Novas metodologias de diagnóstico

1) Presence and persistence of Zika Virus RNA in semen, United Kingdom, 2016
Autor: Atkinson, Barry; Thorburn, Fiona; Petridou, Christina; Bailey, Daniel; Hewson, Roger; Simpson, Andrew J.H.; Brooks, Timothy J.G.; Aarons, Emma J.
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Immune response ; Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - RNA virus
Fonte: Emerging Infectious Diseases, v. 23, n. 4, 2017
ISSN: 1080-6059
Resumo: Zika virus RNA has been detected in semen collected several months after onset of symptoms of infection. Given the potential for sexual transmission of Zika virus and for serious fetal abnormalities resulting from infection during pregnancy, information regarding the persistence of Zika virus in semen is critical for advancing our understanding of potential risks. We tested serial semen samples from symptomatic male patients in the United Kingdom who had a diagnosis of imported Zika virus infection. Among the initial semen samples from 23 patients, Zika virus RNA was detected at high levels in 13 (56.5%) and was not detected in 9 (39.1%); detection was indeterminate in 1 sample (4.4%). After symptomatic infection, a substantial proportion of men have detectable Zika virus RNA at high copy numbers in semen during early convalescence, suggesting high risk for sexual transmission. Viral RNA clearance times are not consistent and can be prolonged

2) First report of naturally infected Aedes aegypti with chikungunya virus genotype ECSA in the Americas
Autor: Costa-da-Silva, André Luis; Ioshino, Rafaella Sayuri; Petersen,Vivian; Lima, Antonio Fernando; Cunha, Marielton dos Passos; Wiley, Michael R.; Ladner, Jason T.; Prieto, Karla; Palacios, Gustavo; Costa, Danuza Duarte; Suesdek, Lincoln; Zanotto, Paolo Marinho de Andrade; Capurro, Margareth Lara
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya Virus - Arbovirus ; Chikungunya Virus - Infectious diseases ; Chikungunya Virus - qRTPCR
Fonte: PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases, v. 11, n. 6, 2017
ISSN: 1935-2727
Resumo: The worldwide expansion of new emergent arboviruses such as Chikungunya and Zika reinforces the importance in understanding the role of mosquito species in spreading these pathogens in affected regions. This knowledge is essential for developing effective programs based on species specificity to avoid the establishment of endemic transmission cycles sustained by the identified local vectors. Although the first autochthonous transmission of Chikungunya virus was described in 2014 in the north of Brazil, the main outbreaks were reported in 2015 and 2016 in the northeast of Brazil. During 5 days of February 2016, we collected mosquitoes in homes of 6 neighborhoods of Aracaju city, the capital of Sergipe state. Four mosquito species were identified but Culex quinquefasciatus and Aedes aegypti were the most abundant. Field-caught mosquitoes were tested for Chikungunya (CHIKV), Zika (ZIKV) and Dengue viruses (DENV) by qRT-PCR and one CHIKV-infected Ae. aegypti female was detected. The complete sequence of CHIKV genome was obtained from this sample and phylogenetic analysis revealed that this isolate belongs to the East-Central-South-African (ECSA) genotype. Our study describes the first identification of a naturally CHIKV-infected Ae. aegypti in Brazil and the first report of a CHIKV from ECSA genotype identified in this species in the Americas. These findings support the notion of Ae. aegypti being a vector involved in CHIKV outbreaks in northeast of Brazil.

3) Congenital Zika Virus infection induces severe spinal cord injury
Autor: Ramalho, Fernando S.; Yamamoto, Aparecida Y.; Silva, Luis L. da; Figueiredo, Luiz T. M.; Rocha, Lenaldo B.; Neder, Luciano; Teixeira, Sara R.; Apolinário, Letícia A.; Ramalho, Leandra N. Z.; Silva, Deisy M.; Coutinho, Conrado M.; Melli, Patrícia P.; Augusto, Marlei J.; Santoro, Ligia B.; Duarte, Geraldo; Mussi-Pinhata, Marisa M.
Assunto: Zika virus; Flavivirus; Spinal cord injury; Cortical atrophy; Cerebellar aplasia
Descritores: Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - RNA virus
Fonte: Clinical Infectious Diseases, v. 65, n. 4, p. 687-690, 2017
ISSN: 1537-6591
Resumo: We report 2 fatal cases of congenital Zika virus (ZIKV) infection. Brain anomalies, including atrophy of the cerebral cortex and brainstem, and cerebellar aplasia were observed. The spinal cord showed architectural distortion, severe neuronal loss, and microcalcifications. The ZIKV proteins and flavivirus-like particles were detected in cytoplasm of spinal neurons, and spinal cord samples were positive for ZIKV RNA.

4) Evidence of Zika Virus RNA fragments in Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) field-collected eggs from Camaçari, Bahia, Brazil
Autor: Smartt, Chelsea T.; Stenn, Tanise M. S.; Chen, Tse-Yu; Teixeira, Maria Gloria; Queiroz, Erivaldo P.; Santos, Luciano Souza dos; Queiroz, Gabriel A. N.; Souza, Kathleen Ribeiro; Silva, Luciano Kalabric; Shin, Dongyoung; Tabachnick , Walter J.
Assunto: Zika virus; Aedes albopictus; Vertical transmission
Descritores: Zika virus - RNA ; Aedes aegypti - RNA ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Aedes aegypti - Viral infections ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission
Fonte: Journal of Medical Entomology, v. 54, n. 4, p. 1085-1087, 2017
ISSN: 0022-2585
Resumo: A major mosquito-borne viral disease outbreak caused by Zika virus (ZIKV) occurred in Bahia, Brazil, in 2015, largely due to transmission by the mosquito, Aedes aegypti (L.). Detecting ZIKV in field samples of Ae. aegypti has proven problematic in some locations, suggesting other mosquito species might be contributing to the spread of ZIKV. In this study, several (five) adult Aedes albopictus (Skuse) mosquitoes that emerged from a 2015 field collection of eggs from Camaçari, Bahia, Brazil, were positive for ZIKV RNA; however, attempts to isolate live virus were not successful. Results from this study suggest that field-collected Ae. albopictus eggs may contain ZIKV RNA that require further tests for infectious ZIKV. There is a need to investigate the role of Ae. albopictus in the ZIKV infection process in Brazil and to study the potential presence of vertical and sexual transmission of ZIKV in this species.

5) Recurrent potent human neutralizing antibodies to Zika Virus in Brazil and Mexico
Autor: Robbiani, Davide F.; Bozzacco, Leonia; Keeffe, Jennifer R.; Khouri, Ricardo; Olsen, Priscilla C.; Gazumyan, Anna; Schaefer-Babajew, Dennis; Avila-Rios, Santiago; Nogueira, Lilian; Patel, Roshni; Azzopardi, Stephanie A.; Uhl, Lion F.K.; Saeed, Mohsan; Sevilla-Reyes, Edgar E.; Agudelo, Marianna; Yao, Kai-Hui; Golijanin, Jovana; Gristick, Harry B.; Lee, Yu E.; Hurley, Arlene; Caskey, Marina; Pai, Joy; Oliveira, Thiago; Wunder Jr., Elsio A.; Sacramento, Gielson; Nery Jr., Nivison; Orge, Cibele; Costa, Federico; Reis, Mitermayer G.; Thomas, Neena M.; Eisenreich, Thomas; Weinberger, Daniel M.; Almeida, Antonio R.P. de; West Jr., Anthony P.; Rice, Charles M.; Bjorkman, Pamela J.; Reyes-Teran, Gustavo; Ko, Albert I.; MacDonald, Margaret R.; Nussenzwe, Michel C.
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Antibodies ; Zika virus - Serology
Fonte: Cell, v. 169, n. 4, p. 597-609, 2017
ISSN: 0092-8674
Resumo: Antibodies to Zika virus (ZIKV) can be protective. To examine the antibody response in individuals who develop high titers of anti-ZIKV antibodies, we screened cohorts in Brazil and Mexico for ZIKV envelope domain III (ZEDIII) binding and neutralization. We find that serologic reactivity to dengue 1 virus (DENV1) EDIII before ZIKV exposure is associated with increased ZIKV neutralizing titers after exposure. Antibody cloning shows that donors with high ZIKV neutralizing antibody titers have expanded clones of memory B cells that express the same immunoglobulin VH3-23/VK1-5 genes. These recurring antibodies cross-react with DENV1, but not other flaviviruses, neutralize both DENV1 and ZIKV, and protect mice against ZIKV challenge. Structural analyses reveal the mechanism of recognition of the ZEDIII lateral ridge by VH3-23/VK1-5 antibodies. Serologic testing shows that antibodies to this region correlate with serum neutralizing activity to ZIKV. Thus, high neutralizing responses to ZIKV are associated with pre-existing reactivity to DENV1 in humans.

6) Viral load and cytokine response profile does not support antibody-dependent enhancement in dengue-primed Zika Virus-infected patients
Autor: Terzian, Ana Carolina Bernardes; Schanoski, Alessandra Soares; Mota, Mânlio Tasso de Oliveira; Silva, Rafael Alves da; Estofolete, Cássia Fernanda; Colombo, Tatiana Elias; Rahal, Paula; Hanley, Kathryn A.; Vasilakis, Nikos; Kalil, Jorge; Nogueira, Maurício Lacerda
Assunto: ZIKV; DENV; ADE; Cytokines
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Arbovirus ; Aedes aegypti - qRTPCR ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission
Fonte: Clinical Infectious Diseases; v. 65, n. 8, p. 1260-1265, 2017
ISSN: 1537-6591
Resumo: The pathogenesis of severe dengue disease involves immune components as biomarkers. The mechanism by which some dengue virus (DENV)-infected individuals progress to severe disease is poorly understood. Most studies on the pathogenesis of severe dengue disease focus on the process of antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE) as a primary risk factor. With the circulation of Zika virus (ZIKV) in DENV-endemic areas, many people infected by ZIKV were likely exposed to DENV. The influence of such exposure on Zika disease outcomes remains unknown. We investigated whether patients previously exposed to DENV exhibited higher viremia when exposed to a subsequent, heterologous dengue or Zika infection than those patients not previously exposed to dengue. We measured viral loads and cytokine profile during patients' acute infections. Neither dengue nor Zika viremia was higher in patients with prior DENV infection, although the power to detect such a difference was only adequate in the ZIKV analysis. Of the 10 cytokines measured, only 1 significant difference was detected: Levels of interleukin 1? (IL-1?) were lower in dengue-infected patients who had experienced a previous dengue infection than patients infected with dengue for the first time. However, power to detect differences between groups was low. In Zika-infected patients, levels of IL-1? showed a significant, positive correlation with viral load. No signs of ADE were observed in vivo in patients with acute ZIKV infection who had prior exposure to DENV.

7) Persistence of Zika virus in conjunctival fluid of convalescence patients
Autor: Tan, Jeslin J. L.; Balne, Praveen K.; Leo, Yee-Sin; Tong, Louis
Assunto: Eye manifestations; Risk factors; Viral infection
Descritores: Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - qRTPCR ; Zika virus - Transmission
Fonte: Scientific Reports, v. 7, n. 11194, 2017
ISSN: 2045-2322
Resumo: A widespread epidemic of Zika fever, caused by Zika virus (ZIKAV) has spread throughout the Pacific islands, the Americas and Southeast Asia. The increased incidences of ocular anomalies observed in ZIKAV-infected infants and adults may be associated with the rapid spread of ZIKAV. The objective of this study was to check if ZIKAV could be detected in human tears after the first week of infection. Twenty-nine patients with PCR confirmed ZIKAV infection during the Singapore August 2016 ZIKAV outbreak were enrolled for the study. Detection and quantification of ZIKAV RNA was performed on conjunctival swabs collected from both eyes of these patients at the late convalescent phase (30 days post-illness). Efficiency of viral isolation from swab samples was confirmed by the limit of detection (as low as 0.1 PFU/µL, equivalent to copy number of 4.9) in spiked swabs with different concentrations of ZIKAV (PFU/µL). Samples from three patients were found positive by qRT-PCR for ZIKAV and the viral RNA copy numbers detected in conjunctival swabs ranged from 5.2 to 9.3 copies respectively. ZIKAV could persist in the tears of infected patients for up to 30 days post-illness, and may therefore possess a potential public health risk of transmission.

8) Vectorborne Infections, Mali
Autor: Safronetz David, Sacko Moussa, Sogoba Nafomon, Rosenke Kyle, Martellaro Cynthia, Traoré Sékou, Cissé Issa, Maiga Ousmane, Boisen Matt, Nelson Diana, Oottamasathien Darin, Millett Molly, Garry Robert F, Branco Luis M, Doumbia Seydou, Feldmann Heinz, Traoré Mamadou S
Assunto: Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus; Ebola virus; Lassa virus; Leptospira; West Nile virus; Arboviruses; Bunyavirus; Chikungunya virus; Dengue virus; Flavivirus; Hantavirus; Rodentborne viruses; Togavirus; Vector-borne infections; Viruses; Zoonotic diseases
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Arbovirus ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever ; Chikungunya virus - Dengue
Fonte: Emerging Infectious Diseases, v. 22, n. 2, p. 340-342, 2016
ISSN: 1080-6059
Resumo:

9) Evaluation of entomopathogenic Bacillus sphaericus isolated from Lombok beach area against mosquito larvae
Autor: Suryadi, Bambang Fajar; Yanuwiadi, Bagyo; Ardyati, Tri;Suharjono, Suharjono
Assunto: Toxicants; Nucleotide sequence; DNA; Larvae; Polymerase chain reaction; Pest control; Toxicity; Toxicity tests; Aquatic insects; Phylogeny; Beaches; Toxins; Soil; Colonies; Islands; Saline water; Cytology; Heat shock; Toxicity testing
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - Molecular methods
Fonte: Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine, v. 6, n. 2, p. 148-154, 2016.
ISSN: 2221-1691
Resumo: Objective: To isolate, characterize and evaluate toxicity of Bacillus sphaericus (B. sphaericus) from beach area of Lombok Island. Methods: Soil was collected from determined locations and suspended in sterile physiological saline water. After heat shock was applied, suspension was spread on NYSM agar medium. Colonies grown were then observed and isolated. Colony, cell morphology, and biochemical/physiological characteristics were tested and compared to B. sphaericus 2362 as standard. Initial toxicity testing was done against three species of mosquito larvae (Culex quinquefasciatus, Anopheles aconitus and Aedes aegypti) and isolates that showed more than 50% larvae killing will be assayed to obtain LC sub(50) and LC sub(90) values within 48 h. PCR technique were conducted to obtain 16s rDNA amplicon for sequencing and to detect toxin-expressing genes (using multiplex PCR). Results: Twenty isolates of B. sphaericus have been collected from 20 determined locations and their characteristics were in agreement with standard B. sphaericus characteristics. Bioassay testing showed that four isolates (namely isolate MNT, SLG, TJL2 and PLG) were mildly toxic against all larvae. The rests were either low toxic or non-toxic at all. Phylogenetic analysis showed that all four isolates were clustered with other known mildly and highly toxic strains. The multiplex PCR result showed four toxic isolates owned 1-2 bands from Bin toxin genes and three bands from Mtx toxin genes, whereas 16 isolates with low to non-toxic characteristics showed only three bands from Mtx toxin genes. Conclusions: Four toxic isolates of B. sphaericus were isolated from beach area of Lombok Island. They showed mild toxicity against larvae of three mosquito species.

10) Zika virus: diagnostics for an emerging pandemic threat
Autor: Waggoner Jesse J, Pinsky Benjamin A
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Arbovirus ; Chikungunya virus - Cytopathology ; Chikungunya virus - Infectious diseases ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Dengue
Fonte: Journal of Clinical Microbiology, v. 54, n. 4, p. 860-867, 2016
ISSN: 1098-660X
Resumo: Zika virus (ZIKV) is anAedesmosquito-borne flavivirus that emerged in Brazil in 2015 - then rapidly spread throughout the tropical - subtropical Americas. Based on clinical criteria alone, ZIKV cannot be reliably distinguished from infections with other pathogens that cause an undifferentiated systemic febrile illness, including infections with two common arboviruses, dengue virus - chikungunya virus. This minireview details the methods that are available to diagnose ZIKV infection.

11) Inactivation of Zika virus in plasma with amotosalen and ultraviolet A illumination
Autor: Aubry Maite, Richard Vaea, Green Jennifer, Broult Julien, Musso Didier
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Arbovirus ; Chikungunya virus - Cell ; Chikungunya virus - RNA ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Transmission ; Chikungunya virus - Dengue
Fonte: Transfusion, v. 56, n. 1, p. 33-40, 2016
ISSN: 1537-2995
Resumo: Zika virus (ZIKV) is an arthropod-borne virus (arbovirus) transmitted by mosquitoes. The potential for ZIKV transmission through blood transfusion was demonstrated during the ZIKV outbreak that occurred in French Polynesia from October 2013 to April 2014. Pathogen inactivation of blood products is a proactive strategy that provides the potential to reduce transfusion-transmitted diseases. Inactivation of arboviruses by amotosalen - ultraviolet A (UVA) illumination was previously demonstrated for chikungunya, West Nile, - dengue viruses. We report here the efficiency of this process for ZIKV inactivation of human plasma. Plasma units were spiked with ZIKV. Viral titers - RNA loads were measured in plasma before - after amotosalen - UVA photochemical treatment. The mean ZIKV titers - RNA loads in plasma before inactivation were respectively 6.57 log TCID50 /mL - 10.25 log copies/mL. After inactivation, the mean ZIKV RNA loads was 9.51 log copies/mL, but cell cultures inoculated with inactivated plasma did not result in infected cells - did not produce any replicative virus after one passage, nor detectable viral RNA from the second passage. In this study we demonstrate that amotosalen combined with UVA light inactivates ZIKV in fresh-frozen plasma. This inactivation process is of particular interest to prevent plasma transfusion-transmitted ZIKV infections in areas such as French Polynesia, where several arboviruses are cocirculating.

12) The convergence of a virus, mosquitoes, and human travel in globalizing the zika epidemic
Autor: Imperato Pascal James
Assunto: Aedes aegypti; Guillain-Barré syndrome; Kisubi Catholic Mission; Microcephaly; Zika Forest and Pascal James Imperato; Zika virus; Zika virus and travel; Zika virus infection
Descritores: Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Sexual ; Chikungunya virus - Transmission ; Chikungunya virus - Dengue ; Chikungunya virus - Epidemic ; Chikungunya virus - Microcephaly ; Chikungunya virus - Public health
Fonte: Journal of Community Healt, v. 41, n. 3, p. 674-679, 2016
ISSN: 1573-3610
Resumo: The Zika virus was first identified in 1947 in the Zika Forest of Ug-a. It was discovered in a rhesus monkey that had been placed in a cage on a sentinel platform in the forest by the Virus Research Institute. When this writer visited the institute - the Zika Forest in 1961, work was underway to identify mosquito species at various levels of the tree canopy. This was done through the placement of traps at various levels of a 120-foot-high steel tower which this writer climbed. At that time, researchers isolated 12 strains of Zika virus from traps on the tower. Over the next six decades, the virus spread slowly to other parts of Africa, - eventually appeared in Southeast Asia, transmitted by Aedes aegypti - other Aedes mosquito species. By 1981, only 14 cases of illness had been reported as due to the Zika virus. Since most infections with this virus are either mild or asymptomatic, its true geographic spread was not fully appreciated. The current globalization of the Zika epidemic began on the Pacific isl- of Yap in the Federated States of Polynesia in 2007. This was the first known presence of the Zika virus outside of Africa - Southeast Asia. It was estimated that 73 % of the isl-'s population had been infected. In 2013, the virus spread to French Polynesia where an estimated 28,000 cases occurred in a population of 270,000. During that year - afterwards, microcephaly - other congenital abnormalities were observed in the infants of women who were pregnant when they contracted the virus. It is currently not known if cases of microcephaly have resulted from infection of pregnant women or from infection plus some other co-factor. The epidemic rapidly spread to the Cook Isl-s - Easter Isl-. In 2015, Zika virus infection was diagnosed in Brazil where it was associated with microcephaly in the infants of some women who were pregnant when they contracted the disease. Cases of the Guillain-Barré syndrome were also found to be associated with Zika virus infection. How the disease entered Brazil is a matter of conjecture. However, the strain responsible for the epidemic in Brazil - elsewhere in South - Central America is phylogenetically identical to that which caused the epidemic in French Polynesia. The wide distribution of Aedes aegypti, a principal vector of the virus, - other Aedes species has greatly facilitated the spread of the disease. Aedes aegypti is an invasive species of mosquito in the Western Hemisphere that has adapted well to densely-populated urban environments. In addition, male-to-female human sexual transmission has increasingly been demonstrated in the US - elsewhere. In February 2016, the World Health Organization (WHO) declared the current Zika outbreak a Public Health Emergency of international concern. On the recommendation of its Emergency Committee on Zika Virus - Observed Increase in Neurological Disorders - Neonatal Malformations, WHO issued a group of recommendations to contain the epidemic. The globalization of the Zika virus was made possible by the widespread presence in various parts of the world of Aedes vectors - increased human travel that facilitated geographic spread. This globalization of Zika follows upon that of West Nile, Ebola, Dengue, - Chikungunya. Its ultimate spread is difficult to predict, but will hopefully be restricted through vigorous preventive measures.

13) Neuropathogenesis of Chikungunya infection: Astrogliosis and innate immune activation
Autor: Inglis Fiona M, Lee Kim M, Chiu Kevin B, Purcell Olivia M, Didier Peter J, Russell-Lodrigue Kasi, Weaver Scott C, Roy Chad J, MacLean Andrew G
Assunto: Alphavirus; Chikungunya; Gliosis; Morphometry; Togavirus; Toll-like receptor
Descritores: Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Epidemic ; Chikungunya virus - Immunology
Fonte: Journal of Neurovirology, v. 22, n. 2, p. 140-148, 2016
ISSN: 1538-2443
Resumo: Chikungunya, that which bends up" in the Makonde dialect, is an emerging global health threat, with increasing incidence of neurological complications. Until 2013, Chikungunya infection had been largely restricted to East Africa - the Indian Ocean, with cases within the USA reported to be from foreign travel. However, in 2014, over 1 million suspected cases were reported in the Americas, - a recently infected human could serve as an unwitting reservoir for the virus resulting in an epidemic in the continental USA. Chikungunya infection is increasingly being associated with neurological sequelae. In this study, we sought to underst- the role of astrocytes in the neuropathogenesis of Chikungunya infection. Even after virus has been cleared form the circulation, astrocytes were activated with regard to TLR2 expression. In addition, white matter astrocytes were hypertrophic, with increased arbor volume in gray matter astrocytes. Combined, these would alter the number - distribution of synapses that each astrocyte would be capable of forming. These results provide the first evidence that Chikungunya infection induces morphometric - innate immune activation of astrocytes in vivo. Perturbed glia-neuron signaling could be a major driving factor in the development of Chikungunya-associated neuropathology."

