be considered altogether.

519) Do we need a vaccine against chikungunya?
Autor: Rezza Giovanni
Assunto: Chikungunya virus; R&D; Vaccine
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Vaccine ; Chikungunya virus - Epidemic ; Chikungunya virus - Public health
Fonte: Pathogens and Global Health, v. 109, n. 4, p. 170-173, 2015
ISSN: 2047-7732
Resumo: During the last decade, the chikungunya (CHIKV) virus has exp-ed its range of activity, conquering new territories - becoming an important global health threat. In particular, the challenge represented by the recent emergence of CHIKV in the Americas has strengthened the need of a safe - effective vaccine. Although research on vaccines against CHIKV has been slow, a few vaccine c-idates have been tested over the years. Inactivated - attenuated vaccine c-idates have shown promising results in phase I/II trials, - engineered vaccines have proven to be safe - immunogenic in mouse -/or non-human primate models. Recently, a vaccine based on virus-like particles (VLP) has been successfully tested in a phase I trial. However, large phase I/II controlled trials, which are needed in order to provide evidence of vaccine efficacy, may be planned only under certain conditions. First, they should be conducted during epidemic periods, when a large number of cases occur, in order to ensure an adequate study power. Second, they are expensive - investments returns are not always guaranteed. To overcome this problem, public/private partnership - government support, the identification of target population groups for vaccination - the commitment of donor agencies are key factors for supporting both the development - the availability of vaccines against neglected tropical diseases like chikungunya.

520) Nonhuman primate models of Chikungunya virus infection and disease
Autor: Broeckel Rebecca, Haese Nicole, Messaoudi Ilhem, Streblow Daniel N
Assunto: Chikungunya virus; Immunity; Nonhuman primate; Pathogenesis; Polyarthritis
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Cell ; Chikungunya virus - Pathogenesis ; Chikungunya virus - RNA ; Chikungunya virus - Antibodies ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Vaccine ; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever ; Chikungunya virus - Epidemic
Fonte: Pathogens, v. 4, n. 3, p. 662-681, 2015
ISSN: 2076-0817
Resumo: Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a positive-sense RNA virus transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes. CHIKV is a reemerging Alphavirus that causes acute febrile illness - severe - debilitating polyarthralgia of the peripheral joints. Huge epidemics - the rapid spread of CHIKV seen in India - the Indian Ocean region established CHIKV as a global health concern. This concern was further solidified by the recent incursion of the virus into the Western hemisph