14) Zika virus in the americas-yet another arbovirus threat
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Fauci A.S., Morens D.M.
Assunto: RNA virus infection (diagnosis, epidemiology, therapy), Zika virus infection (diagnosis, epidemiology, therapy)
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Chikungunya Fever ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Rash maculopapular ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: New England Journal of Medicine, v. 374. n. 7, p. 601-604, feb. 2016
ISSN: 1533-4406 (electronic),0028-4793
Resumo:

15) Identification and genetic characterization of Chikungunya virus from Aedes mosquito vector collected in the Lucknow district, North India
Autor: Nyari N, Mann H S, Sharma S, Pandey S N, Dhole T N
Assunto: Aedes vector; Chikungunya fever; Chikungunya virus; Emerging; Enveloped glycoprotein (E1); Viruses
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - PCR detection ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Transmission ; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever ; Chikungunya virus - Epidemic
Fonte: Acta Tropica, v. 158, p. 117-124, 2016
ISSN: 1873-6254
Resumo: Chikungunya fever is an emerging mosquito-borne disease caused by the infection with chikungunya virus (CHIKV). The CHIKV has been rarely detected in mosquito vectors from Northern India, since vector surveillance is an effective strategy in controlling - preventing CHIKV transmission. Thus, virological investigation for CHIKV among mosquitoes of Aedes (A.) species was carried out in the Lucknow district during March 2010 to October 2011. We collected adult mosquitoes from areas with CHIKV positive patients. The adult Aedes mosquito samples were pooled, homogenized, clarified - tested for CHIKV by nonstructural protein 1 (nsP1) gene based polymerase chain reaction (PCR). A total 91 mosquito pools comprising of adult A. aegypti - A. albopictus were tested for CHIKV. The partial envelope protein (E1) gene sequences of mosquito-borne CHIKV strains were analyzed for genotyping. Of 91 pools, 6 pools of A. aegypti; - 2 pools of A. albopictus mosquitoes were identified positive for CHIKV by PCR. The phylogenetic analysis revealed clustering of CHIKV strains in two sub-lineages within the monophyletic East-Central South African (ECSA) genotype. Novel amino acid changes at the positions 294 (P294L) - 295 (S295F) were observed during analysis of amino acid sequence of the partial E1 gene. This study demonstrates the genetic diversity of circulating CHIKV strains - reports the first detection of CHIKV strains in Aedes vector species from the state of Uttar Pradesh. These findings have implication for vector control strategies to mitigate vector population to prevent the likelihood of CHIKV epidemic in the near future.

16) Natural transmission of dengue virus serotype 3 by Aedes albopictus (Skuse) during an outbreak in Havelock Island: Entomological characteristics
Autor: Sivan, Arun; Shriram, A. N.; Sugunan, A. P.; Anwesh, Maile; Muruganandam, N.; Kartik, C.; Vijayachari, P.
Assunto: Dengue; Aedes albopictus; Aedes aegypti; Andaman Nicobar Islands; India
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - RNA ; Aedes aegypti - PCR detection ; Aedes aegypti - RT-PCR ; Aedes aegypti - Chikungunya Fever ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Acta Tropica, v. 156, n. , p. 122-129, 2016
ISSN: 0001-706X
Resumo: From May to June 2014, an outbreak of dengue virus (DENV) illness occurred in the Havelock Island, South Andaman. Entomological investigations were undertaken during the peak of the outbreak, from 26th May-4th June, to identify the primary vector(s) involved in the transmission so that appropriate public health measures could be implemented. Adult mosquitoes were collected by BG-Sentinel traps in houses and neighborhoods of clinically ill patients. Water holding containers were inspected for the presence of mosquito larvae and pupae. Adult mosquitoes were analyzed by RT-PCR for the presence of nucleic acids of DENV and CHIKV. A total of 498 mosquitoes were collected and processed in 27 pools. The species composition comprised of 58.3% Aedes albopictus, 7.5% Aedes aegypti and 4.2% Aedes edwardsi and 3.1% constituted others. Two A. albopictus pools were found to be positive for DENV RNA. Sequencing of the RT PCR 511 base pair amplicon positive samples showed homology with DENV-3, suggesting that serotype-3 was responsible for the outbreak and A. albopictus was the primary vector responsible. This was supported by high container (10.1%), premise (25.4%) and Breteau (27.9) indices, with miscellaneous receptacles (2.4%), tree holes (1.2%) and discarded tires (1.2%) registering relatively higher container indices. This is the first report of detection of DENV in A. albopictus from Andaman and Nicobar Islands. (C) 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

17) Mosquito saliva induced cutaneous events augment Chikungunya virus replication and disease progression
Autor: Agarwal Ankita, Joshi Gaurav, Nagar Durga P, Sharma Ajay K, Sukumaran D, Pant Satish C, Parida Man Mohan, Dash Paban Kumar
Assunto: Chikungunya; Cutaneous immune response; Mosquito saliva; Pathogenesis
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Cell ; Chikungunya virus - Immune response ; Chikungunya virus - Pathogenesis ; Chikungunya virus - Cytokines ; Chikungunya virus - Immune response ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus
Fonte: Infection, Genetics and Evolution, v. 40, p. 126-135, 2016
ISSN: 1567-7257
Resumo: Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is transmitted when infected mosquito probes the host skin. While probing, mosquito saliva is expectorated into host skin along with virus which contains cocktail of molecules having anti-hemostatic - immunomodulatory properties. As mosquito saliva is a critical factor during natural arboviral infection, therefore we investigated mosquito saliva induced cutaneous events that modulate CHIKV infection. The effect of mosquito saliva on CHIKV infection was examined through inoculation of suckling mice subcutaneously with either CHIKV alone or uninfected mosquito bite followed by CHIKV. Histopathological evaluation of skin revealed infiltration of transmigrated inflammatory cells. Dermal blood vessels were hyperemic - adnexa showed degenerating lesions. Severe hemorrhage was observed in dermis - hypodermis in mosquito bite+CHIKV group compared to CHIKV group. Analysis of cytokines in skin showed significant downregulation of inflammatory genes like TLR-3, IL-2, IFN-?, TNF-? - IFN-? in mosquito bite+CHIKV group compared to CHIKV group. In contrast, significant upregulation of anti-inflammatory genes like IL-4 - IL-10 was observed. These early events might have been responsible for increased dissemination of CHIKV to serum - peripheral organs as demonstrated through >10-fold higher viremia, antigen localization, cellular infiltration - degenerative changes. Thus mosquito saliva induced early cellular infiltration - associated cytokines augment CHIKV pathogenesis in a mouse model. This mosquito improved CHIKV mouse model simulates the realistic conditions that occur naturally during infected mosquito bite to a host. It will lead to better underst-ing of CHIKV pathobiology - promote the evaluation of novel medical countermeasures against emerging CHIKV.

18) Seroprevalence of asian lineage Chikungunya virus infection on Saint Martin Island, 7 months after the 2013 emergence
Autor: Gay Noellie, Rousset Dominique, Huc Patricia, Matheus Séverine, Ledrans Martine, Rosine Jacques, Cassadou Sylvie, Noël Harold
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Public health
Fonte: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, v. 94, n. 2, p. 393-396, 2016
ISSN: 1476-1645
Resumo: At the end of 2013, chikungunya virus (CHIKV) emerged in Saint Martin Isl-, Caribbean. The Asian lineage was identified. Seven months after this introduction, the seroprevalence was 16.9% in the population of Saint Martin - 39.0% of infections remained asymptomatic. This moderate attack rate - the apparent limited size of the outbreak in Saint Martin could be explained by control measures involved to lower the exposure of the inhabitants. Other drivers such as climatic factors - population genetic factors should be explored. The substantial rate of asymptomatic infections recorded points to a potential source of infection that can both spread in new geographic areas - maintain an inconspicuous endemic circulation in the Americas.

19) Human MicroRNA miR-532-5p Exhibits Antiviral Activity against West Nile Virus via Suppression of Host Genes SESTD1 and TAB3 Required for Virus Replication
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Slonchak, Andrii; Shannon, Rory P.; Pali, Gabor; Khromykh, Alexander A.
Assunto: Nf-Kappa-B; Dengue Virus; Cellular Microrna; Kunjin Virus; Target Prediction; Rna Interference; Mammalian-Cells; Expression Data; Aedes-Aegypti; Viral Genome
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - Genome ; Aedes aegypti - RNA ; Aedes aegypti - Viral infections ; Aedes aegypti - Virus
Fonte: Journal of Virology, v. 90, n. 5, p. 2388-2402, 2016
ISSN: 0022-538X
Resumo: West Nile virus (WNV) is a mosquito-transmitted flavivirus that naturally circulates between mosquitos and birds but can also infect humans, causing severe neurological disease. The early host response to WNV infection in vertebrates primarily relies on the type I interferon pathway; however, recent studies suggest that microRNAs (miRNAs) may also play a notable role. In this study, we assessed the role of host miRNAs in response to WNV infection in human cells. We employed small RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) analysis to determine changes in the expression of host miRNAs in HEK293 cells infected with an Australian strain of WNV, Kunjin (WNVKUN), and identified a number of host miRNAs differentially expressed in response to infection. Three of these miRNAs were confirmed to be significantly upregulated in infected cells by quantitative reverse transcription (qRT)-PCR and Northern blot analyses, and one of them, miR-532-5p, exhibited a significant antiviral effect against WNVKUN infection. We have demonstrated that miR-532-5p targets and downregulates expression of the host genes SESTD1 and TAB3 in human cells. Small interfering RNA (siRNA) depletion studies showed that both SESTD1 and TAB3 were required for efficient WNVKUN replication. We also demonstrated upregulation of mir-532-5p expression and a corresponding decrease in the expression of its targets, SESTD1 and TAB3, in the brains of WNVKUN-infected mice. Our results show that upregulation of miR-532-5p and subsequent suppression of the SESTD1 and TAB3 genes represent a host antiviral response aimed at limiting WNVKUN infection and highlight the important role of miRNAs in controlling RNA virus infections in mammalian hosts.IMPORTANCEWest Nile virus (WNV) is a significant viral pathogen that poses a considerable threat to human health across the globe. There is no specific treatment or licensed Vaccine available for WNV, and deeper insight into how the virus interacts with the host is required to facilitate their development. In this study, we addressed the role of host microRNAs (miRNAs) in antiviral response to WNV in human cells. We identified miR-532-5p as a novel antiviral miRNA and showed that it is upregulated in response to WNV infection and suppresses the expression of the host genes TAB3 and SESTD1 required for WNV replication. Our results show that upregulation of miR-532-5p and subsequent suppression of the SESTD1 and TAB3 genes represent an antiviral response aimed at limiting WNV infection and highlight the important role of miRNAs in controlling virus infections in mammalian hosts.

20) The next steps on Zika.
Autor:
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Pathogenesis ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Nature, v. 530, n. 7588, p. 5, 2016
ISSN: 1476-4687
Resumo:

21) Interspecies transmission and Chikungunya virus emergence
Autor: Tsetsarkin Konstantin A, Chen Rubing, Weaver Scott C
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Cytopathology ; Chikungunya virus - Infectious diseases ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Transmission ; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever ; Chikungunya virus - Dengue ; Chikungunya virus - Immunology
Fonte: Current Opinion in Virology, v. 16, p. 143-150, 2016
ISSN: 1879-6265
Resumo: Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) causes severe, debilitating, often chronic arthralgia with high attack rates, resulting in severe morbidity - economic costs to affected communities. Since its first well-documented emergence in Asia in the 1950s, CHIKV has infected millions -, since 2007, has spread widely, probably via viremic travelers, to initiate urban transmission in Europe, the South Pacific, - the Americas. Some spread has been facilitated by adaptive envelope glycoprotein substitutions that enhance transmission by the new vector, Aedes albopictus. Although epistatic constraints may prevent the impact of these mutations in Asian strains now circulating in the Americas, as well as in African CHIKV strains imported into Brazil last year, these constraints could eventually be overcome over time to increase the transmission by A. albopictus in rural - temperate regions. Another major determinant of CHIKV endemic stability in the Americas will be its ability to spill back into an enzootic cycle involving sylvatic vectors - nonhuman primates, an opportunity exploited by yellow fever virus but apparently not by dengue viruses.

22) Dynamics of Chikungunya virus cell entry unraveled by single virus tracking in living cells
Autor: Hoornweg Tabitha E, van Duijl-Richter Mareike K S, Ayala Nuñez Nilda V, Albulescu Irina C, van Hemert Martijn J, Smit Jolanda M
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Cell ; Chikungunya virus - Proteins ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Vaccine ; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever
Fonte: Journal of Virology, v. 90, n. 9, p. 4745-562016, 2016
ISSN: 1098-5514
Resumo: Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a rapidly emerging mosquito-borne human pathogen causing major outbreaks in Africa, Asia - the Americas. The cell entry pathway hijacked by CHIKV to infect a cell has been studied before using inhibitory compounds. There has been some debate on the mechanism by which CHIKV enters the cell, as several studies suggest that it enters via clathrin-mediated endocytosis, while some other studies show that CHIKV enters cells independently of clathrin. Here, we applied live-cell microscopy - monitored the cell entry behaviour of single CHIKV particles in living cells transfected with fluorescent marker proteins. This approach allowed us to obtain a detailed insight in the dynamic events that occur during CHIKV entry. We observed that almost all particles fused within 20 minutes post-addition to the cells. The vast majority of particles that fused first colocalized with clathrin. The time from initial colocalization with clathrin till the moment of membrane fusion was on average 1.7 minutes, highlighting the fast nature of the cell entry process of CHIKV. Furthermore, these results also show that the virus spends a profound time searching for a receptor. Membrane fusion was predominantly observed from within Rab5-positive endosomes - often occurred within 40 seconds post-delivery to endosomes. Furthermore, we confirmed that a valine at position E1-226 enhances the cholesterol-dependent membrane fusion properties of CHIKV. To conclude, our work confirms that CHIKV cell entry occurs via clathrin-mediated endocytosis - shows that fusion occurs from within acidic early endosomes. Since its re-emergence in 2004 chikungunya (CHIKV) has rapidly spread around the world, leading to millions of infections. CHIKV often causes chikungunya fever, a self-limiting febrile illness with severe arthralgia. Currently, there is no vaccine or specific antiviral treatment available against CHIKV. A potential antiviral strategy is to interfere with the cell entry process of the virus. However, contradicting results were published with regard to the cell entry pathway used by CHIKV. Here, we applied a novel technology to visualize the entry behaviour of single CHIKV particles in living cells. Our results show that CHIKV cell entry is extremely rapid - occurs via clathrin-mediated endocytosis. Membrane fusion is seen from within acidic early endosomes. Furthermore, the membrane fusion capacity of CHIKV is strongly promoted by cholesterol in the target membrane. Taken together, this study provides an exquisite insight in the cell entry process of CHIKV.

23) Parameters of Mosquito-Enhanced West Nile Virus Infection
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Moser, Lindsey A.; Lim, Pei-Yin; Styer, Linda M.; Kramer, Laura D.; Bernard, Kristen A.
Assunto: Salivary gland extracts; Host immune response; Female Aedes aegypti; Dengue virus; Differential modulation; Culex tarsalis; Mast cells; Mice; Disease; Bite
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - Immune response ; Aedes aegypti - Molecular structure ; Aedes aegypti - Viral infections ; Aedes aegypti - Virus
Fonte: Journal of Virology, v. 90, n. 1, p. 292-299, 2016
ISSN: 0022-538X
Resumo: The arthropod-borne West Nile virus (WNV) emerged in New York State in 1999 and quickly spread throughout the United States. Transmission is maintained in an enzootic cycle in which infected mosquitoes transmit the virus to susceptible hosts during probing and feeding. Arthropod-derived components within the viral inoculum are increasingly acknowledged to play a role in infection of vertebrate hosts. We previously showed that Culex tarsalis mosquito saliva and salivary gland extract (SGE) enhance the in vivo replication of WNV. Here, we characterized the effective dose, timing, and proximity of saliva and SGE administration necessary for enhancement of WNV viremia using a mouse model Mosquito saliva and SGE enhanced viremia in a dose-dependent manner, and a single mosquito bite or as little as 0.01 mu g of SGE was effective at enhancing viremia, suggesting a potent active salivary factor. Viremia was enhanced when SGE was injected in the same location as virus inoculation from 24 h before virus inoculation through 12 h after virus inoculation. These results were confirmed with mosquito saliva deposited by uninfected mosquitoes. When salivary treatment and virus inoculation were spatially separated, viremia was not enhanced. In summary, the effects of mosquito saliva and SGE were potent, long lasting, and localized, and these studies have implications for virus transmission in nature, where vertebrate hosts are fed upon by both infected and uninfected mosquitoes over time. Furthermore, our model provides a robust system to identify the salivary factor(s) responsible for enhancement of WNV replication.

24) Mefenamic acid in combination with ribavirin shows significant effects in reducing chikungunya virus infection in vitro and in vivo
Autor: Rothan, Hussin A.; Bahrani, Hirbod; Abdulrahman, Ammar Y; Mohamed, Zulqarnain; Teoh, Teow Chong; Othman, Shatrah; Rashid, Nurshamimi Nor; Rahman, Noorsaadah A; Yusof, Rohana
Assunto: Chikungunya virus; Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs; Mefenamic acid; Meclofenamic acid; Ribavirin
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Viral infections ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Antiviral Research, v. 127, p. 50-56, 2016.
ISSN: 0166-3542
Resumo: Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) infection is a persistent problem worldwide due to efficient adaptation of the viral vectors, Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus mosquitoes. Therefore, the absence of effective anti-CHIKV drugs to combat chikungunya outbreaks often leads to a significant impact on public health care. In this study, we investigated the antiviral activity of drugs that are used to alleviate infection symptoms, namely, the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), on the premise that active compounds with potential antiviral and anti-inflammatory activities could be directly subjected for human use to treat CHIKV infections. Amongst the various NSAID compounds, Mefenamic acid (MEFE) and Meclofenamic acid (MECLO) showed considerable antiviral activity against viral replication individually or in combination with the common antiviral drug, Ribavirin (RIBA). The 50% effective concentration (EC50) was estimated to be 13 mu M for MEFE, 18 mu M for MECLO and 10 mu M for RIBA, while MEFE + RIBA (1:1) exhibited an EC50 of 3 mu M, and MECLO + RIBA (1:1) was 5 mu M. Because MEFE is commercially available and its synthesis is easier compared with MECLO, MEFE was selected for further in vivo antiviral activity analysis. Treatment with MEFE + RIBA resulted in a significant reduction of hypertrophic effects by CHIKV on the mouse liver and spleen. Viral titre quantification in the blood of CHIKV-infected mice through the plaque formation assay revealed that treatment with MEFE + RIBA exhibited a 6.5-fold reduction compared with untreated controls. In conclusion, our study demonstrated that MEFE in combination with RIBA exhibited significant anti-CHIKV activity by impairing viral replication in vitro and in vivo. Indeed, this finding may lead to an even broader application of these combinatorial treatments against other viral infections.

25) Genetic diversity and phylogeny of Aedes aegypti, the main arbovirus vector in the Pacific
Autor: Calvez, Elodie; Guillaumot, Laurent; Millet, Laurent; Marie, Jerome; Bossin, Herve; Rama, Vineshwaran; Faamoe, Akata; Kilama, Sosiasi; Teurlai, Magali; Mathieu-Daude, Francoise; Dupont-Rouzeyrol, Myrielle
Assunto: Viruses; Disease control;Pest control; Environmental conditions; Phylogenetics; Disease transmission; Vectors; Genetic diversity; Pathogens; Infestation; Islands; Dengue; Vaccines; Genetic structure; Evolution; Human factors; Aedes aegypti; Arbovirus
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Biochemistry ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Vaccine ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue
Fonte: Plos Neglected Tropical Diseases, v. 10, n. 1, 2016.
ISSN: 1935-2727
Resumo: Aedes aegypti is the major arbovirus vector in the Pacific region. The spread of this mosquito in the different islands seems to be linked to human activities at the beginning of the twentieth century. Since 2010, occurrence of arbovirus outbreaks increased in this region, with the co-circulation of dengue, chikungunya and Zika viruses. The lack of vaccines and treatments for these pathogens led the health authorities to implement vector control measures. In this study, we present the genetic structure and the phylogenetic data obtained from the analysis of 270 Ae. aegypti collected in the Pacific region. The infestation of the islands seems to have American and Asian origins. The genetic structure of the vector populations indicates a differentiation of the mosquitoes between the western, central and eastern Pacific island countries and the specific island isolation context. This differentiation could be related to the different environmental conditions in each island country.

26) Infectious disease: the race for a Zika vaccine is on.
Autor: Cohen Jon
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Pathogenesis ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Immunology ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Science, v. 351, n. 6273, p. 543-544, 2016
ISSN: 1095-9203
Resumo:

27) Immunological evidence of Zika virus transmission in Thailand
Autor: Wikan Nitwara, Suputtamongkol Yupin, Yoksan Sutee, Smith Duncan R, Auewarakul Prasert
Assunto: Emerging infectious diseases; Serosurvey; Thailand; Zika virus
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Infectious diseases ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya virus - Molecular methods ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Transmission ; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever ; Chikungunya virus - Dengue ; Chikungunya virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine, v. 9, n. 2, p. 141-144, 2016
ISSN: 1995-7645
Resumo: To identify immunological evidence of Zika virus transmission in Thail-. To undertake a preliminary serosurvey of possible exposure to Zika virus, 21 serum samples from cohort of acute undifferentiated fever patients were examined for immunoreactivity to Zika, Dengue, Japanese encephalitis - Chikungunya envelope antigens by Western blot analysis. Twenty of the 21 serum samples showed immunoreactivity to at least one of the antigens, with seven samples showing immunoreactivity to all antigens. Of particular note, two serum samples showed immunoreactivity only to Zika envelope antigen, with no immunoreactivity to other envelope antigens. This study presents the first evidence of Zika virus transmission in Thail-, although as yet the relationship between transmission - possible cases of Zika fever in Thail- requires further investigation.

28) Quenching of unincorporated amplification signal reporters in reverse-transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification enabling bright, single-step, closed-tube, and multiplexed detection of RNA viruses
Autor: Ball Cameron S, Light Yooli K, Koh Chung-Yan, Wheeler Sarah S, Coffey Lark L, Meagher Robert J
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Cytopathology ; Chikungunya virus - RNA ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Immunology
Fonte: Analytical Chemistry, v. 88, n. 7, p. 3562-3568, 2016
ISSN: 1520-6882
Resumo: Reverse-transcription-loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) has frequently been proposed as an enabling technology for simplified diagnostic tests for RNA viruses. However, common detection techniques used for LAMP - RT-LAMP have drawbacks, including poor discrimination capability, inability to multiplex targets, high rates of false positives, - (in some cases) the requirement of opening reaction tubes postamplification. Here, we present a simple technique that allows closed-tube, target-specific detection, based on inclusion of a dye-labeled primer that is incorporated into a target-specific amplicon if the target is present. A short, complementary quencher hybridizes to unincorporated primer upon cooling down at the end of the reaction, thereby quenching fluorescence of any unincorporated primer. Our technique, which we term QUASR (for quenching of unincorporated amplification signal reporters, read quasar"), does not significantly reduce the amplification efficiency or sensitivity of RT-LAMP. Equipped with a simple LED excitation source - a colored plastic gel filter, the naked eye or a camera can easily discriminate between positive - negative QUASR reactions, which produce a difference in signal of approximately 10:1 without background subtraction. We demonstrate that QUASR detection is compatible with complex sample matrices such as human blood, using a novel LAMP primer set for bacteriophage MS2 (a model RNA virus particle). Furthermore, we demonstrate single-tube duplex detection of West Nile virus (WNV) - chikungunya virus (CHIKV) RNA."

29) Longitudinal analysis of natural killer cells in Dengue virus-infected patients in comparison to Chikungunya and Chikungunya/Dengue virus-infected patients
Autor: Petitdemange Caroline, Wauquier Nadia, Devilliers Hervé, Yssel Hans, Mombo Illich, Caron Mélanie, Nkoghé Dieudonné, Debré Patrice, Leroy Eric, Vieillard Vincent
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Arbovirus ; Chikungunya virus - Cell ; Chikungunya virus - Immune response ; Chikungunya virus - Immune response ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Dengue ; Chikungunya virus - Epidemic
Fonte: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, v. 10, n. 3, p. e0004499, 2016
ISSN: 1935-2735
Resumo: Dengue virus (DENV) is the most prominent arbovirus worldwide, causing major epidemics in South-East Asia, South America - Africa. In 2010, a major DENV-2 outbreak occurred in Gabon with cases of patients co-infected with chikungunya virus (CHIKV). Although the innate immune response is thought to be of primordial importance in the development - outcome of arbovirus-associated pathologies, our knowledge of the role of natural killer (NK) cells during DENV-2 infection is in its infancy. We performed the first extensive comparative longitudinal characterization of NK cells in patients infected by DENV-2, CHIKV or both viruses. Hierarchical clustering - principal component analyses were performed to discriminate between CHIKV - DENV-2 infected patients. We observed that both activation - differentiation of NK cells are induced during the acute phase of infection by DENV-2 - CHIKV. Combinatorial analysis however, revealed that both arboviruses induced two different signatures of NK-cell responses, with CHIKV more associated with terminal differentiation, - DENV-2 with inhibitory KIRs. We show also that intracellular production of interferon-? (IFN-?) by NK cells is strongly stimulated in acute DENV-2 infection, compared to CHIKV. Although specific differences were observed between CHIKV - DENV-2 infections, the significant remodeling of NK cell populations observed here suggests their potential roles in the control of both infections.

30) Zika virus outbreak: reproductive health and rights in Latin America (vol 387, pg 843, 2016)
Autor: Zika, Roa M.
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: The Lancet, v. 387, n. 10021, p. 848-848, 2016
ISSN: 0140-6736
Resumo:

31) Identification of Asian genotype of Chikungunya virus isolated in Mexico
Autor: Díaz-Quiñonez José Alberto, Escobar-Escamilla Noé, Ortíz-Alcántara Joanna, Vázquez-Pichardo Mauricio, de la Luz Torres-Rodríguez María, Nuñez-León Alma, Torres-Longoria Belem, López-Martínez Irma, Ruiz-Matus Cuitláhuac, Kuri-Morales Pablo, Ramírez-González José Ernesto
Assunto: Chikungunya virus; Methagenomics; Mexico; Phylogeny
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Cell ; Chikungunya virus - Genome ; Chikungunya virus - Proteins ; Chikungunya virus - RT-PCR ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus
Fonte: Virus Genes, v. 52, n. 1, p. 127-129, 2016
ISSN: 1572-994X
Resumo: We identified 25 autochthonous chikungunya virus cases in Mexico, initially detected by RT-PCR targeting the E1 gene - propagated in C6/36 Aedes albopictus cells, in 2014. To determine the type of virus found, in a previous report, the genomes of 2 CHIKV strains were fully sequenced. Genome sequence analysis revealed that these isolates from Mexico belonged to the Asian genotype, - a phylogenetic association with the circulating strain in the British Virgin Isl-s was also established in the same year. This was further supported by changes in specific amino acids, E2-V368A - 6K-L20M. For these reasons, it can be inferred that the route of virus entry to Mexico was held across the countries in the Caribbean - Central America. The presence of E1-A226V mutation associated with more efficient replication in the salivary gl- of the A. albopictus mosquito was not observed. Interestingly, a newly acquired NSP4-S399C mutation was observed; however, the significance of changes in amino acid found in non-structural proteins in autochthonous strains remains to be elucidated.

32) The role of TSPAN9 in alphavirus entry and early endosomes
Autor: Stiles Katie M, Kielian Margaret
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Cell ; Chikungunya virus - Proteins ; Chikungunya virus - RNA ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Vaccine
Fonte: Journal of Virology, v. 90, n. 9, p. 4289-4297, 2016
ISSN: 1098-5514
Resumo: Alphaviruses are small enveloped RNA viruses that infect cells via clathrin-mediated endocytosis - low pH-triggered fusion in the early endosome. Using an siRNA screen in human cells, we previously identified TSPAN9 as a host factor that promotes infection by the alphaviruses Sindbis (SINV), Semliki Forest (SFV), - Chikungunya (CHIKV). Depletion of TSPAN9 specifically decreases SFV membrane fusion in endosomes. TSPAN9 is a member of the tetraspanin family of multi-pass membrane proteins, but its cellular function is currently unknown. Here we used U-2 OS cells stably overexpressing TSPAN9 to show that TSPAN9 is localized at the plasma membrane - in early - late endosomes. Internalized SFV particles co-localized with TSPAN9 in vesicles early during infection. Depletion of TSPAN9 led to a reduction in the amount of the late endosomal proteins LAMP1 - CD63 - an increase in LAMP2. However, TSPAN9 depletion did not alter the delivery of SFV to early endosomes, or change their pH or protease activity. Comparative studies showed that TSPAN9 depletion strongly inhibited infection by several viruses that fuse in early endosomes (SFV, SINV, CHIKV, VSV) while viruses that fuse in the late endosome (rVSV-Lassa, rVSV-Junin), including an SFV point mutant with a lower pH threshold for fusion (SFV E2 T12I), were relatively resistant. Our data suggest that TSPAN9 modulates the early endosome compartment to make it more permissive for membrane fusion of early-penetrating viruses. Alphaviruses are spread by mosquitos - can cause serious human diseases such as arthritis - encephalitis. Recent outbreaks of CHIKV infection are responsible for millions of cases of acute illness - long-term complications. There are no vaccines or antiviral treatments for these important human pathogens. Alphaviruses infect host cells by utilizing the endocytic machinery of the cell - fusing their membrane with that of the endosome. Although the mechanism of virus-membrane fusion is well studied, we still know relatively little about the host cell proteins that are involved in alphavirus entry. Here we characterized the role of the host membrane protein TSPAN9 in alphavirus infection. TSPAN9 was localized to early endosomes containing internalized alphavirus, - depletion of TSPAN9 inhibited virus fusion with the early endosome membrane. In contrast, infection of viruses that enter through the late endosome was relatively resistant to TSPAN9 depletion, suggesting an important role for TSPAN9 in the early endosome.

33) Long-lasting immune protection and other epidemiological findings after chikungunya emergence in a cambodian rural community, April 2012
Autor: Galatas Beatriz, Ly Sowath, Duong Veasna, Baisley Kathy, Nguon Kunthy, Chan Siam, Huy Rekol, Ly Sovann, Sorn Sopheak, Som Leakhann, Buchy Philippe, Tarantola Arnaud
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Antibodies ; Chikungunya virus - RT-PCR ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever
Fonte: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, v. 10, n. 1, p. e0004281, 2016
ISSN: 1935-2735
Resumo: The East/Central/South African genotype of Chikungunya virus with the E1-A226V mutation emerged in 2011 in Cambodia - spread in 2012. An outbreak of 190 cases was documented in Trapeang Roka, a rural village. We surveyed 425 village residents within 3-4 weeks after the outbreak, - determined the sensitivity - specificity of case definitions - factors associated with infection by CHIKV. Self-reported clinical presentation consisted mostly of fever, rash - arthralgia. The presence of all three clinical signs or symptoms was identified as the most sensitive (67%) - specific (84%) self-reported diagnostic clinical indicator compared to biological confirmation by MAC-ELISA or RT-PCR used as a reference. Having an indoor occupation was associated with lower odds of infection compared with people who remained at home (adjOR 0.32, 95%CI 0.12-0.82). In contrast with findings from outbreaks in other settings, persons aged above 40 years were less at risk of CHIKV infection, likely reflecting immune protection acquired when Chikungunya circulated in Cambodia before the Khmer Rouge regime in 1975. In view of the very particular history of Cambodia, our epidemiological data from Trapeang Roka are the first to support the persistence of CHIKV antibodies over a period of 40 years.

34) Investigation into an outbreak of dengue-like illness in Pernambuco, Brazil, revealed a cocirculation of Zika, Chikungunya, and Dengue virus type 1
Autor: Pessôa Rodrigo, Patriota João Veras, Lourdes de Souza Maria de, Felix Alvina Clara, Mamede Nubia, Sanabani Sabri S
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Arbovirus ; Chikungunya virus - Cytopathology ; Chikungunya virus - RNA ; Chikungunya virus - Antibodies ; Chikungunya virus - Real Time PCR ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Molecular screening ; Chikungunya virus - Dengue
Fonte: Medicine, v. 95, n. 12, p. e3201, 2016
ISSN: 1536-5964
Resumo: In April 2015, an outbreak of dengue-like illness occurred in Tuparetama, a small city in the northeast region of Brazil; this outbreak was characterized by its fast expansion. An investigation was initiated to identify the viral etiologies - advise the health authorities on implementing control measures to contain the outbreak. This is the first report of this outbreak in the northeast, even though a few cases were documented earlier in a neighboring city.Plasma samples were obtained from 77 suspected dengue patients attending the main hospital in the city. Laboratory assays, such as real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, virus cDNA sequencing, - enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, were employed to identify the infecting virus - molecular phylogenetic analysis was performed to define the circulating viral genotypes.RNA of Zika virus (ZIKV) - Dengue virus (DENV) or IgM antibodies (Abs) to DENV or chikungunya (CHIKV) were detected in 40 of the 77 plasma samples (51.9%). DENV was found in 9 patients (11.7%), ZIKV was found in 31 patients (40.2%), CHIKV in 1 patient (1.3%), - coinfection of DENV - ZIKV was detected in 2 patients (2.6%). The phylogenetic analysis of 2 available partial DENV - 14 ZIKV sequences revealed the identities of genotype 1 - the Asiatic lineage, respectively.Consistent with recent reports from the same region, our results showed that the ongoing outbreak is caused by ZIKV, DENV, - CHIKV. This emphasizes the need for a routine - differential diagnosis of arboviruses in patients with dengue-like illness. Coordinated efforts are necessary to contain the outbreak. Continued surveillance will be important to assess the effectiveness of current - future prevention strategies.

35) Misguided strategy for mosquito control
Autor: Azevedo-Santos Valter M, Vitule Jean R S, García-Berthou Emili, Pelicice Fernando M, Simberloff Daniel
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Flaviviridae ; Chikungunya virus - Pathogenesis ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Dengue ; Chikungunya virus - Public health
Fonte: Science, v. 351, n. 6274, p. 675, 2016
ISSN: 1095-9203
Resumo:

36) Salivary transmission of the Chikungunya arbovirus
Autor: Rolph Michael S, Zaid Ali, Mahalingam Suresh
Assunto: Chikungunya virus; Immunodeficiency; Saliva; Virus transmission
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Arbovirus ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Transmission
Fonte: Trends in Microbiology, v. 24, n. 2, p. 86-87, 2016
ISSN: 1878-4380
Resumo: The emergence of Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) has prompted a re-think of how preventative solutions should be approached since recent studies support the notion of salivary transmission. With the threat of significant health - economic burden, new control strategies aimed at limiting salivary transmission are needed to avoid further outbreaks.

37) Increased number of cases of Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) infection imported from the Caribbean and Central America to northern Italy, 2014
Autor: Rossini G, Gaibani P, Vocale C, Finarelli A C, Landini M P
Assunto: Arbovirus; Chikungunya virus; Italy; Epidemiology; Phylogeny
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Arbovirus ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Epidemiology ; Chikungunya virus - Public health
Fonte: Epidemiology and Infection, v. 144, n. 9, p. 1912-1916, 2016
ISSN: 1469-4409
Resumo: This report describes an increased number of cases of Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) infection imported in northern Italy (Emilia-Romagna region) during the period May-September 2014, indicating that the recent spread of CHIKV - its establishment in the Caribbean - in central America, resulted in a high number of imported cases in Europe, thus representing a threat to public health. From May to September 2014, 14 imported cases of CHIKV infection were diagnosed; the patients were returning to Italy from Dominican Republic (n = 6), Haiti (n = 3), Guadeloupe (n = 2), Martinique (n = 1), Puerto Rico (n = 1) - Venezuela (n = 1). Phylogenetic analysis performed on the envelope protein (E1) gene sequences, obtained from plasma samples from two patients, indicated that the virus strain belongs to the Caribbean clade of the Asian genotype currently circulating in the Caribbean - Americas. The rise in the number of imported cases of CHIKV infection should increase healthcare professionals' awareness of the epidemiological situation - clinical presentation of CHIKV infection in order to enhance surveillance - early diagnosis in the forthcoming season of vector activity in Europe - North America.

38) Inhibition of Chikungunya virus replication by 1-[(2-Methylbenzimidazol-1-yl) Methyl]-2-Oxo-Indolin-3-ylidene] Amino] Thiourea(MBZM-N-IBT)
Autor: Mishra Priyadarsee, Kumar Abhishek, Mamidi Prabhudutta, Kumar Sameer, Basantray Itishree, Saswat Tanuja, Das Indrani, Nayak Tapas Kumar, Chattopadhyay Subhasis, Subudhi Bharat Bhusan, Chattopadhyay Soma
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Protein synthesis ; Chikungunya virus - Proteins ; Chikungunya virus - RNA ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya virus - RT-PCR ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus
Fonte: Scientific Reports, v. 6, p. 20122, 2016
ISSN: 2045-2322
Resumo: Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) infection is one of the most challenging human Arboviral infections with global significance - without any specific antiviral. In this investigation, 1-[(2-methylbenzimidazol-1-yl) methyl]-2-oxo-indolin-3-ylidene] amino] thiourea (MBZM-N-IBT) was synthesised as a molecular hybrid of 2-methyl benzimidazole - isatin-?-thiosemicarbazone - its anti-CHIKV property was evaluated. The release of infectious virus particles was calculated by plaque assay, expression profile of viral RNA was estimated by RT-PCR - viral protein profiles were assessed by Western blot - FACS analyses. The safety index of MBZM-N-IBT was found to be >21. The CHIKV infectious viral particle formation was abrogated around 76.02% by MBZM-N-IBT during infection in mammalian system - the viral RNA synthesis was reduced by 65.53% - 23.71% for nsP2 - E1 respectively. Surprisingly, the viral protein levels were reduced by 97% for both nsP2 - E2. In the time-of-addition experiment it abrogated viral infection at early as well as late phase of viral life cycle, which indicates about multiple mechanisms for its anti-CHIKV action. In silico analysis justified development of MBZM-N-IBT with good affinities for potential target proteins of CHIKV - related virus. With predictions of good drug-likeness property, it shows potential of a drug c-idate which needs further experimental validation.

39) Mayaro virus and dengue virus 1 and 4 natural infection in culicids from Cuiaba, state of Mato Grosso, Brazil
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Serra, Otacilia Pereira; Cardoso, Belgath Fernandes; Maria Ribeiro, Ana Lucia; Leal dos Santos, Fabio Alexandre; Slhessarenko, Renata Dezengrini
Assunto: Dengue Virus; Mayaro Virus; Entomological Surveillance
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Arbovirus ; Aedes aegypti - RT-PCR ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Memorias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, v. 111, n. 1, p. 20-29, 2016
ISSN: 0074-0276
Resumo: This study aimed to verify the diversity of Culicidae species and their frequency of infection with flaviviruses and alphaviruses in Cuiaba, state of Mato Grosso, Brazil. Mosquitoes were captured with Nasci aspirators and hand net in 200 census tracts, identified alive at species level and pooled in one-20 (11,090 mosquitoes, 14 species). Female pools (n = 610) were subjected to multiplex seminested-reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for 11 flavivirus and five alphavirus. Positive pools were tested by single RT-PCR followed by nucleotide sequencing, by RT-PCR for E1 gene [Mayaro virus (MAYV)] and by inoculation in Vero cells (MAYV) or C6/36 cells (flaviviruses). One/171 Aedes aegypti was positive for dengue virus (DENV)-1, 12/403 Culex quinquefasciatus, and four/171 Ae. aegypti for MAYV, which was isolated from two pools containing two nonengorged females of Ae. aegypti and two of Cx. quinquefasciatus. DENV-4 was detected in 58/171 pools of Ae. aegytpi, 105/403 Cx. quinquefasciatus, two/five Psorophora sp., two/11 Psorophora varipes/Psorophora albigenu, one/one Sabethes chloropterus, two/five Culex bidens/Culex interfor, and one/one Aedes sp. DENV-4 was isolated from two pools containing three and 16 nonengorged Cx. quinquefasciatus females. Phylogenetic analysis revealed MAYV belongs to genotype L, clustering with human samples of the virus previously identified in the city. Cuiaba has biodiversity and ecosystem favourable for vector proliferation, representing a risk for arbovirus outbreaks.

40) The Emerging Zika Pandemic: Enhancing Preparedness.
Autor: Lucey Daniel R,Gostin Lawrence O
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Pathogenesis ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: The Journal of the American Medical Association, v. 316, n. 9, p. 865-866, 2016
ISSN: 1538-3598
Resumo:

41) Mild form of Guillain-Barré syndrome in a patient with primary Epstein-Barr virus infection.
Autor: Kim Se Yong; Choe Kang-Won; Park Sehhoon; Yoon Doran,Ock Chan-Young; Hong Seung Wook; Heo Jung Yeon
Assunto: Epstein-Barr virus infections, Guillain-Barre syndrome
Descritores: Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Infectious diseases ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Viral infections ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Virus
Fonte: The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine, 2016
ISSN: 2005-6648
Resumo:

42) Dengue, Zika and Chikungunya
Autor: Kantor Isabel N
Assunto: Argentina, arbovirus, chikungunya, dengue, zika
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Immune response ; Zika virus - PCR detection ; Zika virus - Immune response ; Zika virus - RT-PCR ; Zika virus - Serological diagnosis ; Zika virus - Sexual ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Chikungunya Fever ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Medicina, v. 76, n. 2, 2016
ISSN: 0025-7680
Resumo: Arboviruses are transmitted by arthropods, including those responsible for the current pandemic: alphavirus (Chikungunya) and flaviviruses (dengue and Zika). Its importance increased in the Americas over the past 20 years. The main vectors are Aedes aegypti and A. albopictus. Dengue infection provides long lasting immunity against the specific serotype and temporary to the other three. Subsequent infection by another serotype determines more serious disease. There is a registered vaccine for dengue, Dengvaxia (Sanofi Pasteur). Other two (Butantan and Takeda) are in Phase III in 2016. Zika infection is usually asymptomatic or occurs with rash, conjunctivitis and not very high fever. There is no vaccine or specific treatment. It can be transmitted by parental, sexual and via blood transfusion. It has been associated with microcephaly. Chikungunya causes prolonged joint pain and persistent immune response. Two candidate vaccines are in Phase II. Dengue direct diagnosis is performed by virus isolation, RT-PCR and ELISA for NS1 antigen detection; indirect methods are ELISA-IgM (cross-reacting with other flavivirus), MAC-ELISA, and plaque neutralization. Zika is diagnosed by RT-PCR and virus isolation. Serological diagnosis cross-reacts with other flavivirus. For CHIKV culture, RT-PCR, MAC-ELISA and plaque neutralization are used. Against Aedes organophosphate larvicides (temephos), organophosphorus insecticides (malathion and fenitrothion) and pyrethroids (permethrin and deltamethrin) are usually employed. Resistance has been described to all these products. Vegetable derivatives are less expensive and biodegradable, including citronella oil, which microencapsulated can be preserved from evaporation.

43) Update: interim guidelines for health care providers caring for infants and children with possible zika virus infection - United States, February 2016
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Fleming-Dutra, Katherine E.; Nelson, Jennifer M.; Fischer, Marc; Staples, J. Erin; Karwowski, Mateusz P.; Mead, Paul; Villanueva, Julie; Renquist, Christina M.; Minta, Anna A.; Jamieson, Denise J.; Honein, Margaret A.; Moore, Cynthia A.; Rasmussen, Sonja A.
Assunto:
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Clinical examination ; Aedes aegypti - Molecular methods ; Aedes aegypti - Microcephaly ; Aedes aegypti - Zika fever
Fonte: MMWR-Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, v. 65, n. 7, p. 182-187, 2016
ISSN: 0149-2195
Resumo:

44) Zika virus: a new global threat for 2016.
Autor:
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Pathogenesis ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: The Lancet, v. 387, n. 10014, p. 96, 2016
ISSN: 1474-547X
Resumo:

45) Zika virus spreads to new areas - region of the Americas, May 2015-January 2016
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Hennessey, Morgan; Fischer, Marc; Staples, J. Erin
Assunto:
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - RT-PCR ; Aedes aegypti - Epidemiology ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: American Journal of Transplantion, v. 16, n. 3, p. 1031-1034, 2016
ISSN: 0149-2195
Resumo:

46) Epidemiology and neurological complications of infection by the Zika virus: A new emerging neurotropic virus
Autor: Carod-Artal F J
Assunto: Enfermedad por virus Zika; Epidemiología; Flavivirus; Guillain-Barré; Microcefalia; Virus Zika
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - RNA ; Chikungunya virus - Antibodies ; Chikungunya virus - Serological diagnosis ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Transmission ; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever ; Chikungunya virus - Dengue ; Chikungunya virus - Epidemic ; Chikungunya virus - Epidemiology ; Chikungunya virus - Microcephaly ; Chikungunya virus - Rash maculopapular ; Chikungunya virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Revista de Neurologia, v. 62, n. 7, p. 317-328, 2016
ISSN: 1576-6578
Resumo: The current epidemic outbreak due to Zika virus began in 2015 - since then it has been reported in 31 countries - territories in America. The epidemiological - clinical aspects related to infection by Zika virus are reviewed. Since 2007, 55 countries in America, Asia, Africa - Oceania have detected local transmission of the virus. This epidemic has affected almost 1.5 million people in Brazil. 80% of the cases are asymptomatic. The symptoms of Zika virus disease include fever, maculopapular rash, arthralgia - non-purulent conjunctivitis. The symptoms are usually self-limiting - last one week. An increase in the incidence of cases of microcephaly, retinal lesions - Guillain-Barre syndrome associated with the Zika virus has been reported. Zika-associated Guillain-Barre syndrome in Polynesia is a pure motor axonal variant. The RNA of the Zika virus has been identified in samples of brain tissue, placenta - amniotic liquid of children with microcephaly - in the still-born infants of women infected by Zika during pregnancy. The reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction test is recommended to detect viral RNA, - serological tests (IgM ELISA - neutralising antibodies) should be conducted to confirm infection by Zika. The differential diagnosis includes infection by the dengue - chikungunya viruses. Knowledge about the pathogenic mechanisms involved in infection due to Zika virus - its long-term consequences in adults - newborn infants is still limited.

47) Identification of protease m1 zinc metalloprotease conferring resistance to deltamethrin by characterization of an AFLP marker in Culex pipiens pallens
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Zou, F. F.; Guo, Q.; Sun, Y.; Zhou, D.; Hu, M. X.; Hu, H. X.; Liu, B. Q.; Tian, M. M.; Liu, X. M.; Li, X. X.; Ma, L.; Shen, B.; Zhu, C. L.
Assunto: Protease m1 zinc metalloprotease; Deltamethrin resistance; Culex pipiens pallens; AFLP; CYP6CP1
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Real Time PCR
Fonte: Parasites & Vectors, v. 9, 2016
ISSN: 1756-3305
Resumo: Continuous and excessive application of deltamethrin (DM) has resulted in the rapid development of insecticide resistance in Culex pipiens pallens. The quantitative trait loci (QTL) responsible for resistance to DM had previously been detected in Cx. pipiens pallens. But locating the QTLs on the chromosomes remained difficult. An available approach is to first characterize DNA molecular markers linked with the phenotype, and then identify candidate genes.Methods: In this study, the amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) marker L3A8.177 associated with the QTL, was characterized. We searched for potential candidate genes in the flank region of L3A8.177 in the genome Sequence of the closely related Cx. pipiens quinquefasciatus and conducted mRNA expression analysis of the candidate gene via quantitative real-time PCR. Then the relationship between DM resistance and the candidate gene was identified using RNAi and American CDC Bottle Bioassay in vivo. We also cloned the ORF Sequences of the candidate gene from both susceptible and resistant mosquitoes.Results: The genes CYP6CP1 and protease m1 zinc metalloprotease were in the flank region of L3A8.177 and had significantly different expression levels between susceptible and resistant strains. Protease m1 zinc metalloprotease was significantly up-regulated in the susceptible strains compared with the resistant and remained over-expressed in the susceptible field-collected strains. For deduced amino acid Sequences of protease m1 zinc metalloprotease, there was no difference between susceptible and resistant mosquitoes. Knockdown of protease m1 zinc metalloprotease not only decreased the sensitivity of mosquitoes to DM in the susceptible strain but also increased the expression of CYP6CP1, suggesting the role of protease m1 zinc metalloprotease in resistance may be involved in the regulation of the P450 gene expression.Conclusion: Our study represents an example of candidate genes derived from the AFLP marker associated with the QTL and provides the first evidence that protease m1 zinc metalloprotease may play a role in the regulation of DM resistance in Cx. pipiens pallens.

48) Zika Virus and Microcephaly.
Autor: Rubin Eric J,Greene Michael F,Baden Lindsey R
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Cytopathology ; Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Pathogenesis ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Immunology ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: The New England Journal of Medicine, v. 374, n. 10, p. 984-985, 2016
ISSN: 1533-4406
Resumo:

49) Four emerging arboviral diseases in North America: Jamestown Canyon, Powassan, chikungunya, and Zika virus diseases
Autor: Pastula Daniel M, Smith Daniel E, Beckham J David, Tyler Kenneth L
Assunto: Arboviral disease; Arbovirus; Chikungunya virus; Jamestown Canyon virus; North America; Powassan virus; Zika virus
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Arbovirus ; Chikungunya virus - Infectious diseases ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Vaccine
Fonte: Journal of Neurovirology, v. 22, n. 3, p. 257-260, 2016
ISSN: 1538-2443
Resumo: Arthropod-borne viruses, or arboviruses, are viruses that are transmitted through the bites of mosquitoes, ticks, or s-flies. There are numerous arboviruses throughout the world capable of causing human disease spanning different viral families - genera. Recently, Jamestown Canyon, Powassan, chikungunya, - Zika viruses have emerged as increasingly important arboviruses that can cause human disease in North America. Unfortunately, there are currently no proven disease-modifying therapies for these arboviral diseases, so treatment is largely supportive. Given there are also no commercially available vaccines for these four arboviral infections, prevention is the key. To prevent mosquito or tick bites that might result in one of these arboviral diseases, people should wear long-sleeved shirts - pants while outside if feasible, apply insect repellant when going outdoors, using window screens or air conditioning to keep mosquitoes outside, - perform tick checks after being in wooded or brushy outdoor areas.

50) The Chikungunya virus: An emerging US pathogen
Autor: Nappe Thomas M, Chuhran Craig M, Johnson Steven A
Assunto: Arbovirus; Chikungunya virus; Mosquito-borne disease; Polyarthralgia
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Arbovirus ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever ; Chikungunya virus - Dengue
Fonte: World Journal of Emergency Medicine, v. 7, n. 1, p. 65-67, 2016
ISSN: 1920-8642
Resumo: The Chikungunya (CHIK) virus was recently reported by the CDC to have spread to the United States. We report an early documented case of CHIK from the state of Pennsylvania after a patient recently returned from Haiti in June of 2014. A 39-year-old man presented to the emergency department complaining of fever, fatigue, polyarthralgias - a diffuse rash for two days. Four days before, he returned from a mission trip to Haiti - reported that four of his accompanying friends had also become ill. A CHIK antibody titer was obtained - it was found to be positive. During his hospital stay, he responded well to supportive care, including anti-inflammatories, intravenous hydration - anti-emetics. His condition improved within two days - he was ultimately discharged home. Manifestations of CHIK can be similar to Dengue fever, which is transmitted by the same species of mosquito, - occasionally as a co-infection. Clinicians should include Chikungunya virus in their differential diagnosis of patients who present with fever, polyarthralgia - rash with a recent history of travel to endemic areas, including those within the United States.

51) Genetic diversity of 2006-2009 Chikungunya virus outbreaks in Andhra Pradesh, India, reveals complete absence of E1:A226V mutation
Autor: Naresh Kumar C V M, Sivaprasad Y, Sai Gopal D V R
Assunto: E1 gene mutation; Molecular variability; Phylogenetic analysis; India
Descritores: Chikungunya Virus - Virus
Fonte: Acta Virologica, v. 60, n. 1, p. 114-117, 2016
ISSN: 0001-723X
Resumo: No abstract Keywords: E1 gene mutation; molecular variability; phylogenetic analysis; India.

52) Declining malaria, rising of dengue and Zika virus: Insights for mosquito vector control
Autor: Benelli Giovanni, Mehlhorn Heinz
Assunto: Arbovirus; Artemisinin; Biological control; Boosted SIT; Nanosynthesis; Sex pheromones; Sound traps; Sterile insect technique; Swarming behaviour; Vaccine
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Arbovirus ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Vaccine ; Chikungunya virus - Dengue ; Chikungunya virus - Public health
Fonte: Parasitology Research, v. 115, n. 5, p. 1747-1754, 2016
ISSN: 1432-1955
Resumo: The fight against mosquito-borne diseases is a challenge of huge public health importance. To our mind, 2015 was an extraordinary year for malaria control, due to three hot news: the Nobel Prize to Youyou Tu for the discovery of artemisinin, the development of the first vaccine against Plasmodium falciparum malaria [i.e. RTS,S/AS01 (RTS,S)], - the fall of malaria infection rates worldwide, with special reference to sub-Saharan Africa. However, there are major challenges that still deserve attention, in order to boost malaria prevention - control. Indeed, parasite strains resistant to artemisinin have been detected, - RTS,S vaccine does not offer protection against Plasmodium vivax malaria, which predominates in many countries outside of Africa. Furthermore, the recent outbreaks of Zika virus infections, occurring in South America, Central America - the Caribbean, represent the most recent of four arrivals of important arboviruses in the Western Hemisphere, over the last 20 years. Zika virus follows dengue (which slyly arrived in the hemisphere over decades - became more aggressive in the 1990s), West Nile virus (emerged in 1999) - chikungunya (emerged in 2013). Notably, there are no specific treatments for these arboviruses. The emerging scenario highlights that the effective - eco-friendly control of mosquito vectors, with special reference to highly invasive species such as Aedes aegypti - Aedes albopictus, is crucial. The concrete potential of screening plant species as sources of metabolites for parasitological purposes is worthy of attention, as elucidated by the Y. Tu's example. Notably, plant-borne molecules are often effective at few parts per million against Aedes, Ochlerotatus, Anopheles - Culex young instars, can be used for the rapid synthesis of mosquitocidal nanoformulations - even employed to prepare cheap repellents with low human toxicity. In addition, behaviour-based control tools relying to the employ of sound traps - the manipulation of swarming behaviour (i.e. lure - kill" approach) are discussed. The importance of further research on the chemical cues routing mosquito swarming - mating dynamics is highlighted. Besides radiation, transgenic - symbiont-based mosquito control approaches, an effective option may be the employ of biological control agents of mosquito young instars, in the presence of ultra-low quantities of nanoformulated botanicals, which boost their predation rates."

53) Forecasting Chikungunya spread in the Americas via data-driven empirical approaches
Autor: Escobar Luis E, Qiao Huijie, Peterson A Townsend
Assunto: Epidemic; Transmission; Disease model; Vector-borne; Passenger flow
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Transmission ; Chikungunya virus - Epidemic ; Chikungunya virus - Public health
Fonte: Parasites & Vectors, v. 9, n. 1, p. 112, 2016
ISSN: 1756-3305
Resumo: Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is endemic to Africa - Asia, but the Asian genotype invaded the Americas in 2013. The fast increase of human infections in the American epidemic emphasized the urgency of developing detailed predictions of case numbers - the potential geographic spread of this disease. We developed a simple model incorporating cases generated locally - cases imported from other countries, - forecasted transmission hotspots at the level of countries - at finer scales, in terms of ecological features. By late January 2015, >1.2 M CHIKV cases were reported from the Americas, with country-level prevalences between nil - more than 20 %. In the early stages of the epidemic, exponential growth in case numbers was common; later, however, poor - uneven reporting became more common, in a phenomenon we term surveillance fatigue." Economic activity of countries was not associated with prevalence, but diverse social factors may be linked to surveillance effort - reporting. Our model predictions were initially quite inaccurate, but improved markedly as more data accumulated within the Americas. The data-driven methodology explored in this study provides an opportunity to generate descriptive - predictive information on spread of emerging diseases in the short-term under simple models based on open-access tools - data that can inform early-warning systems - public health intelligence."

54) Temporal genetic stability of Stegomyia aegypti (= Aedes aegypti) populations
Autor: Gloria-Soria A, Kellner D A, Brown J E, Gonzalez-Acosta C, Kamgang B, Lutwama J, Powell J R
Assunto: Chikungunya; Stegomyia (Aedes) aegypti; Dengue; Population stability; Temporal dynamics; Yellow fever
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Vaccine ; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever ; Chikungunya virus - Dengue
Fonte: Medical and Veterinary Entomology, v. 30, n. 2, p. 235-240, 2016
ISSN: 1365-2915
Resumo: The mosquito Stegomyia aegypti (= Aedes aegypti) (Diptera: Culicidae) is the primary vector of viruses that cause yellow fever, dengue - Chikungunya fever. In the absence of effective vaccines, the reduction of these diseases relies on vector control strategies. The success of these strategies is tightly linked to the population dynamics of target populations. In the present study, 14 collections from St. aegypti populations separated by periods of 1-13 years were analysed to determine their temporal genetic stability. Although temporal structure is discernible in most populations, the degree of temporal differentiation is dependent on the population - does not obscure the geographic structure of the various populations. The results suggest that performing detailed studies in the years prior to - after population reduction- or modification-based control interventions at each target field site may be useful in assessing the probability of success.

55) First detection of autochthonous Zika virus transmission in a HIV-infected patient in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
Autor: Calvet Guilherme A, Filippis Ana Maria B, Mendonça Marcos Cesar L, Sequeira Patricia C, Siqueira Andre M, Veloso Valdilea G, Nogueira Rita M, Brasil Patrícia
Assunto: Arbovirus; Brazil; HIV; ZIKV; Zika
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Arbovirus ; Chikungunya virus - Infectious diseases ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Transmission ; Chikungunya virus - Dengue
Fonte: Journal of Clinical Virology, v. 74, p. 1-3, 2016
ISSN: 1873-5967
Resumo: Since May 2015, Brazil's Ministry of Health has reported autochthonous transmission of Zika virus (ZIKV) in some states of the country. Simultaneous circulation of Dengue, Chikungunya - ZIKV in the country hinder both the diagnosis - the therapeutic approach of patients seeking care with acute febrile illnesses especially in patients with comorbidities. The association between HIV infection - endemic diseases has been described especially in tropical regions with varying levels of complications, although there has been no report of ZIKV in HIV-infected patients. We report the first autochthonous case of laboratory confirmed ZIKV infection in a HIV-infected patient in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. He evolved with only mild symptoms - recovered well without major laboratory abnormalities. Phylogenetic analysis of the ZIKV detected in the patient sera clustered within the Asian clade. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that Zika virus co-infection is reported in a HIV-infected patient.

56) Chikungunya virus infection in patients on biotherapies
Autor: Brunier Lauren, Polomat Katleen, Deligny Christophe, Dehlinger Véronique, Numéric Patrick, JeanBaptiste Georges, Arfi Serge, de Bandt Michel
Assunto: Arthritis; Biotherapy; Chikungunya; Epidemic
Descritores: Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Epidemic
Fonte: Joint, Bone, Spine, v. 83, n. 2, p. 245-246, 2016
ISSN: 1778-7254
Resumo:

57) External quality assessment studies for laboratory performance of molecular and serological diagnosis of Chikungunya virus infection
Autor: Jacobsen Sonja, Patel Pranav, Schmidt-Chanasit Jonas, Leparc-Goffart Isabelle, Teichmann Anette, Zeller Herve, Niedrig Matthias
Assunto: CHIK; Chikungunya; Diagnosis; EQA; Molecular; Proficiency test; Quality control; Serology
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Arbovirus ; Chikungunya virus - Serology ; Chikungunya virus - Molecular methods ; Chikungunya virus - Serological diagnosis ; Chikungunya virus - Serology ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Molecular screening ; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever
Fonte: Journal of Clinical Virology, v. 76, p. 55-65, 2016
ISSN: 1873-5967
Resumo: Since the re-emergence of Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) in Reunion in 2005 - the recent outbreak in the Caribbean isl-s with an expansion to the Americas the CHIK diagnostic became very important. We evaluate the performance of laboratories regarding molecular - serological diagnostic of CHIK worldwide. A panel of 12 samples for molecular - 13 samples for serology were provided to 60 laboratories in 40 countries for evaluating the sensitivity - specificity of molecular - serology testing. The panel for molecular diagnostic testing was analysed by 56 laboratories returning 60 data sets of results whereas the 56 - 60 data sets were returned for IgG - IgM diagnostic from the participating laboratories. Twenty-three from 60 data sets performed optimal, 7 acceptable - 30 sets of results require improvement. From 50 data sets only one laboratory shows an optimal performance for IgM detection, followed by 9 data sets with acceptable - the rest need for improvement. From 46 IgG serology data sets 20 provide an optimal, 2 an acceptable - 24 require improvement performance. The evaluation of some of the diagnostic performances allows linking the quality of results to the in-house methods or commercial assays used. The external quality assurance for CHIK diagnostics provides a good overview on the laboratory performance regarding sensitivity - specificity for the molecular - serology diagnostic required for the quick - reliable analysis of suspected CHIK patients. Nearly half of the laboratories have to improve their diagnostic profile to achieve a better performance.

58) The impact of rainfall and temperature on the spatial progression of cases during the chikungunya re-emergence in Thailand in 2008-2009
Autor: Chadsuthi Sudarat, Iamsirithaworn Sopon, Triampo Wannapong, Cummings Derek A T
Assunto: Chikungunya; Emergence; Spatial; Thailand
Descritores: Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Transmission ; Chikungunya virus - Epidemiology ; Chikungunya virus - Public health
Fonte: Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, v. 110, n. 2, p. 125-133, 2016
ISSN: 1878-3503
Resumo: In 2008, chikungunya virus (CHIKV) re-emerged in Thail- after more than a decade of absence. Cases first appeared in the extreme southern region of the country - advanced northward approx. 300 km over the next 18 months. The spatial advance of CHIKV cases appeared to occur at two rates, initially progressing slowly - then increasing in speed. We hypothesize that climatic variation affected the transmission of CHIKV in the country. To determine the effect of climate on CHIKV transmission, we evaluated models where climate affects the transmission rate from mosquitoes to humans; extrinsic incubation period; fertility rate of mosquitoes; - the mortality rate of mosquito larvae. We compared these models to models that did not include climate effects. The inclusion of climate data greatly improved model fit with models assuming climate affected the fertility rate of mosquitoes providing the best fit to data. These results suggest that climatic variation contributed to the slower rate of incidence observed in March 2009. Overall, a gradient in transmission probability - mortality - fertility rates of mosquito is observed over the entire area with the most southern districts experiencing the most efficient transmission.

59) Evidence of vertical transmission and co-circulation of Chikungunya and Dengue viruses in field populations of Aedes aegypti (L.) from Guerrero, Mexico
Autor: Dzul-Manzanilla Felipe, Martínez Norma E, Cruz-Nolasco Maximina, Gutiérrez-Castro Cipriano, López-Damián Leonardo, Ibarra-López Jesús, Martini-Jaimes Andres, Bibiano-Marín Wilbert, Tornez-Benitez Citlalli, Vazquez-Prokopec Gonzalo M, Manrique-Saide Pablo
Assunto: Aedes aegypti; Chikungunya; Dengue; Mexico; Surveillance
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - RT-PCR ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Transmission ; Chikungunya virus - Dengue
Fonte: Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, v. 110, n. 2, p. 141-144, 2016
ISSN: 1878-3503
Resumo: We report results of the entomo-virological surveillance system in Aedes aegypti local populations performed by the Ministry of Health of Guerrero. Indoor-adult Ae. aegypti collected at Acapulco, Zihuatanejo, Coyuca de Benitez - Atoyac de Alvarez (dry season, 2015) were processed for dengue virus (DENV) - chikungunya virus (CHIKV) using RT-PCR. We identified different seroptypes of DENV (2, 3 - 4), CHIKV - their co-circulation in field-caught mosquitoes across a significant geographic area. Pools of males were positive for CHIKV - DENV 3 - 4 suggesting vertical transmission. Entomo-virological surveillance in Guerrero has identified early circulation of CHIKV - DENV - provided a trigger for timely - focalized vector control actions.

60) Concern over Zika virus grips the world.
Autor: Samarasekera Udani,Triunfol Marcia
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Pathogenesis ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Immunology ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Lancet, v. 387, n. 10018, p. 521-524, 2016
ISSN: 1474-547X
Resumo:

61) Inhibition of Chikungunya virus-induced cell death by salicylate-derived bryostatin analogues provides additional evidence for a PKC-independent pathway
Autor: Staveness Daryl, Abdelnabi Rana, Near Katherine E, Nakagawa Yu, Neyts Johan, Delang Leen, Leyssen Pieter, Wender Paul A
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Cell ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Immunology
Fonte: Journal of Natural Products, v. 79, n. 4, p. 680-684, 2016
ISSN: 1520-6025
Resumo: Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) has been spreading rapidly, with over one million confirmed or suspected cases in the Americas since late 2013. Infection with CHIKV causes devastating arthritic - arthralgic symptoms. Currently, there is no therapy to treat this disease, - the only medications focus on relief of symptoms. Recently, protein kinase C (PKC) modulators have been reported to inhibit CHIKV-induced cell death in cell assays. The salicylate-derived bryostatin analogues described here are structurally simplified PKC modulators that are more synthetically accessible than the natural product bryostatin 1, a PKC modulator - clinical lead for the treatment of cancer, Alzheimer's disease, - HIV eradication. Evaluation of the anti-CHIKV activity of these salicylate-derived bryostatin analogues in cell culture indicates that they are among the most potent cell-protective agents reported to date. Given that they are more accessible - significantly more active than the parent natural product, they represent new therapeutic leads for controlling CHIKV infection. Significantly, these analogues also provide evidence for the involvement of a PKC-independent pathway. This adds a fundamentally distinct aspect to the importance or involvement of PKC modulation in inhibition of chikungunya virus replication, a topic of recent - growing interest.

62) Interim Guidelines for the Evaluation and Testing of Infants with Possible Congenital Zika Virus Infection -- United States, 2016.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Staples, J. Erin, Dziuban, Eric J., Fischer, Marc, Cragan, Janet D., Rasmussen, Sonja A., Cannon, Michael J., Frey, Meghan T., Renquist, Christina M., Lanciotti, Robert S., Muñoz, Jorge L., Powers, Ann M., Honein, Margaret A., Moore, Cynthia A.
Assunto: Zika virus infections, Guidelines, Standard operating procedure, Microcephaly
Descritores: Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Serological diagnosis ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: MMWR: Morbidity & Mortality Weekly Report, v. 65, n. 3, p. 63-67, 2016
ISSN: 1492195
Resumo: A reprint of an article appeared on the periodical's website on January 22, 2016 about development of interim guidelines by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control & Prevention for testing of Zika virus infection among infants. Topics include diagnosis of disease through serological testing, infants associated with microcephaly, instructions for pregnant mothers infected with Zika virus, advantages of breastfeeding in treatment of disease, and prevention of disease by avoidance of mosquito bites.

63) Evaluation of commercially available Chikungunya virus immunoglobulin M detection assays
Autor: Johnson Barbara W, Goodman Christin H, Holloway Kimberly, de Salazar P Martinez, Valadere Anne M, Drebot Mike
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya virus - Serological diagnosis ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Public health
Fonte: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, v. 95, n. 1, p. 182-192, 2016
ISSN: 1476-1645
Resumo: Commercial chikungunya virus (CHIKV)-specific IgM detection kits were evaluated at the Centers for Disease Control - Prevention (CDC), the Public Health Agency of Canada National Microbiology Laboratory, - the Caribbean Public Health Agency (CARPHA). The Euroimmun Anti-CHIKV IgM ELISA kit had ? 95% concordance with all three reference laboratory results. The limit of detection for low CHIK IgM+ samples, as measured by serial dilution of seven sera up to 1:12,800 ranged from 1:800 to 1:3,200. The Euroimmun IIFT kit evaluated at CDC - CARPHA performed well, but required more retesting of equivocal results. The InBios CHIKjj Detect MAC-ELISA had 100% - 98% concordance with CDC - CARPHA results, respectively, - had equal sensitivity to the CDC MAC-ELISA to 1:12,800 dilution in serially diluted samples. The Abcam Anti-CHIKV IgM ELISA initially had high performance at CDC - CARPHA, but at CDC, performance was inconsistent between lots. After replacement of the biotinylated IgM antibody controls with serum containing CHIKV-specific IgM - additional quality assurance/control measures, the Abcam kit was rereleased - reevaluated at CDC. The reformatted Abcam kit had 97% concordance with CDC results - limit of detection of 1:800 to 1:3,200. Two rapid tests - three other CHIKV MAC-ELISAs evaluated at CDC had low sensitivity, as the CDC CHIKV IgM in-house positive controls were below the level of detection. In conclusion, laboratories have options for CHIKV serological diagnosis using validated commercial kits.

64) Zika without symptoms in returning travellers: What are the implications?
Autor: Ginier Mylène, Neumayr Andreas, Günther Stephan, Schmidt-Chanasit Jonas, Blum Johannes
Assunto: Flavivirus infection; Travel medicine; Zika virus
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Arbovirus ; Chikungunya virus - Serological diagnosis ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Sexual ; Chikungunya virus - Transmission ; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever ; Chikungunya virus - Dengue ; Chikungunya virus - Microcephaly ; Chikungunya virus - Public health ; Chikungunya virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease, v. 14, n. 1, p. 16-20, 2016
ISSN: 1873-0442
Resumo: Against the background of the emergence - rapid spread of Zika virus (ZIKV) in the Americas, we report the case of an afebrile ZIKV infection in a traveller returning from Central America to highlight relevant clinical - diagnostic aspects. ZIKV should be considered in the differential diagnosis of patients with clinical symptoms suggestive of dengue or chikungunya fever. Given the frequent subfebril - afebrile manifestations of ZIKV infections, we propose abstaining from the term Zika fever (ZF)" in favour of "Zika virus disease (ZVD)". Owing to its unspecific clinical presentation - cross-reactivity in serological assays, ZVD may easily be missed or misdiagnosed as dengue fever. Until conclusive data on the currently suspected link between ZIKV infection in pregnancy - foetal microcephaly become available, pregnant women - women who are trying to become pregnant should be advised against travelling to regions with ongoing ZIKV transmission. In addition, male travellers returning from regions with ongoing transmission should be informed of the potential risk of sexual transmission until conclusive data on the significance of this mode of transmission become available. Although probably low - seasonally restricted, there is a risk of ZIKV importation to Aedes mosquito-infested regions in temperate climates (including regions of North America - Europe) with consecutive autochthonous transmission."

65) Chikungunya and Dengue virus infections among united states community service volunteers returning from the Dominican Republic, 2014
Autor: Millman Alexander J, Esposito Douglas H, Biggs Holly M, Decenteceo Michelle, Klevos Andrew, Hunsperger Elizabeth, Munoz-Jordan Jorge, Kosoy Olga I, McPherson Heidi, Sullivan Carmen, Voorhees Dayton, Baron David, Watkins Jim, Gaul Linda, Sotir Mark J, Brunette Gary, Fischer Marc, Sharp Tyler, Jentes Emily S
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Repellent ; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever ; Chikungunya virus - Dengue ; Chikungunya virus - Epidemic
Fonte: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, v. 94, n. 6, p. 1336-1341, 2016
ISSN: 1476-1645
Resumo: Chikungunya spread throughout the Dominican Republic (DR) after the first identified laboratory-confirmed cases were reported in April 2014. In June 2014, a U.S.-based service organization operating in the DR reported chikungunya-like illnesses among several staff. We assessed the incidence of chikungunya virus (CHIKV) - dengue virus (DENV) infection - illnesses - evaluated adherence to mosquito avoidance measures among volunteers/staff deployed in the DR who returned to the United States during July-August 2014. Investigation participants completed a questionnaire that collected information on demographics, medical history, self-reported illnesses, - mosquito exposures - avoidance behaviors - provided serum for CHIKV - DENV diagnostic testing by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction - IgM enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Of 102 participants, 42 (41%) had evidence of recent CHIKV infection - two (2%) had evidence of recent DENV infection. Of the 41 participants with evidence of recent CHIKV infection only, 39 (95%) reported fever, 37 (90%) reported rash, - 37 (90%) reported joint pain during their assignment. All attended the organization's health trainings, - 89 (87%) sought a pretravel health consultation. Most (?95%) used insect repellent; however, only 30% applied it multiple times daily - < 5% stayed in housing with window/door screens. In sum, CHIKV infections were common among these volunteers during the 2014 chikungunya epidemic in the DR. Despite high levels of preparation, reported adherence to mosquito avoidance measures were inconsistent. Clinicians should discuss chikungunya with travelers visiting areas with ongoing CHIKV outbreaks - should consider chikungunya when diagnosing febrile illnesses in travelers returning from affected areas.

66) Identification of Zika virus vectors and implications for control.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Ayres, Constancia F. J.
Assunto: Zika Virus Epidemic, Mosquitoes as carriers of disease, Guillan-Barre syndrome, Microcephaly, Reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, Pathogenic viruses
Descritores: Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - RT-PCR ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - MicrocephalyZika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - RT-PCR ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - MicrocephalyZika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - RT-PCR ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - MicrocephalyZika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - RT-PCR ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - MicrocephalyZika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - RT-PCR ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - MicrocephalyZika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - RT-PCR ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Microcephaly
Fonte: Lancet Infectious Diseases, v. 16, n. 3, p. 278-279, 2016
ISSN: 14733099
Resumo:

67) Dengue fever among Israeli expatriates in Delhi, 2015: Implications for dengue incidence in Delhi, India
Autor: Neuberger Ami, Turgeman Avigail, Lustig Yaniv, Schwartz Eli
Assunto: Delhi; Dengue; India; Dengue fever; Epidemiology
Descritores: Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever ; Chikungunya virus - Dengue ; Chikungunya virus - Epidemiology
Fonte: Journal of Travel Medicine, v. 23, n. 3, 2016
ISSN: 1708-8305
Resumo: We present the data of 13 dengue cases diagnosed between 1 August - 15 September 2015 among 240 Israeli expatriates residing in Delhi. Attack rates were similar between adults (6/128, 4.7%) - children (7/112, 6.3%). dengue virus (DENV-2) was identified in two - DENV-1 in one dengue-seropositive sample. Another febrile patient was diagnosed with chikungunya virus infection. The reported incidence of dengue fever among people living in Delhi was lower than 0.1% as of September 2015. Based on our results, we hypothesize that the incidence of dengue fever in Delhi is grossly underestimated.

68) Zika virus outbreak in Brazil
Autor: Heukelbach Jorg, Alencar Carlos Henrique, Kelvin Alyson Ann, De Oliveira Wanderson Kleber, Pamplona de Góes Cavalcanti Luciano
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Vaccine ; Chikungunya virus - Dengue ; Chikungunya virus - Epidemic ; Chikungunya virus - Head circumference ; Chikungunya virus - Microcephaly
Fonte: Journal of Infection in Developing Countries, v. 10, n. 2, p. 116-120, 2016
ISSN: 1972-2680
Resumo: Zika virus (ZIKV) infection is spreading rapidly within the Americas after originating from an outbreak in Brazil. We describe the current ZIKV infection epidemic in Brazil - the neurological symptoms arising. First cases of an acute exanthematic disease were reported in Brazil's Northeast region at the end of 2014. In March 2015, autochthonous ZIKV was determined to be the causative agent of the exanthematic disease. As cases of neurological syndromes in regions where ZIKV, dengue -/or Chikungunya viruses co-circulate were reported, ZIKV was also identified in the cerebrospinal fluid of patients with acute neurological syndromes - previous exanthematic disease. By the end of September 2015, an increasing number of infants with small head circumference or microcephaly were noted in Brazil's Northeast which was estimated to be 29 cases between August - October. ZIKV was identified in blood - tissue samples of a newborn - in mothers who had given birth to infants with microcephaly - ophthalmological anomalies. In 2015, there were an estimated 440,000 - 1,300,000 Zika cases in Brazil. There have been 4,783 suspected cases of microcephaly, most of them in the Northeast of Brazil associated with 76 deaths. The Ministry of Health is intensifying control measures against the mosquito Aedes aegypti - implemented intensive surveillance actions. Further studies are needed to confirm the suspected association between ZIKV infection - microcephaly; to identify antiviral, immunotherapy, or prophylactic vaccine; to introduce diagnostic ELISA testing. Clinical - epidemiological studies must be performed to describe viral dynamics - expansion of the outbreak.

69) Interim guidelines for the evaluation and testing of infants with possible congenital zika virus infection - United States, 2016
Autor: Staples, J. Erin; Dziuban, Eric J.; Fischer, Marc; Cragan, Janet D.; Rasmussen, Sonja A.; Cannon, Michael J.; Frey, Meghan T.; Renquist, Christina M.; Lanciotti, Robert S.; Munoz, Jorge L.; Powers, Ann M.; Honein, Margaret A.; Moore, Cynthia A.
Assunto: Micronesia
Descritores: Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Antibodies ; Zika virus - Biochemistry ; Zika virus - Cell ; Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - Viral infections
Fonte: Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, v. 65, n. 3, p. 63-67, 2016.
ISSN: 0149-2195
Resumo:

70) Imported cases of Chikungunya in Barcelona in relation to the current American outbreak
Autor: Bocanegra Cristina, Antón Andrés, Sulleiro Elena, Pou Diana, Salvador Fernando, Roure Silvia, Gimferrer Laura, Espasa Mateu, Franco Leticia, Molina Israel, Valerio Lluís
Assunto: America; Barcelona; Chikungunya; Europe; Outbreak
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Infectious diseases ; Chikungunya virus - Serology ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya virus - RT-PCR ; Chikungunya virus - Serology ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever ; Chikungunya virus - Dengue ; Chikungunya virus - Public health
Fonte: Journal of Travel Medicine, v. 23, n. 3, 2016
ISSN: 1708-8305
Resumo: The Chikungunya virus (CKIKV) is currently present in America. Travel between America - Europe is particularly intense - one of the main vectors of CHIKV, Aedes albopictus, is well established in the Mediterranean basin. We describe a series of imported cases that could originate a European outbreak. We retrospectively studied cases of CHIKV originating in America - diagnosed in the last year in three Tropical Medicine Units of Barcelona of the International Health Program of the Catalan Health Institute (PROSICS). Clinical, microbiological - epidemiological data were analyzed. Forty-two CHIKV cases who had returned from 11 American countries were included. Fever was the most common symptom at onset (96.1%). Three months after symptom onset 50% continued with arthralgias, 35.3% fatigue - 11.8% arthritis. Three patients were viremic at the time of diagnosis by RT-PCR, - the remaining were diagnosed by serology (CHIKV IgM or IgG). Five (11.9%) patients had positive IgM for both dengue virus - CHIKV. The origin of the cases was diverse, the most frequent being initially the Dominican Republic, followed later by Venezuela - Colombia. Symptoms were not severe but persisted, accompanied by unremitting positive IgM. Diagnosis was mainly based on serology - RT-PCR, with the performance of the rapid immunochromatographic test being low. Phylogenetic studies showed that two viremic cases were caused by a strain of Asian lineage with a lower adaptability to Aedes albopictus. Co-infection with the dengue virus was common, but the clinical course was not affected by coinfection. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs were administered to 71.4% - steroids to 21.4%. The number of imported cases of CHIKV in Spain is rising due to introduction of this virus in America, - this could lead to an autochthonous outbreak if Public Health measures are not taken.

71) Evidence of zika virus infection in brain and placental tissues from two congenitally infected newborns and two fetal losses - Brazil, 2015
Autor: Martines, Roosecelis Brasil; Bhatnagar, Julu; Keating, M. Kelly; Silva-Flannery, Luciana; Muehlenbachs, Atis; Gary, Joy; Goldsmith, Cynthia; Hale, Gillian; Ritter, Jana; Rollin, Dominique; Shieh, Wun-Ju; Luz, Kleber G.; de Oliveira Ramos, Ana Maria; Freire Davi, Helaine Pompeia; de Oliveria, Wanderson Kleber; Lanciotti, Robert; Lambert, Amy; Zaki, Sherif
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Flaviviridae
Fonte: Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, v. 65, n. 6, p. 159-160, 2016.
ISSN: 0149-2195
Resumo:

72) Zika virus in the americas - yet another arbovirus threat
Autor: Fauci Anthony S, Morens David M
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Arbovirus ; Chikungunya virus - Flaviviridae ; Chikungunya virus - Pathogenesis ; Chikungunya virus - Infectious diseases ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Transmission ; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever ; Chikungunya virus - Epidemic ; Chikungunya virus - Epidemiology ; Chikungunya virus - Public health ; Chikungunya virus - Zika fever
Fonte: The New England Journal of Medicine, v. 374, n. 7, p. 601-604, 2016
ISSN: 1533-4406
Resumo:

73) Chikungunya: bending over the Americas and the rest of the world
Autor: Madariaga Miguel, Ticona Eduardo, Resurrecion Cristhian
Assunto: Alphavirus; Chikungunya; Epidemics
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Infectious diseases ; Chikungunya virus - Serology ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya virus - Serology ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Epidemic
Fonte: The Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases, v. 20, n. 1, p. 91-98, 2016
ISSN: 1678-4391
Resumo: Chikungunya is an arthropod-borne virus transmitted by Aedes mosquito bites. A viral mutation has allowed Aedes albopictus to become the preferred vector extending the geographic spread of the condition. The virus causes an acute febrile illness occasionally followed by a chronic rheumatic condition causing severe impairment. The diagnosis is usually confirmed with serology. No specific treatment is currently available. This article reviews the condition with emphasis on his dissemination in the Americas.

74) Viremia in north american mammals and birds after experimental infection with Chikungunya viruses
Autor: Bosco-Lauth Angela M, Nemeth Nicole M, Kohler Dennis J, Bowen Richard A
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Transmission ; Chikungunya virus - Epidemic
Fonte: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, v. 94, n. 3, p. 504-506, 2016
ISSN: 1476-1645
Resumo: Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is an arthropod-borne virus, which is known to cause severe disease only in humans. To investigate its potential zoonotic host range - evaluate reservoir competence among these hosts, experimental infections were performed on individuals from nine avian - 12 mammalian species representing both domestic - wild animals common to North America. Hamsters - inbred mice have previously been shown to develop viremia after inoculation with CHIKV - were used as positive controls for infection. Aside from big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus), none of the mammals or birds developed detectable viremia or overt clinical disease. However, most mammals - a smaller proportion of birds developed neutralizing antibody responses to CHIKV. On the basis of these results, it seems unlikely that CHIKV poses a significant health threat to most domestic animals or wildlife - that the species examined do not likely contribute to natural transmission cycles. Additional studies should further evaluate bats - wild rodents as potential reservoir hosts for CHIKV transmission during human epidemics.

75) Spectre of Ebola haunts Zika response.
Autor: Check Hayden Erika
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Pathogenesis ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Nature, v. 531, n. 7592, p. 19, 2016
ISSN: 1476-4687
Resumo:

76) Whole-genome sequencing analysis from the Chikungunya virus Caribbean outbreak reveals novel evolutionary genomic elements
Autor: Stapleford Kenneth A, Moratorio Gonzalo, Henningsson Rasmus, Chen Rubing, Matheus Séverine, Enfissi Antoine, Weissglas-Volkov Daphna, Isakov Ofer, Blanc Hervé, Mounce Bryan C, Dupont-Rouzeyrol Myrielle, Shomron Noam, Weaver Scott, Fontes Magnus, Rousset Dominique, Vignuzzi Marco
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Arbovirus ; Chikungunya virus - Cell ; Chikungunya virus - Cytopathology ; Chikungunya virus - Genome ; Chikungunya virus - Pathogenesis ; Chikungunya virus - Infectious diseases ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Dengue ; Chikungunya virus - Epidemic
Fonte: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, v. 10, n. 1, p. e0004402, 2016
ISSN: 1935-2735
Resumo: Chikungunya virus (CHIKV), an alphavirus - member of the Togaviridae family, is capable of causing severe febrile disease in humans. In December of 2013 the Asian Lineage of CHIKV spread from the Old World to the Americas, spreading rapidly throughout the New World. Given this new emergence in naïve populations we studied the viral genetic diversity present in infected individuals to underst- how CHIKV may have evolved during this continuing outbreak. We used deep-sequencing technologies coupled with well-established bioinformatics pipelines to characterize the minority variants - diversity present in CHIKV infected individuals from Guadeloupe - Martinique, two isl-s in the center of the epidemic. We observed changes in the consensus sequence as well as a diverse range of minority variants present at various levels in the population. Furthermore, we found that overall diversity was dramatically reduced after single passages in cell lines. Finally, we constructed an infectious clone from this outbreak - identified a novel 3' untranslated region (UTR) structure, not previously found in nature, that led to increased replication in insect cells. Here we preformed an intrahost quasispecies analysis of the new CHIKV outbreak in the Caribbean. We identified novel variants present in infected individuals, as well as a new 3'UTR structure, suggesting that CHIKV has rapidly evolved in a short period of time once it entered this naïve population. These studies highlight the need to continue viral diversity surveillance over time as this epidemic evolves in order to underst- the evolutionary potential of CHIKV.

77) Simplified bryostatin analogues protect cells from Chikungunya virus-induced cell death
Autor: Staveness Daryl, Abdelnabi Rana, Schrier Adam J, Loy Brian A, Verma Vishal A, DeChristopher Brian A, Near Katherine E, Neyts Johan, Delang Leen, Leyssen Pieter, Wender Paul A
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Cell ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Vaccine ; Chikungunya virus - Immunology
Fonte: Journal of Natural Products v. 79, n. 4, p. 675-679, 2016
ISSN: 1520-6025
Resumo: Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a mosquito-borne alphavirus showing a recent resurgence - rapid spread worldwide. While vaccines are under development, there are currently no therapies to treat this disease, except for over-the-counter (OTC) analgesics, which alleviate the devastating arthritic - arthralgic symptoms. To identify novel inhibitors of the virus, analogues of the natural product bryostatin 1, a clinical lead for the treatment of cancer, Alzheimer's disease, - HIV eradication, were investigated for in vitro antiviral activity - were found to be among the most potent inhibitors of CHIKV replication reported to date. Bryostatin-based therapeutic efforts - even recent anti-CHIKV strategies have centered on modulation of protein kinase C (PKC). Intriguingly, while the C ring of bryostatin primarily drives interactions with PKC, A- - B-ring functionality in these analogues has a significant effect on the observed cell-protective activity. Significantly, bryostatin 1 itself, a potent pan-PKC modulator, is inactive in these assays. These new findings indicate that the observed anti-CHIKV activity is not solely mediated by PKC modulation, suggesting possible as yet unidentified targets for CHIKV therapeutic intervention. The high potency - low toxicity of these bryologs make them promising new leads for the development of a CHIKV treatment.

78) Mefenamic acid in combination with ribavirin shows significant effects in reducing Chikungunya virus infection in vitro and in vivo
Autor: Rothan Hussin A, Bahrani Hirbod, Abdulrahman Ammar Y, Mohamed Zulqarnain, Teoh Teow Chong, Othman Shatrah, Rashid Nurshamimi Nor, Rahman Noorsaadah A, Yusof Rohana
Assunto: Chikungunya virus; Meclofenamic acid; Mefenamic acid; Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs; Ribavirin
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Public health
Fonte: Antiviral Research, v. 127, p. 50-56, 2016
ISSN: 1872-9096
Resumo: Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) infection is a persistent problem worldwide due to efficient adaptation of the viral vectors, Aedes aegypti - Aedes albopictus mosquitoes. Therefore, the absence of effective anti-CHIKV drugs to combat chikungunya outbreaks often leads to a significant impact on public health care. In this study, we investigated the antiviral activity of drugs that are used to alleviate infection symptoms, namely, the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), on the premise that active compounds with potential antiviral - anti-inflammatory activities could be directly subjected for human use to treat CHIKV infections. Amongst the various NSAID compounds, Mefenamic acid (MEFE) - Meclofenamic acid (MECLO) showed considerable antiviral activity against viral replication individually or in combination with the common antiviral drug, Ribavirin (RIBA). The 50% effective concentration (EC50) was estimated to be 13 ?M for MEFE, 18 ?M for MECLO - 10 ?M for RIBA, while MEFE + RIBA (1:1) exhibited an EC50 of 3 ?M, - MECLO + RIBA (1:1) was 5 ?M. Because MEFE is commercially available - its synthesis is easier compared with MECLO, MEFE was selected for further in vivo antiviral activity analysis. Treatment with MEFE + RIBA resulted in a significant reduction of hypertrophic effects by CHIKV on the mouse liver - spleen. Viral titre quantification in the blood of CHIKV-infected mice through the plaque formation assay revealed that treatment with MEFE + RIBA exhibited a 6.5-fold reduction compared with untreated controls. In conclusion, our study demonstrated that MEFE in combination with RIBA exhibited significant anti-CHIKV activity by impairing viral replication in vitro - in vivo. Indeed, this finding may lead to an even broader application of these combinatorial treatments against other viral infections.

79) Chikungunya: epidemiology
Autor: Petersen Lyle R, Powers Ann M
Assunto: Chikungunya; Alphavirus; Mosquito
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever ; Chikungunya virus - Epidemiology ; Chikungunya virus - Public health
Fonte: F1000Research, v. 5, 2016
ISSN: 2046-1402
Resumo: Chikungunya virus is a mosquito-borne alphavirus that causes fever - debilitating joint pains in humans. Joint pains may last months or years. It is vectored primarily by the tropical - sub-tropical mosquito, Aedes aegypti, but is also found to be transmitted by Aedes albopictus, a mosquito species that can also be found in more temperate climates. In recent years, the virus has risen from relative obscurity to become a global public health menace affecting millions of persons throughout the tropical - sub-tropical world -, as such, has also become a frequent cause of travel-associated febrile illness. In this review, we discuss our current underst-ing of the biological - sociological underpinnings of its emergence - its future global outlook.

80) The presence and seroprevalence of arthropod-borne viruses in nasiriyah governorate, southern iraq: A cross-sectional study
Autor: Barakat Ali Mohammed, Smura Teemu, Kuivanen Suvi, Huhtamo Eili, Kurkela Satu, Putkuri Niina, Hasony Hassan J, Al-Hello Haider, Vapalahti Olli
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Arbovirus ; Chikungunya virus - Antibodies ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus
Fonte: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, v. 94, n. 4, p. 794-799, 2016
ISSN: 1476-1645
Resumo: The knowledge on the presence - seroprevalence of arboviruses in Iraq is fragmental. To assess the exposure of the population to arbovirus infections in southern Iraq, we conducted a serological screening of the most common arbovirus groups using immunofluorescence, hemagglutination inhibition - neutralization tests. Serum samples of 399 adult volunteers were collected in Nasiriyah, Iraq. Antibodies were detected against West Nile virus (WNV) (11.6%), s-fly-borne Sicilian virus serocomplex (18.2%), s-fly-borne Naples virus serocomplex (7.8%), Sindbis virus (1.5%), chikungunya virus (0.5%), - Tahyna virus (2.0%). The results suggest that WNV - s-fly-borne phlebovirus infections are common in southern Iraq, - these viruses should be considered as potential causative agents in patients with febrile disease -/or neurological manifestations.

81) Investigation into an outbreak of dengue-like illness in Pernambuco, Brazil, revealed a cocirculation of zika, chikungunya, and dengue virus type 1.
Autor: Pessôa Rodrigo,Patriota João Veras,Lourdes de Souza Maria de,Felix Alvina Clara,Mamede Nubia,Sanabani Sabri S
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Cytopathology ; Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - Antibodies ; Zika virus - Real Time PCR ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Molecular screening ; Zika virus - Dengue
Fonte: Medicine, v. 95, n. 12, 2016
ISSN: 1536-5964
Resumo: In April 2015, an outbreak of dengue-like illness occurred in Tuparetama, a small city in the northeast region of Brazil; this outbreak was characterized by its fast expansion. An investigation was initiated to identify the viral etiologies and advise the health authorities on implementing control measures to contain the outbreak. This is the first report of this outbreak in the northeast, even though a few cases were documented earlier in a neighboring city.Plasma samples were obtained from 77 suspected dengue patients attending the main hospital in the city. Laboratory assays, such as real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, virus cDNA sequencing, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, were employed to identify the infecting virus and molecular phylogenetic analysis was performed to define the circulating viral genotypes.RNA of Zika virus (ZIKV) and Dengue virus (DENV) or IgM antibodies (Abs) to DENV or chikungunya (CHIKV) were detected in 40 of the 77 plasma samples (51.9%). DENV was found in 9 patients (11.7%), ZIKV was found in 31 patients (40.2%), CHIKV in 1 patient (1.3%), and coinfection of DENV and ZIKV was detected in 2 patients (2.6%). The phylogenetic analysis of 2 available partial DENV and 14 ZIKV sequences revealed the identities of genotype 1 and the Asiatic lineage, respectively.Consistent with recent reports from the same region, our results showed that the ongoing outbreak is caused by ZIKV, DENV, and CHIKV. This emphasizes the need for a routine and differential diagnosis of arboviruses in patients with dengue-like illness. Coordinated efforts are necessary to contain the outbreak. Continued surveillance will be important to assess the effectiveness of current and future prevention strategies.

82) Dengue, Zika and Chikungunya
Autor: Kantor Isabel N
Assunto: Argentina; Arbovirus; Chikungunya; Dengue; Zika
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Arbovirus; Chikungunya virus - Immune response; Chikungunya virus - Immune response; Chikungunya virus - PCR detection; Chikungunya virus - RT-PCR; Chikungunya virus - Serological diagnosis; Chikungunya Virus - Virus; Chikungunya virus - Sexual; Chikungunya virus - Vaccine; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever; Chikungunya virus - Dengue; Chikungunya virus - Microcephaly; Chikungunya virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Medicina, v. 76, n. 2. p. 93-97, 2016
ISSN: 0025-7680
Resumo: Arboviruses are transmitted by arthropods, including those responsible for the current p-emic: alphavirus (Chikungunya) - flaviviruses (dengue - Zika). Its importance increased in the Americas over the past 20 years. The main vectors are Aedes aegypti - A. albopictus. Dengue infection provides long lasting immunity against the specific serotype - temporary to the other three. Subsequent infection by another serotype determines more serious disease. There is a registered vaccine for dengue, Dengvaxia (Sanofi Pasteur). Other two (Butantan - Takeda) are in Phase III in 2016. Zika infection is usually asymptomatic or occurs with rash, conjunctivitis - not very high fever. There is no vaccine or specific treatment. It can be transmitted by parental, sexual - via blood transfusion. It has been associated with microcephaly. Chikungunya causes prolonged joint pain - persistent immune response. Two c-idate vaccines are in Phase II. Dengue direct diagnosis is performed by virus isolation, RT-PCR - ELISA for NS1 antigen detection; indirect methods are ELISA-IgM (cross-reacting with other flavivirus), MAC-ELISA, - plaque neutralization. Zika is diagnosed by RT-PCR - virus isolation. Serological diagnosis cross-reacts with other flavivirus. For CHIKV culture, RT-PCR, MAC-ELISA - plaque neutralization are used. Against Aedes organophosphate larvicides (temephos), organophosphorus insecticides (malathion - fenitrothion) - pyrethroids (permethrin - deltamethrin) are usually employed. Resistance has been described to all these products. Vegetable derivatives are less expensive - biodegradable, including citronella oil, which microencapsulated can be preserved from evaporation.

83) Prolonged detection of Zika virus RNA in urine samples during the ongoing Zika virus epidemic in Brazil
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: De M. Campos R., Cirne-Santos C., Meira G.L.S., Santos L.L.R., De Meneses M.D., Friedrich J., Jansen S., Ribeiro M.S., Da Cruz I.C., Schmidt-Chanasit J., Ferreira D.F.
Assunto: epidemic, urine, virus
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Journal of Clinical Virology, v. 77, p. 69-70, apr. 2016
ISSN: 1873-5967 (electronic),1386-6532
Resumo:

84) The Zika outbreak of the 21st century
Autor: Chang Christopher, Ortiz Kristina, Ansari Aftab, Gershwin M Eric
Assunto: Aedes aegypti; Arborvirus; Autophagy; Centrosome; Dengue; Flavivirus; Glycosylation; Guillain-Barre; Microcephaly; Mosquitoes; Pandemic; Sexual transmission; Zika fever
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Cytopathology ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Sexual ; Chikungunya virus - Transmission ; Chikungunya virus - Vaccine ; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever ; Chikungunya virus - Dengue ; Chikungunya virus - Epidemic ; Chikungunya virus - Immunology ; Chikungunya virus - Microcephaly ; Chikungunya virus - Public health ; Chikungunya virus - Rash maculopapular ; Chikungunya virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Journal of Autoimmunity, v. 68, p. 1-13, 2016
ISSN: 1095-9157
Resumo: The Zika virus outbreak has captivated the attention of the global audience - information has spread rapidly - wildly through the internet - other media channels. This virus was first identified in 1947, when it was isolated from a sentinel rhesus monkey placed by British scientists working at the Yellow Fever Research Laboratory located in the Zika forest area of Ug-a, hence its name, - is transmitted primarily by the mosquito vector, Aedes aegypti. The fact that the rhesus macaque is an Asian species being placed in an African forest brings to mind the possibility of rapid adaptation of the virus from an African to Asian species, an issue that has not been considered. Whether such adaptation has played any role in acquiring pathogenicity due to cross species transmission remains to be identified. The first human infection was described in Nigeria in 1954, with only scattered reports of about a dozen human infections identified over a 50-year period. It was not until 2007 that Zika virus raised its ugly head with infections noted in three-quarters of the population on the tiny isl- of Yap located between the Philippines - Papua New Guinea in the western Pacific Ocean, followed by a major outbreak in French Polynesia in 2013. The virus remained confined to a narrow equatorial b- in Africa - Asia until 2014 when it began to spread eastward, first toward Oceania - then to South America. Since then, millions of infected individuals have been identified in Brazil, Colombia, Venezuela, including 25 additional countries in the Americas. While the symptoms associated with Zika virus infection are generally mild, consisting of fever, maculopapular rash, arthralgia - conjunctivitis, there have been reports of more severe reactions that are associated with neurological complications. In pregnant women, fetal neurological complications include brain damage - microcephaly, while in adults there have been several cases of virus-associated Guillain-Barre syndrome. The virus was until recently believed to only be transmitted via mosquitoes. But when the Zika virus was isolated from the semen specimens from a patient in Texas, this provided the basis for the recent report of possible sexual transmission of the Zika virus. Due to the neurological complications, various vectors for infection as well as the rapid spread throughout the globe, it has prompted the World Health Organization to issue a global health emergency. Various governmental organizations have recommended that pregnant women do not travel to countries where the virus is epidemic, - within the countries affected by the virus, recommendations were provided for women of childbearing age to delay pregnancy. The overall public health impact of these above findings highlights the need for a rapid but specific diagnostic test for blood banks worldwide to identify those infected - for the counseling of women who are pregnant or contemplating pregnancy. As of this date, there are neither commercially licensed diagnostic tests nor a vaccine. Because cross-reactivity of the Zika virus with dengue - Chikungunya virus is common, it may pose difficulty in being able to quickly develop such tests - vaccines. So far the most effective public health measures include controlling the mosquito populations via insecticides - preventing humans from direct exposure to mosquitoes.

85) Epidemic of Zika virus and maxillofacial surgery
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Shakib K.
Assunto: epidemic, maxillofacial surgery, virus
Descritores: Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Microcephaly
Fonte: British Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, feb. 2016
ISSN: 1532-1940 (electronic),0266-4356
Resumo: Zika is a RNA virus spread by the ubiquitous Aedes mosquitoes. It was first discovered in Uganda in 1947, and arrived in south-east Asia by the middle of the 20th century. In 2014 the virus started to spread across the Pacific Islands to reach South America. Since then it has spread rapidly northwards, and reached Mexico and the Caribbean in November 2015. Clinically it presents as a self-limiting febrile illness. However, there is increasing evidence of a link between Zika virus and the Guillain-Barré syndrome, and maternal Zika virus infection and microcephaly of the fetus.

86) Evidence of vertical transmission and co-circulation of chikungunya and dengue viruses in field populations of Aedes aegypti (L.) from Guerrero, Mexico
Autor: Dzul-Manzanilla, Felipe; Martinez, Norma E.; Cruz-Nolasco, Maximina; Gutierrez-Castro, Cipriano; Lopez-Damian, Leonardo; Ibarra-Lopez, Jesus; Martini-Jaimes, Andres; Bibiano-Marin, Wilbert; Tornez-Benitez, Citlalli; Vazquez-Prokopec, Gonzalo M.; Manrique-Saide, Pablo
Assunto: Aedes aegypti; Chikungunya; Dengue; Mexico; Surveillance
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - RT-PCR
Fonte: Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, v. 110, n. 2, p. 141-144, 2016
ISSN: 0035-9203
Resumo: Background: We report results of the entomo-virological surveillance system in Aedes aegypti local populations performed by the Ministry of Health of Guerrero.Methods: Indoor-adult Ae. aegypti collected at Acapulco, Zihuatanejo, Coyuca de Benitez and Atoyac de Alvarez (dry season, 2015) were processed for dengue virus (DENV) and chikungunya virus (CHIKV) using RT-PCR.Results: We identified different seroptypes of DENV (2, 3 and 4), CHIKV and their co-circulation in field-caught mosquitoes across a significant geographic area. Pools of males were positive for CHIKV and DENV 3 and 4 suggesting vertical transmission.Conclusions: Entomo-virological surveillance in Guerrero has identified early circulation of CHIKV and DENV and provided a trigger for timely and focalized vector control actions.

87) A report on the outbreak of Zika virus on Easter Island, South Pacific,2014
Autor: Tognarelli J., Ulloa S., Villagra E., Lagos J., Aguayo C., Fasce R., Parra B., Mora J., Becerra N., Lagos N., Vera L., Olivares B., Vilches M., Fernández J.
Assunto: Easter Island; Outbreak; South Pacific; Zika Virus; Zikv
Descritores: Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - PCR detection ; Zika virus - Transmission
Fonte: Archives of Virology, v. 161, n. 3, p. 665-668,2016.
ISSN: 3048608
Resumo: Zika virus (ZIKV) is an emerging mosquito-borne flavivirus circulating in Asia and Africa. In2013, a large outbreak was reported on the archipelago of French Polynesia. In this study, we report the detection and molecular characterization of Zika virus for the first time in Chile from an outbreak among the inhabitants of Easter Island. A total of 89 samples from patients suspected of having ZIKV infection were collected between the period from January to May,2014. Molecular diagnosis of the virus was performed by RT-PCR followed by the sequencing of the region containing the NS5 gene. A comparison of the viral nucleic acid sequence with those of other strains of ZIKA virus was performed using the MEGA software. Fifty-one samples were found positive for ZIKV by RT-PCR analysis. Further analysis of the NS5 gene revealed that the ZIKV strains identified in Easter Island were most closely related to those found in French Polynesia (99.8 to 99.9 % nt and 100 % aa sequence identity). These results strongly suggest that the transmission pathway leading to the introduction of Zika virus on Easter Island has its origin in French Polynesia. ©2015, Springer-Verlag Wien.

88) Phylogenetic analysis of Chikungunya virus strains circulating in the Western Hemisphere
Autor: Lanciotti Robert S, Lambert Amy J
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Epidemic
Fonte: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, v. 94, n. 4, p. 800-803, 2016
ISSN: 1476-1645
Resumo: In December 2013, chikungunya virus (CHIKV) was isolated for the first time in the Western Hemisphere (WH) during an epidemic on the isl- of St. Martin. Subsequently, the virus has spread to 42 countries or territories in the Caribbean, Central, South, - North America. In this study, we have determined the full genomic sequences of 29 temporally - geographically diverse CHIKV strains from 16 countries of the WH. Phylogenetic analyses revealed minimal evolution among compared emergent CHIKV strains of the New World.

89) Larval temperature-food effects on adult mosquito infection and vertical transmission of dengue-1 virus
Autor: Buckner Eva A, Alto Barry W, Lounibos L Philip
Assunto: Dengue; Infection; Larval ecology; Transmission
Descritores: Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Transmission ; Chikungunya virus - Dengue ; Chikungunya virus - Epidemiology
Fonte: Journal of Medical Entomology, v. 53, n. 1, p. 91-98, 2016
ISSN: 0022-2585
Resumo: Temperature-food interactions in the larval environment can affect life history - population growth of container mosquitoes Aedes aegypti (L.) - Aedes albopictus Skuse, the primary vectors of chikungunya - dengue viruses. We used Ae. aegypti, Ae. albopictus, - dengue-1 virus (DENV-1) from Florida to investigate whether larval rearing temperature can alter the effects of larval food levels on Ae. aegypti - Ae. albopictus life history - DENV-1 infection - vertical transmission. Although we found no effect of larval treatments on survivorship to adulthood, DENV-1 titer, or DENV-1 vertical transmission, rates of vertical transmission up to 16-24% were observed in Ae. albopictus - Ae. aegypti, which may contribute to maintenance of this virus in nature. Larval treatments had no effect on number of progeny - DENV-1 infection in Ae. aegypti, but the interaction between temperature - food affected number of progeny - DENV-1 infection of the female Ae. albopictus parent. The cooler temperature (24°C) yielded the most progeny - this effect was accentuated by high food relative to the other conditions. Low - high food led to the highest (?90%) - lowest (?65%) parental infection at the cooler temperature, respectively, whereas intermediate infection rates (?75-80%) were observed for all food conditions at the elevated temperature. These results suggest that temperature - food availability have minimal influence on rate of vertical transmission - a stronger influence on adults of Ae. albopictus than of Ae. aegypti, which could have consequences for dengue virus epidemiology.

90) Versatile trans-replication systems for Chikungunya virus allow functional analysis and tagging of every replicase protein
Autor: Utt Age, Quirin Tania, Saul Sirle, Hellström Kirsi, Ahola Tero, Merits Andres
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Cell ; Chikungunya virus - Genome ; Chikungunya virus - Proteins ; Chikungunya virus - RNA ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Vaccine
Fonte: PloS One, v. 11, n. 3, p. e0151616, 2016
ISSN: 1932-6203
Resumo: Chikungunya virus (CHIKV; genus Alphavirus, family Togaviridae) has recently caused several major outbreaks affecting millions of people. There are no licensed vaccines or antivirals, - the knowledge of the molecular biology of CHIKV, crucial for development of efficient antiviral strategies, remains fragmentary. CHIKV has a 12 kb positive-str- RNA genome, which is translated to yield a nonstructural (ns) or replicase polyprotein. CHIKV structural proteins are expressed from a subgenomic RNA synthesized in infected cells. Here we have developed CHIKV trans-replication systems, where replicase expression - RNA replication are uncoupled. Bacteriophage T7 RNA polymerase or cellular RNA polymerase II were used for production of mRNAs for CHIKV ns polyprotein - template RNAs, which are recognized by CHIKV replicase - encode for reporter proteins. CHIKV replicase efficiently amplified such RNA templates - synthesized large amounts of subgenomic RNA in several cell lines. This system was used to create tagged versions of ns proteins including nsP1 fused with enhanced green fluorescent protein - nsP4 with an immunological tag. Analysis of these constructs - a matching set of replicon vectors revealed that the replicases containing tagged ns proteins were functional - maintained their subcellular localizations. When cells were co-transfected with constructs expressing template RNA - wild type or tagged versions of CHIKV replicases, formation of characteristic replicase complexes (spherules) was observed. Analysis of mutations associated with noncytotoxic phenotype in CHIKV replicons showed that a low level of RNA replication is not a pre-requisite for reduced cytotoxicity. The CHIKV trans-replicase does not suffer from genetic instability - represents an efficient, sensitive - reliable tool for studies of different aspects of CHIKV RNA replication process.

91) Development of a TaqMan array card for Acute-Febrile-Illness outbreak investigation and surveillance of emerging pathogens, including ebola virus.
Autor: Liu Jie,Ochieng Caroline,Wiersma Steve,Ströher Ute,Towner Jonathan S,Whitmer Shannon,Nichol Stuart T,Moore Christopher C,Kersh Gilbert J,Kato Cecilia,Sexton Christopher,Petersen Jeannine,Massung Robert,Hercik Christine,Crump John A,Kibiki Gibson,Maro Athanasia,Mujaga Buliga,Gratz Jean,Jacob Shevin T,Banura Patrick,Scheld W Michael,Juma Bonventure,Onyango Clayton O,Montgomery Joel M,Houpt Eric,Fields Barry
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Real Time PCR
Fonte: Journal of Clinical Microbiology, v. 54, n. 1, p. 49-58, 2016
ISSN: 1098-660X
Resumo: Acute febrile illness (AFI) is associated with substantial morbidity and mortality worldwide, yet an etiologic agent is often not identified. Convalescent-phase serology is impractical, blood culture is slow, and many pathogens are fastidious or impossible to cultivate. We developed a real-time PCR-based TaqMan array card (TAC) that can test six to eight samples within 2.5 h from sample to results and can simultaneously detect 26 AFI-associated organisms, including 15 viruses (chikungunya, Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever [CCHF] virus, dengue, Ebola virus, Bundibugyo virus, Sudan virus, hantaviruses [Hantaan and Seoul], hepatitis E, Marburg, Nipah virus, o'nyong-nyong virus, Rift Valley fever virus, West Nile virus, and yellow fever virus), 8 bacteria (Bartonella spp., Brucella spp., Coxiella burnetii, Leptospira spp., Rickettsia spp., Salmonella enterica and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi, and Yersinia pestis), and 3 protozoa (Leishmania spp., Plasmodium spp., and Trypanosoma brucei). Two extrinsic controls (phocine herpesvirus 1 and bacteriophage MS2) were included to ensure extraction and amplification efficiency. Analytical validation was performed on spiked specimens for linearity, intra-assay precision, interassay precision, limit of detection, and specificity. The performance of the card on clinical specimens was evaluated with 1,050 blood samples by comparison to the individual real-time PCR assays, and the TAC exhibited an overall 88% (278/315; 95% confidence interval [CI], 84% to 92%) sensitivity and a 99% (5,261/5,326, 98% to 99%) specificity. This TaqMan array card can be used in field settings as a rapid screen for outbreak investigation or for the surveillance of pathogens, including Ebola virus.

92) Simultaneous outbreaks of dengue, Chikungunya and Zika virus infections: Diagnosis challenge in a returning traveller with nonspecific febrile illness
Autor: Moulin E,Selby K, Cherpillod P, Kaiser L, Boillat-Blanco N
Assunto: Chikungunya; Zika; Dengue; Diagnostic algorithm; Outbreak
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Infectious diseases ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Dengue
Fonte: New Microbes and New Infections, v. 11, p. 6-7, 2016
ISSN: 2052-2975
Resumo: Zika virus is an emerging flavivirus that is following the path of dengue - chikungunya. The three Aedes-borne viruses cause simultaneous outbreaks with similar clinical manifestations which represents a diagnostic challenge in ill returning travellers. We report the first Zika virus infection case imported to Switzerl- - present a diagnostic algorithm.

93) Detection and sequencing of Zika virus from amniotic fluid of fetuses with microcephaly in Brazil: A case study
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Calvet G., Aguiar R.S., Melo A.S.O., Sampaio S.A., de Filippis I., Fabri A., Araujo E.S.M., de Sequeira P.C., de Mendonça M.C.L., de Oliveira L., Tschoeke D.A., Schrago C.G., Thompson F.L., Brasil P., dos Santos F.B., Nogueira R.M.R., Tanuri A., de Filippis A.M.B.
Assunto: amnion fluid, Brazil, microcephaly, virus
Descritores: Zika virus - Cell ; Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Genome ; Zika virus - Pathogenesis ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - PCR detection ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Chikungunya Fever ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: The Lancet Infectious Diseases, 2016
ISSN: 1474-4457 (electronic),1473-3099
Resumo: Background: The incidence of microcephaly in Brazil in 2015 was 20 times higher than in previous years. Congenital microcephaly is associated with genetic factors and several causative agents. Epidemiological data suggest that microcephaly cases in Brazil might be associated with the introduction of Zika virus. We aimed to detect and sequence the Zika virus genome in amniotic fluid samples of two pregnant women in Brazil whose fetuses were diagnosed with microcephaly. Methods: In this case study, amniotic fluid samples from two pregnant women from the state of Paraíba in Brazil whose fetuses had been diagnosed with microcephaly were obtained, on the recommendation of the Brazilian health authorities, by ultrasound-guided transabdominal amniocentesis at 28 weeks' gestation. The women had presented at 18 weeks' and 10 weeks' gestation, respectively, with clinical manifestations that could have been symptoms of Zika virus infection, including fever, myalgia, and rash. After the amniotic fluid samples were centrifuged, DNA and RNA were extracted from the purified virus particles before the viral genome was identified by quantitative reverse transcription PCR and viral metagenomic next-generation sequencing. Phylogenetic reconstruction and investigation of recombination events were done by comparing the Brazilian Zika virus genome with sequences from other Zika strains and from flaviviruses that occur in similar regions in Brazil. Findings: We detected the Zika virus genome in the amniotic fluid of both pregnant women. The virus was not detected in their urine or serum. Tests for dengue virus, chikungunya virus, Toxoplasma gondii, rubella virus, cytomegalovirus, herpes simplex virus, HIV, Treponema pallidum, and parvovirus B19 were all negative. After sequencing of the complete genome of the Brazilian Zika virus isolated from patient 1, phylogenetic analyses showed that the virus shares 97-100% of its genomic identity with lineages isolated during an outbreak in French Polynesia in 2013, and that in both envelope and NS5 genomic regions, it clustered with sequences from North and South America, southeast Asia, and the Pacific. After assessing the possibility of recombination events between the Zika virus and other flaviviruses, we ruled out the hypothesis that the Brazilian Zika virus genome is a recombinant strain with other mosquito-borne flaviviruses. Interpretation: These findings strengthen the putative association between Zika virus and cases of microcephaly in neonates in Brazil. Moreover, our results suggest that the virus can cross the placental barrier. As a result, Zika virus should be considered as a potential infectious agent for human fetuses. Pathogenesis studies that confirm the tropism of Zika virus for neuronal cells are warranted. Funding: Consellho Nacional de Desenvolvimento e Pesquisa (CNPq), Fundação de Amparo a Pesquisa do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (FAPERJ).

94) The reemergence of Zika virus: A review on pathogenesis, clinical manifestations, diagnosis, and treatment
Autor: Shuaib Waqas, Stanazai Hashim, Abazid Ahmad G, Mattar Ahmed A
Assunto: Brazil; Chikungunya; Dengue; Microcephaly; Zika
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Arbovirus ; Chikungunya virus - Flaviviridae ; Chikungunya virus - Pathogenesis ; Chikungunya virus - RNA ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever ; Chikungunya virus - Dengue ; Chikungunya virus - Microcephaly ; Chikungunya virus - Zika fever
Fonte: The American Journal of Medicine, v. 129, n. 8, p. 879.e7-879.e12, 2016
ISSN: 1555-7162
Resumo: That extreme care should be exercised in the selection of lower primates for purposes of studying exotic viral agents is clearly indicated by the data presented. Although no viremia was found in the animals tested, adherence to a rigid program of housing and protective screening is essential if a serious transmission hazard is to be minimized, particularly in areas of high arthropod activity.

95) Concurrent malaria and arbovirus infections in Kedougou, southeastern Senegal
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Sow A., Loucoubar C., Diallo D., Faye O., Ndiaye Y., Senghor C.S., Dia A.T., Faye O., Weaver S.C., Diallo M., Malvy D., Sall A.A.
Assunto: malaria, virus infection
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - PCR detection ; Zika virus - RT-PCR ; Zika virus - Chikungunya Fever ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Malaria Journal, v. 15, n. 47, p. 1-7, jan. 2016
ISSN: 1475-2875 (electronic)
Resumo: Background: Malaria is one of the leading causes of acute febrile illness (AFI) in Africa. With the advent of malaria rapid diagnostic tests, misdiagnosis and co-morbidity with other diseases has been highlighted by an increasing number of studies. Although arboviral infections and malaria are both vector-borne diseases and often have an overlapping geographic distribution in sub-Saharan Africa, information about their incidence rates and concurrent infections is scarce. Methods: From July 2009 to March 2013 patients from seven healthcare facilities of the Kedougou region presenting with AFI were enrolled and tested for malaria and arboviral infections, i.e., yellow fever (YFV), West Nile (WNV), dengue (DENV), chikungunya (CHIKV), Crimean Congo haemorrhagic fever (CCHFV), Zika (ZIKV), and Rift Valley fever viruses (RVFV). Malaria parasite infections were investigated using thick blood smear (TBS) and rapid diagnostics tests (RDT) while arbovirus infections were tested by IgM antibody detection (ELISA) and RT-PCR assays. Data analysis of single or concurrent malaria and arbovirus was performed using R software. Results: A total of 13,845 patients, including 7387 with malaria and 41 with acute arbovirus infections (12 YFV, nine ZIKV, 16 CHIKV, three DENV, and one RVFV) were enrolled. Among the arbovirus-infected patients, 48.7 % (20/41) were co-infected with malaria parasites at the following frequencies: CHIKV 18.7 % (3/16), YFV 58.3 % (7/12), ZIKV 88.9 % (8/9), DENV 33.3 % (1/3), and RVF 100 % (1/1). Fever ?40 °C was the only sign or symptom significantly associated with dual malaria parasite/arbovirus infection. Conclusions: Concurrent malaria parasite and arbovirus infections were detected in the Kedougou region from 2009 to 2013 and need to be further documented, including among asymptomatic individuals, to assess its epidemiological and clinical impact.

96) Expression of a sugar Glade gustatory receptor, BmGr6, in the oral sensory organs, midgut, and central nervous system of larvae of the silkworm Bombyx mori
Autor: Mang, Dingze; Shu, Min; Endo, Haruka; Yoshizawa, Yasutaka; Nagata, Shinji; Kikuta, Shingo; Sato, Ryoichi
Assunto: Juvenile Hormone; 20-Hydroxyecdysone; Post-Translation Modification; Cholesterol; Lipid Metabolism
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Genome ; Aedes aegypti - RT-PCR
Fonte: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, v. 70, n. , p. 85-98, 2016
ISSN: 0965-1748
Resumo: Insects taste nonvolatile chemicals through gustatory receptors (Grs) and make choices for feeding, mating, and oviposition. To date, genome projects have identified 69 Gr genes in the silkworm, Bombyx mori; however, the expression sites of these Grs remain to be explored. In this study, we used reverse transcription (RT)-PCR to investigate expression of the B. mori Gr-6 (BmGr6) gene, a member of the putative sugar Glade gene family in various tissues. BmGr6 is expressed in the midgut, central nervous system (CNS), and oral sensory organs. Moreover, immunohistochemistry using an anti-BmGr6 antiserum demonstrated that BmGr6 is expressed in cells by oral sensory organs, midgut and nervous system. Furthermore, double-immunohistochemistry indicated that BmGr6 is expressed in midgut enteroendocrine cells, also in CNS neurosecretory cells. In particular, a portion of BmGr6-expressing cells, in both midgut and CNS, secretes FMRFamide-related peptides (FaRPs). These results suggest that BmGr6 functions not only as a taste receptor, but also as a chemical sensor such as for the regulation of gut movement, physiological conditions, and feeding behavior of larvae. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

97) Re-evaluating the residual risk of transfusion-transmitted Ross River virus infection
Autor: Seed C R, Hoad V C, Faddy H M, Kiely P, Keller A J, Pink J
Assunto: Ross River virus; Blood safety; Residual risk estimation; Transfusion-transmissible infection
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Arbovirus ; Chikungunya virus - RNA ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Transmission
Fonte: Vox Sanguinis, v. 110, n. 4, p. 317-323, 2016
ISSN: 1423-0410
Resumo: Ross River virus (RRV) is an enveloped, RNA alphavirus in the same antigenic group as chikungunya virus. Australia records an annual average of 5000 laboratory-confirmed RRV infections. While RRV is currently geographically restricted to the Western Pacific, the capacity of arboviruses for rapid expansion is well established. The first case of RRV transfusion-transmission was recently described prompting a comprehensive risk assessment. To estimate the RRV residual risk, we applied laboratory-confirmed RRV notifications to two published models. This modelling generated point estimates for the risk of viraemia in the donor population, the risk of collecting a viraemic donation - the predicted number of infected components. The EUFRAT model estimated the risk of infection in donors as one in 95 039 (one in 311 328 to one in 32 399) to one in 14 943 (one in 48 593 to one in 5094). The point estimate for collecting a RRV viraemic donation varied from one in 166 486 (one in 659 078 to one in 49 158) (annualized national risk) to one in 26 117 (one in 103 628 to one in 7729) (area of high transmission). The modelling predicted 8-11 RRV-infected labile blood components issued in Australia during a 1-year period. Considering the uncertainty in the modelled estimates, the unknown rate of RRV donor viraemia - the low severity of any recipient RRV infection, additional risk management for RRV in Australia will initially be restricted to strengthening the messaging to donors regarding prompt reporting of any postdonation illnesses.

98) Transmission potential of Zika virus infection in the South Pacific
Autor: Nishiura Hiroshi, Kinoshita Ryo, Mizumoto Kenji, Yasuda Yohei, Nah Kyeongah
Assunto: Basic reproduction number; Epidemic; Statistical estimation; Transmissibility; Zika virus
Descritores: Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Transmission ; Chikungunya virus - Dengue ; Chikungunya virus - Epidemic
Fonte: International Journal of Infectious Diseases, v. 45, p. 95-97, 2016
ISSN: 1878-3511
Resumo: Zika virus has spread internationally through countries in the South Pacific - Americas. The present study aimed to estimate the basic reproduction number, R0, of Zika virus infection as a measurement of the transmission potential, reanalyzing past epidemic data from the South Pacific. Incidence data from two epidemics, one on Yap Isl-, Federal State of Micronesia in 2007 - the other in French Polynesia in 2013-2014, were reanalyzed. R0 of Zika virus infection was estimated from the early exponential growth rate of these two epidemics. The maximum likelihood estimate (MLE) of R0 for the Yap Isl- epidemic was in the order of 4.3-5.8 with broad uncertainty bounds due to the small sample size of confirmed - probable cases. The MLE of R0 for French Polynesia based on syndromic data ranged from 1.8 to 2.0 with narrow uncertainty bounds. The transmissibility of Zika virus infection appears to be comparable to those of dengue - chikungunya viruses. Considering that Aedes species are a shared vector, this finding indicates that Zika virus replication within the vector is perhaps comparable to dengue - chikungunya.

99) First detection of autochthonous Zika virus transmission in a HIV-infected patient in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Calvet G.A., Filippis A.M.B., Mendonça M.C.L., Sequeira P.C., Siqueira A.M., Veloso V.G., Nogueira R.M., Brasil P.
Assunto: Arbovirus, Human immunodeficiency virus infected patient, Human immunodeficiency virus infection (drug therapy, drug therapy), RNA virus infection, virus transmission, Zika virus, Zika virus infection
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Cell ; Zika virus - Phylogenesis ; Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Clinical examination ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Rash maculopapular
Fonte: Journal of Clinical Virology, v. 74, p. 1-3, jan. 2016
ISSN: 1873-5967 (electronic),1386-6532
Resumo: Since May 2015, Brazil's Ministry of Health has reported autochthonous transmission of Zika virus (ZIKV) in some states of the country. Simultaneous circulation of Dengue, Chikungunya and ZIKV in the country hinder both the diagnosis and the therapeutic approach of patients seeking care with acute febrile illnesses especially in patients with comorbidities. The association between HIV infection and endemic diseases has been described especially in tropical regions with varying levels of complications, although there has been no report of ZIKV in HIV-infected patients. We report the first autochthonous case of laboratory confirmed ZIKV infection in a HIV-infected patient in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. He evolved with only mild symptoms and recovered well without major laboratory abnormalities. Phylogenetic analysis of the ZIKV detected in the patient sera clustered within the Asian clade. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that Zika virus co-infection is reported in a HIV-infected patient.

100) Experience of integrated traditional Chinese and Western medicine in first case of imported Zika virus disease in China
Autor: Deng Yichu,Zeng Liping,Bao Wen,Xu Pinghua,Zhong Gongrong
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Clinical examination ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing ji jiu yi xue, v. 28, n. 2, p. 106-109, 2016
ISSN: 2095-4352
Resumo: Zika virus disease is an acute infectious disease caused by Zika virus transmitted through Aedes mosquitoes. To explore the therapeutic effect of integrated traditional Chinese and Western Medicine for Zika virus disease, the treatment process of the first imported case in China was reviewed. The first imported Zika virus disease in China was admitted to Ganxian People's Hospital in Jiangxi Province on February 6th, 2016, and the patient received isolation treatment for 9 days and cured later. The effect of antiviral treatments including Xiyanping injection was evaluated based on clinical diagnosis and treatment process of the patient. A 34-year old male patient was admitted with chief complaint of fever for 9 days, orbital pain and itching rash for 4 days on February 6th, 2016. (1) Epidemiological characteristics: the patient was bitted by mosquitoes during his business trip in Venezuela since January 1st, where Zika virus disease was spreading. On January 20th he had dizziness without fever, and the symptom disappeared after taking medicines without details. Paroxysmal dizziness, chills and mild fever without myalgia was experienced on January 28th. On February 3rd small red rash appeared in the neck, spreading to anterior part of chest, limbs and trunk, and the fever, fatigue, nausea was continued, and a new symptom of paroxysmal pain in back of ears and orbits appeared, during which he had not go to hospital. The symptoms relieved on February 4th. He returned to Ganxian County on February 5th, he had yellow stool 3 times with normal temperature, without abdominal pain, and red rash still appeared in the neck. He went to Ganxian People's Hospital on February 6th, 2016. (2) Clinical manifestation: the vital signs showed a temperature of 36.8?centigrade, a pulse rate of 80 bpm, a respiratory rate of 20 bpm, and a blood pressure of 110/70 mmHg (1 mmHg = 0.133 kPa). It was showed by physical examination that red rash appeared in the neck, and no superficial enlarged lymph nodes were found. Bilateral conjunctival congestion was obvious, physiological reflex existed and pathological reflex was not found. (3) Auxiliary lab test and examination: no abnormal finding were revealed throughout examination and laboratory tests, including routine blood test, liver function, renal function, serum myocardial enzyme, electrolyte, blood sugar, C-reactive protein (CRP), troponin I (TnI), and procalcitonin (PCT), except slight prolongation in activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT, 38.6 s) on February 6th; and slightly dense shadow in left lung in lung CT scan, considering inflammatory changes and slight emphysema (especially in the left lower lung) as well as bilateral renal calculus on February 8th. No significant abnormalities were found in electrocardiogram and B ultrasound test of liver, spleen, and pancreas. (4) Virus confirmation: Zika virus nucleic acid was positive reported by Jiangxi Province Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) on February 7th and Chinese CDC on February 9th, respectively, though Dengue virus were negative reported by Ganzhou CDC on February 6th. Right after the first diagnosis, anyone who had been in close contact with the patient received medical monitoring. (5)Treatment process: on February 6th, symptomatic treatment was prescribed since admitted into the infectious isolation wards and daily intravenous drip of Xiyanping injection 250 mg was prescribed for antiviral therapy. On February 7th, the patient had no fever, with occasional chills, neck rash was disappeared, orbital pain relieved and bilateral conjunctival hyperemia range was paler and narrowed, and his condition improved. Ibuprofen was administered for defervesce 3 times a day when his temperature reached to 37.5?centigrade at 16:00. On February 8th, the patient had no fever, times of chills was significantly reduced, without myalgia and rash, orbital pain and conjunctival hyperemia further recovered. On February 9th, bilateral eyes slightly tingling, mild conjunctival congestion, no fever chills or other discomfort was found. The chloramphenicol eye drops was prescribed for relieving sting pain with conjunctival congestion twice a day as recombinant human interferon alpha eye drops was out of store. The patient was comfortable from February 11th to February 13th. Blood and urine test for Zika were reported negative by the Chinese CDC and Jiangxi Province CDC. Because all the discharge criteria were satisfied, the patient was discharged on February 14th. At present, there is no specific effective drug to prevent and treat Zika virus disease effectually. After receiving symptomatic treatment and antiviral treatments including Xiyanping injection, the patient's symptoms were relieved. Zika virus nucleic acid in blood and urine was negative. The patient was discharged. Combination of traditional Chinese medicine and Western medicine maybe a good method to prevent and treat Zika virus disease.

101) Zika fever imported from Thailand to Japan, and diagnosed by PCR in the urines.
Autor: Shinohara Koh,Kutsuna Satoshi,Takasaki Tomohiko,Moi Meng Ling,Ikeda Makiko,Kotaki Akira,Yamamoto Kei,Fujiya Yoshihiro,Mawatari Momoko,Takeshita Nozomi,Hayakawa Kayoko,Kanagawa Shuzo,Kato Yasuyuki,Ohmagari Norio
Assunto: Flaviviridae, Mosquito-borne disease, Zika fever
Descritores: Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Journal of Travel Medicine, v. 23, n. 1, 2016
ISSN: 1708-8305
Resumo: In July 2014, a Japanese traveller returning from Thailand was investigated for fever, headache, rash and conjunctivitis. Zika virus RNA was detected in his urine sample by real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Serological tests showed cross reactivity of IgM against the dengue virus. Zika fever could be misdiagnosed or missed and should be considered in febrile patients with a rash, especially those returning from Thailand.

102) Two Japanese siblings affected with Chikungunya fever with different clinical courses: Imported infections from the Cook Islands
Autor: Kondo Makoto, Akachi Shigehiro, Ando Katsuhiko, Nomura Tatsuma, Yamanaka Keiichi, Mizutani Hitoshi
Assunto: Chikungunya fever; Chikungunya virus; Arthralgia; Imported infection; Tropical area
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Antibodies ; Chikungunya virus - Infectious diseases ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever ; Chikungunya virus - Epidemic
Fonte: The Journal of Dermatology, v. 43, n. 6, p. 697-700, 2016
ISSN: 1346-8138
Resumo: Two Japanese siblings visited the Cook Isl-s on business - stayed for 2 months. The sister developed a high fever, arthralgia, erythema - leg edema on the day after returning to Japan. The brother also developed neck - joint pain on the day following the sister's onset. Subsequently, his erythematous lesions spread over his whole body. Chikungunya virus was detected from the sister's blood - urine by specific reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, but not in the brother's samples. Retrospectively, his history of Chikungunya fever was confirmed by the presence of the anti-Chikungunya virus immunoglobulin (Ig)M - IgG antibodies using the specific enzyme-linked immunoassay. In Japan, no autochthonous case of Chikungunya fever was reported previously. We should give attention to the imported infectious diseases for epidemic prevention. This report warns about the danger of the imported infectious diseases, - also suggests that covering the topic of infectious disease in the world is critical to doctors as well as travelers.

103) An autochthonous case of zika due to possible sexual transmission, Florence, Italy, 2014
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Venturi G., Zammarchi L., Fortuna C., Remoli M.E., Benedetti E., Fiorentini C., Trotta M., Rizzo C., Mantella A., Rezza G., Bartoloni A.
Assunto: Italy, sexual transmission
Descritores: Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Serology ; Zika virus - Serological diagnosis ; Zika virus - Sexual ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Epidemiology
Fonte: Eurosurveillance, v. 21, n. 8, p. 1-4, feb. 2016
ISSN: 1560-7917 (electronic),1025-496X
Resumo: We report a case of Zika virus infection imported in Florence, Italy ex-Thailand, leading to a secondary autochthonous case, probably through sexual transmission. The two cases occurred in May 2014 but were retrospectively diagnosed in 2016 on the basis of serological tests (plaque reduction neutralisation) performed on stored serum samples. Our report provides further evidence that sexual transmission of Zika virus is possible.

104) Dengue and chikungunya seroprevalence in Gabonese infants prior to major outbreaks in 2007 and 2010: A sero-epidemiological study
Autor: Gabor Julian Justin, Schwarz Norbert Georg, Esen Meral, Kremsner Peter Gottfried, Grobusch Martin Peter
Assunto: Chikungunya; Dengue; ELISA; Infants; Seroprevalence
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Antibodies ; Chikungunya virus - Infectious diseases ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Dengue
Fonte: Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease, v. 14, n. 1, p. 26-31, 2016
ISSN: 1873-0442
Resumo: Apart from outbreak reports, little is known about the endemicity of dengue - chikungunya virus in African countries. We investigated serum samples collected in Gabon before major outbreaks in 2007 - 2010 in order to identify pre-outbreak-circulation of both viruses. Serum samples from Gabonese infants (162) were analyzed at 3, 9, 15 - 30 months of age by commercial ELISA for dengue - chikungunya IgG-antibodies. If samples were positive medical records of participants were analyzed for symptoms concordant with dengue - chikungunya infections during the time period of assumed seroconversion. IgG-antibodies against dengue were found in 12.3%, - IgG-antibodies against chikungunya in 0.6% of infants tested. Using the four measuring time points, we estimated corresponding incidences of 51/1.000 person-years - 2.5/1.000 person-years, respectively. Symptoms in positive-tested infants were mostly non-specific. Seropositivity suggests that both viruses circulated before the well-noticed outbreaks. Clinical diagnosis of dengue - chikungunya is difficult especially in infants, underscoring the need for accurate - reliable diagnostic tests as well as awareness of medical personnel. NCT00167843.

105) Ophthalmological findings in infants with microcephaly and presumable intra-uterus Zika virus infection
Autor: Ventura C.V., Maia M., Ventura B.V., Van Der Linden V., Araújo E.B., Ramos R.C., Rocha M.A.W., Carvalho M.D.C.G., Belfort R., Jr., Ventura L.O.
Assunto: Microcephaly; Ocular Findings; Retina; Vertical Transmission; Zika Virus
Descritores: Zika virus - Serology ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Microcephaly
Fonte: Arquivos Brasileiros de Oftalmologia, v. 79, n. 1, p. 1-3,2016.
ISSN: 42749
Resumo: Purpose: In2015, a twenty-fold increase in the prevalence of microcephaly in Brazil was reported, and the Ministry of Health associated this abnormal prevalence with the maternal-fetal Zika virus (ZIKV) transmission. Methods: We assessed the ophthalmological findings of ten mothers and their infants that had been clinically diagnosed with ZIKV-related microcephaly and presented ocular abnormalities, born from May to December2015. Results: Seven mothers (70.0%) referred symptoms during pregnancy (malaise, rash and arthralgia), of which six (85.7%) were in the first trimester. At the time of exam, no ophthalmological abnormalities were identified in the mothers and they did not report ocular symptoms during pregnancy. Serology was negative in all infants for Toxoplasmosis, Rubella, Cytomegalovirus, Syphilis and Human Immunodeficiency Viruses. Ocular findings included macular alterations (gross pigment mottling and/or chorioretinal atrophy) in fifteen eyes (75.0%), and optic nerve abnormalities (hypoplasia with double-ring sign, pallor, and/or increased cup-to-disk ratio) in nine eyes (45.0%). Conclusions: Patients presented normal anterior segment and important macular and optic nerve abnormalities. Further studies will assess the visual significance of these alterations.

106) Zika Virus Associated with Microcephaly.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Mlakar, Jernej, Korva, Misa, Tul, Nataša, Popovi?, Mara, PoIjšak-Prijatelj, Mateja, Mraz, Jerica, Kolenc, Marko, Rus, Katarina Resman, Vipotnik, Tina Vesnaver, Vodušek, Vesna Fabjan, Vizjak, Alenka, Pižem, Jože, Petrovec, Miroslav, Županc, Tatjana Avšid, Poljšak-Prijatelj, Mateja, Resman Rus, Katarina, Vesnaver Vipotnik, Tina, Fabjan Vodušek, Vesna, Avši? Županc, Tatjana
Assunto: Zika Virus Epidemic, 2015-, Zika virus, Microcephaly, Ultrasonic imaging, Reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, Electron microscopy
Descritores: Zika virus - Genome ; Zika virus - Immunology ; Zika virus - Inflammation ; Zika virus - RT-PCR ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Microcephaly
Fonte: New England Journal of Medicine, v. 374, n. 10, p. 951-958, 2016
ISSN: 284793
Resumo: A widespread epidemic of Zika virus (ZIKV) infection was reported in 2015 in South and Central America and the Caribbean. A major concern associated with this infection is the apparent increased incidence of microcephaly in fetuses born to mothers infected with ZIKV. In this report, we describe the case of an expectant mother who had a febrile illness with rash at the end of the first trimester of pregnancy while she was living in Brazil. Ultrasonography performed at 29 weeks of gestation revealed microcephaly with calcifications in the fetal brain and placenta. After the mother requested termination of the pregnancy, a fetal autopsy was performed. Micrencephaly (an abnormally small brain) was observed, with almost complete agyria, hydrocephalus, and multifocal dystrophic calcifications in the cortex and subcortical white matter, with associated cortical displacement and mild focal inflammation. ZIKV was found in the fetal brain tissue on reverse-transcriptase-polymerase-chain-reaction (RT-PCR) assay, with consistent findings on electron microscopy. The complete genome of ZIKV was recovered from the fetal brain.

107) Scientists probe zika link to birth defects (vol 530, pg 142, 2016)
Autor: Hayden, E. C.
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Microcephaly
Fonte: Nature, v. 530, n. 7591, p. 395-395, 2016
ISSN: 0028-0836
Resumo:

108) First case of imported zika virus infection in Spain
Titulo Alternativo: Primer caso importado de infección por virus zika en España
Autor: Bachiller-Luque, Pablo; Domínguez-Gil González, Marta; Álvarez-Manzanares, Jesús; Vázquez, Ana; De Ory, Fernando; Sánchez-Seco Fariñas, M Paz
Assunto: Zika virus; Flavivirus; Aedes mosquitoes; Arbovirus; Vector-borne diseases
Descritores: Zika Virus - Arbovirus ; Zika Virus - Viral infections ; Zika Virus - RNA virus ; Zika Virus - Microcephaly ; Zika Virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica, v. 34, n. 4, p. 243-246, 2016.
ISSN: 1578-1852
Resumo: We report a case of Zika virus (ZIKV) infection in a patient with diarrhea, fever, synovitis, non-purulent conjunctivitis, and with discreet retro-orbital pain, after returning from Colombia in January 2016. The patient referred several mosquito bites. Presence of ZIKV was detected by PCR (polymerase chain reaction) in plasma. Rapid microbiological diagnosis of ZIKV infection is needed in European countries with circulation of its vector, in order to avoid autochthonous circulation. The recent association of ZIKV infection with abortion and microcephaly, and a Guillain-Barré syndrome highlights the need for laboratory differentiation of ZIKV from other virus infection. Women with potential risk for Zika virus infection who are pregnant or planning to become pregnant must mention that fact during prenatal visits in order to be evaluated and properly monitored.

109) Catastrophic antiphospholipid syndrome triggered by fulminant Chikungunya infection in a patient with systemic lupus erythematosus
Autor: Betancur Juan-Felipe, Navarro Erika Paola, Echeverry Alex, Suso Juan Pablo, Bravo Bonilla José Humberto, Daniel Cortés Armando, Cañas Dávila Carlos, Vélez Juan Diego, Tobón Gabriel J
Assunto: Chikungunya virus infection; Catastrophic antiphospholipid syndrome; Multiorgan failure; Systemic lupus erythematosus
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Cytopathology ; Chikungunya virus - Infectious diseases ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Immunology
Fonte: Arthritis & Rheumatology, v. 68, n. 4, p. 1044, 2016
ISSN: 2326-5205
Resumo:

110) Acquired auditory neuropathy spectrum disorder after an attack of chikungunya: case study
Autor: Prabhu Prashanth
Assunto: Anxiety; Auditory neuropathy spectrum disorder; Chikungunya; Depression; Tinnitus; Tullio's phenomenon
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Cell ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Transmission
Fonte: European Archives of Oto-Rhino-Laryngology, v. 273, n. 1, p. 257-261, 2016
ISSN: 1434-4726
Resumo: Auditory neuropathy spectrum disorder (ANSD) is a retrocochlear disorder in which the cochlear functioning is normal but the transmission in the auditory neural pathway is affected. The present study reports of a 14-year-old teenager with acquired ANSD after an attack of chikungunya. He reported symptoms of difficulty in underst-ing speech, tinnitus - vertigo when exposed to loud sounds. The audiological characteristics suggested auditory neuropathy spectrum disorder with raising audiogram configuration. The results of tinnitus evaluation showed low-pitched tinnitus - it was persistent causing significant h-icap to him based on self report tinnitus h-icap questionnaire results. The results of depression, anxiety - stress scale also suggested symptoms of mild depression - anxiety. Chikungunya virus is suspected to be neurotropic in nature which can damage auditory nerve cells - may have caused ANSD. The result also shows presence of tullio's phenomenon - absence of cervical vestibular evoked myogenic potentials suggesting damage to the vestibular neuronal system. The possible pathophysiology of chikungunya virus causing ANSD - vestibular symptoms needs to be explored further in future studies.

111) Zika virus associated with microcephaly.
Autor: Mlakar Jernej,Korva Misa,Tul Nataša,Popovi? Mara,Poljšak-Prijatelj Mateja,Mraz Jerica,Kolenc Marko,Resman Rus Katarina,Vesnaver Vipotnik Tina,Fabjan Vodušek Vesna,Vizjak Alenka,Pižem Jože,Petrovec Miroslav,Avši? Županc Tatjana
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Cytopathology ; Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Genome ; Zika virus - Pathogenesis ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Inflammation ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - RT-PCR ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Immunology ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: The New England Journal of Medicine, v. 374, n. 10, p. 951-958, 2016
ISSN: 1533-4406
Resumo: A widespread epidemic of Zika virus (ZIKV) infection was reported in 2015 in South and Central America and the Caribbean. A major concern associated with this infection is the apparent increased incidence of microcephaly in fetuses born to mothers infected with ZIKV. In this report, we describe the case of an expectant mother who had a febrile illness with rash at the end of the first trimester of pregnancy while she was living in Brazil. Ultrasonography performed at 29 weeks of gestation revealed microcephaly with calcifications in the fetal brain and placenta. After the mother requested termination of the pregnancy, a fetal autopsy was performed. Micrencephaly (an abnormally small brain) was observed, with almost complete agyria, hydrocephalus, and multifocal dystrophic calcifications in the cortex and subcortical white matter, with associated cortical displacement and mild focal inflammation. ZIKV was found in the fetal brain tissue on reverse-transcriptase-polymerase-chain-reaction (RT-PCR) assay, with consistent findings on electron microscopy. The complete genome of ZIKV was recovered from the fetal brain.

112) Detection of persistent Chikungunya virus RNA but not infectious virus in experimental vertical transmission in Aedes aegypti from Malaysia
Autor: Wong Hui Vern, Vythilingam Indra, Sulaiman Wan Yusof Wan, Lulla Aleksei, Merits Andres, Chan Yoke Fun, Sam I-Ching
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Cell ; Chikungunya virus - RNA ; Chikungunya virus - PCR detection ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Transmission
Fonte: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, v. 94, n. 1, p. 182-186, 2016
ISSN: 1476-1645
Resumo: Vertical transmission may contribute to the maintenance of arthropod-borne viruses, but its existence in chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is unclear. Experimental vertical transmission of infectious clones of CHIKV in Aedes aegypti mosquitoes from Malaysia was investigated. Eggs - adult progeny from the second gonotrophic cycles of infected parental mosquitoes were tested. Using polymerase chain reaction (PCR), 56.3% of pooled eggs - 10% of adult progeny had detectable CHIKV RNA, but no samples had detectable infectious virus by plaque assay. Transfected CHIKV RNA from PCR-positive eggs did not yield infectious virus in BHK-21 cells. Thus, vertical transmission of viable CHIKV was not demonstrated. Noninfectious CHIKV RNA persists in eggs - progeny of infected Ae. aegypti, but the mechanism - significance are unknown. There is insufficient evidence to conclude that vertical transmission exists in CHIKV, as positive results reported in previous studies were almost exclusively based only on viral RNA detection.

113) Maintaining a safe blood suply in an era of emerging pathogens
Autor: Marks Peter W, Epstein Jay S, Borio Luciana
Assunto: Blood safety; Donor screening tests; Emerging pathogens; Pathogen-reduction; Zika virus
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Infectious diseases ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Dengue ; Chikungunya virus - Public health
Fonte: The Journal of Infectious Diseases, v. 213, n. 11, p. 1676-1677, 2016
ISSN: 1537-6613
Resumo: Coming shortly after outbreaks of dengue - chikungunya virus in related locations, the recent outbreak of Zika virus in the southern part of the Western Hemisphere is yet another reminder that infectious pathogens continue to emerge rapidly - can adversely impact the public health, including the safety of the blood suply. In response to Zika virus, public health measures that rely largely on donor deferral - sourcing of blood from non-outbreak areas until a blood donor screening test becomes available have been implemented to address the safety of the blood suply in the United States. However, a more universal approach to assuring blood safety in the setting of rapidly emerging infectious diseases is needed.

114) Establishment of a novel primary human skeletal myoblast cellular model for Chikungunya virus infection and pathogenesis
Autor: Hussain Khairunnisa' Mohamed, Lee Regina Ching Hua, Ng Mary Mah-Lee, Chu Justin Jang Hann
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Arbovirus ; Chikungunya virus - Biosynthesis ; Chikungunya virus - Cell ; Chikungunya virus - Genome ; Chikungunya virus - Pathogenesis ; Chikungunya virus - RNA ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Immunology
Fonte: Scientific Reports, v. 6, p. 21406, 2016
ISSN: 2045-2322
Resumo: Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a re-emerging arbovirus known to cause chronic myalgia - arthralgia - is now considered endemic in countries across Asia - Africa. The tissue tropism of CHIKV infection in humans remains, however, ill-defined. Due to the fact that myositis is commonly observed in most patients infected with CHIKV, we sought to develop a clinically relevant cellular model to better underst- the pathogenesis of CHIKV infection. In this study, primary human skeletal muscle myoblasts (HSMM) were established as a novel human primary cell line that is highly permissive to CHIKV infection, with maximal amounts of infectious virions observed at 16 hours post infection. Genome-wide microarray profiling analyses were subsequently performed to identify - map genes that are differentially expressed upon CHIKV infection. Infection of HSMM cells with CHIKV resulted in altered expressions of host genes involved in skeletal- - muscular-associated disorders, innate immune responses, cellular growth - death, host metabolism - virus replication. Together, this study has shown the establishment of a clinically relevant primary human cell model that paves the way for the further analysis of host factors - their involvement in the various stages of CHIKV replication cycle - viral pathogenesis.

115) The reemergence of Zika virus: a review on pathogenesis, clinical manifestations, diagnosis, and treatment.
Autor: Shuaib Waqas,Stanazai Hashim,Abazid Ahmad G,Mattar Ahmed A
Assunto: Brazil, Chikungunya, Dengue, Microcephaly, Zika
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Pathogenesis ; Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Chikungunya Fever ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: The American Journal of Medicine, 2016
ISSN: 1555-7162
Resumo: Zika virus (ZKV) is an arbovirus of the Flaviviridae family, which includes West Nile, Dengue Fever, Chikungunya Virus, Yellow Fever, and Japanese encephalitis virus. It is transmitted by the Aedes genus of mosquitoes. Prior to 2015, ZKV outbreaks occurred in areas of Africa, the Pacific Islands and Southeast Asia. The current large outbreak, which began in Brazil, has also emerged throughout a large part of South/Central America, a number of islands in the Caribbean, including Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, and Mexico. A sudden rise in the numbers of infants reported born with microcephaly in Brazil, and the detection of the single-stranded positive RNA virus in the amniotic fluid of affected newborns, has captured medical, mainstream media, and global political attention, causing considerable concern in a post-Ebola global community considerably more focused on the threat of internationally transmissible diseases. The goal of this article is to provide an overview of ZKV for clinicians, with the emphasis on pathogenesis, clinical manifestations, diagnosis, and treatment/preventive measures.

116) Clinical evaluation of a single-reaction real-time RT-PCR for pan-dengue and chikungunya virus detection
Autor: Waggoner Jesse J, Ballesteros Gabriela, Gresh Lionel, Mohamed-Hadley Alisha, Tellez Yolanda, Sahoo Malaya K, Abeynayake Janaki, Balmaseda Angel, Harris Eva, Pinsky Benjamin A
Assunto: Chikungunya virus; Dengue virus; Molecular diagnostics; Multiplex real-time RT-PCR
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Cytopathology ; Chikungunya virus - Genome ; Chikungunya virus - Infectious diseases ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya virus - PCR detection ; Chikungunya virus - Real Time PCR ; Chikungunya virus - RT-PCR ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Dengue ; Chikungunya virus - Public health
Fonte: Journal of Clinical Virology, v. 78, p. 57-61, 2016
ISSN: 1873-5967
Resumo: Dengue virus (DENV) - chikungunya virus (CHIKV) now co-circulate throughout tropical regions of the world, with billions of people living at risk of infection. The differentiation of these infections is important for epidemiologic surveillance as well as clinical care, though widely-used molecular diagnostics for DENV - CHIKV require the performance of two to four separate PCR reactions for detection. In the current study, we sought to develop - evaluate a single-reaction, multiplex real-time RT-PCR (rRT-PCR) for the detection - differentiation of DENV - CHIKV (the pan-DENV-CHIKV rRT-PCR). From an alignment of all available CHIKV complete genome sequences in GenBank, a new CHIKV rRT-PCR was designed for use in multiplex with a previously described assay for pan-DENV detection. Analytical evaluation was performed in accordance with published recommendations, - the pan-DENV-CHIKV rRT-PCR was clinically compared to reference molecular diagnostics for DENV - CHIKV using 182 serum samples from suspected cases in Managua, Nicaragua. The pan-DENV-CHIKV rRT-PCR had a dynamic range extending from 7.0 to 2.0 log10copies/?L for each DENV serotype - CHIKV, - the lower limits of 95% detection were 7.9-37.4copies/?L. The pan-DENV-CHIKV rRT-PCR detected DENV in 81 patients compared to 75 using a reference, hemi-nested DENV RT-PCR, - it demonstrated perfect agreement with a reference CHIKV rRT-PCR (54 positive samples). The single-reaction, multiplex format of the pan-DENV-CHIKV rRT-PCR, combined with sensitive detection of both viruses, has the potential to improve detection while decreasing testing costs - streamlining molecular workflow.

117) Inactivation of Zika virus in plasma with amotosalen and ultraviolet A illumination
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Aubry M., Richard V., Green J., Broult J., Musso D.
Assunto: Arbovirus, ultraviolet A radiation, virus inactivation, Zika virus
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Cell ; Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Dengue
Fonte: Transfusion, v. 56, n. 1, p. 33-40, jan. 2016
ISSN: 1537-2995 (electronic),0041-1132
Resumo: BACKGROUND Zika virus (ZIKV) is an arthropod-borne virus (arbovirus) transmitted by mosquitoes. The potential for ZIKV transmission through blood transfusion was demonstrated during the ZIKV outbreak that occurred in French Polynesia from October 2013 to April 2014. Pathogen inactivation of blood products is a proactive strategy that provides the potential to reduce transfusion-transmitted diseases. Inactivation of arboviruses by amotosalen and ultraviolet A (UVA) illumination was previously demonstrated for chikungunya, West Nile, and dengue viruses. We report here the efficiency of this process for ZIKV inactivation of human plasma. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS Plasma units were spiked with ZIKV. Viral titers and RNA loads were measured in plasma before and after amotosalen and UVA photochemical treatment. RESULTS The mean ZIKV titers and RNA loads in plasma before inactivation were respectively 6.57 log TCID(50)/mL and 10.25 log copies/mL. After inactivation, the mean ZIKV RNA loads was 9.51 log copies/mL, but cell cultures inoculated with inactivated plasma did not result in infected cells and did not produce any replicative virus after one passage, nor detectable viral RNA from the second passage. CONCLUSION In this study we demonstrate that amotosalen combined with UVA light inactivates ZIKV in fresh-frozen plasma. This inactivation process is of particular interest to prevent plasma transfusion-transmitted ZIKV infections in areas such as French Polynesia, where several arboviruses are cocirculating.

118) Outbreak of Zika virus disease in the Americas and the association with microcephaly, congenital malformations and Guillain-Barré syndrome.
Autor: Ladhani Shamez N.; O'Connor Catherine; Kirkbride Hilary; Brooks Tim.; Morgan Dilys
Assunto: Brazil, Guillain-Barre syndrome, Zika virus, microcephaly, trave
Descritores: Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Infectious diseases ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Viral infections ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Virus ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Microcephaly ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Public health
Fonte: Archives of Disease in Childhood, 2016
ISSN: 1468-2044
Resumo:

119) Zika virus infection in pregnant women in Rio de Janeiro - preliminary report.
Autor: Brasil Patrícia,Pereira Jose P,Raja Gabaglia Claudia,Damasceno Luana,Wakimoto Mayumi,Ribeiro Nogueira Rita M,Carvalho de Sequeira Patrícia,Machado Siqueira André,Abreu de Carvalho Liege M,Cotrim da Cunha Denise,Calvet Guilherme A,Neves Elizabeth S,Moreira Maria E,Rodrigues Baião Ana E,Nassar de Carvalho Paulo R,Janzen Carla,Valderramos Stephanie G,Cherry James D,Bispo de Filippis Ana M,Nielsen-Saines Karin
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - RT-PCR ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Rash maculopapular ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: The New England Journal of Medicine, 2016
ISSN: 1533-4406
Resumo: Background Zika virus (ZIKV) has been linked to neonatal microcephaly. To characterize the spectrum of ZIKV disease in pregnancy, we followed patients in Rio de Janeiro to describe clinical manifestations in mothers and repercussions of acute ZIKV infection in fetuses. Methods We enrolled pregnant women in whom a rash had developed within the previous 5 days and tested blood and urine specimens for ZIKV by reverse-transcriptase-polymerase-chain-reaction assays. We followed the women prospectively and collected clinical and ultrasonographic data. Results A total of 88 women were enrolled from September 2015 through February 2016; of these 88 women, 72 (82%) tested positive for ZIKV in blood, urine, or both. The timing of acute ZIKV infection ranged from 5 to 38 weeks of gestation. Predominant clinical features included pruritic descending macular or maculopapular rash, arthralgias, conjunctival injection, and headache; 28% had fever (short-term and low-grade). Women who were positive for ZIKV were more likely than those who were negative for the virus to have maculopapular rash (44% vs. 12%, P=0.02), conjunctival involvement (58% vs. 13%, P=0.002), and lymphadenopathy (40% vs. 7%, P=0.02). Fetal ultrasonography was performed in 42 ZIKV-positive women (58%) and in all ZIKV-negative women. Fetal abnormalities were detected by Doppler ultrasonography in 12 of the 42 ZIKV-positive women (29%) and in none of the 16 ZIKV-negative women. Adverse findings included fetal deaths at 36 and 38 weeks of gestation (2 fetuses), in utero growth restriction with or without microcephaly (5 fetuses), ventricular calcifications or other central nervous system (CNS) lesions (7 fetuses), and abnormal amniotic fluid volume or cerebral or umbilical artery flow (7 fetuses). To date, 8 of the 42 women in whom fetal ultrasonography was performed have delivered their babies, and the ultrasonographic findings have been confirmed. Conclusions Despite mild clinical symptoms, ZIKV infection during pregnancy appears to be associated with grave outcomes, including fetal death, placental insufficiency, fetal growth restriction, and CNS injury.

120) Zika virus in the Americas: early epidemiological and genetic findings
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Faria, Nuno Rodrigues; Azevedo, Raimunda do Socorro da Silva; Kraemer, Moritz U G; Souza, Renato; Cunha, Mariana Sequetin; Hill, Sarah C; Thézé, Julien; Bonsall, Michael B; Bowden, Thomas A; Rissanen, Ilona; Rocco, Iray Maria; Nogueira, Juliana Silva; Maeda, Adriana Yurika; Vasami, Fernanda Giseli da Silva; Macedo, Fernando Luiz de Lima; Suzuki, Akemi; Rodrigues, Sueli Guerreiro; Cruz, Ana Cecilia Ribeiro; Nunes, Bruno Tardeli; Medeiro,s Daniele Barbosa de Almeida; Rodrigues, Daniela Sueli Guerreiro; Nunes Queiroz, Alice Louize; Silva, Eliana Vieira Pinto da; Henriques, Daniele Freitas; Travassos da Rosa, Elisabeth Salbe; de Oliveira, Consuelo Silva; Martins, Livia Caricio; Vasconcelos, Helena Baldez; Casseb, Livia Medeiros Neves; Simith, Darlene de Brito; Messina, Jane P; Abade, Leandro; Lourenço, José; Alcantara, Luiz Carlos Junior; Lima, Maricélia Maia de; Giovanetti, Marta; Hay, Simon I; de Oliveira, Rodrigo Santos; Lemos, Poliana da Silva; Oliveira, Layanna Freitas de; de Lima, Clayton Pereira Silva; da Silva, Sandro Patroca; Vasconcelos, Janaina Mota de; Franco, Luciano; Cardoso, Jedson Ferreira; Vianez-Júnior, João Lídio da Silva Gonçalves; Mir, Daiana; Bello, Gonzalo; Delatorre, Edson; Khan, Kamran; Creatore, Marisa; Coelho, Giovanini Evelim; de Oliveira, Wanderson Kleber; Tesh, Robert; Pybus, Oliver G; Nunes, Marcio R T; Vasconcelos, Pedro F C
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika Virus - Cytopathology ; Zika Virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika Virus - Viral infections ; Zika Virus - RNA virus ; Zika Virus - Epidemic ; Zika Virus - Epidemiology ; Zika Virus - Microcephaly ; Zika Virus - Public health
Fonte: Science, v. 352, n. 6283, p. 345-349, 2016.
ISSN: 1095-9203
Resumo: Brazil has experienced an unprecedented epidemic of Zika virus (ZIKV), with ~30,000 cases reported to date. ZIKV was first detected in Brazil in May 2015 and cases of microcephaly potentially associated with ZIKV infection were identified in November 2015. Using next generation sequencing we generated seven Brazilian ZIKV genomes, sampled from four self-limited cases, one blood donor, one fatal adult case, and one newborn with microcephaly and congenital malformations. Phylogenetic and molecular clock analyses show a single introduction of ZIKV into the Americas, estimated to have occurred between May-Dec 2013, more than 12 months prior to the detection of ZIKV in Brazil. The estimated date of origin coincides with an increase in air passengers to Brazil from ZIKV endemic areas, and with reported outbreaks in Pacific Islands. ZIKV genomes from Brazil are phylogenetically interspersed with those from other South American and Caribbean countries. Mapping mutations onto existing structural models revealed the context of viral amino acid changes present in the outbreak lineage; however no shared amino acid changes were found among the three currently available virus genomes from microcephaly cases. Municipality-level incidence data indicate that reports of suspected microcephaly in Brazil best correlate with ZIKV incidence around week 17 of pregnancy, although this does not demonstrate causation. Our genetic description and analysis of ZIKV isolates in Brazil provide a baseline for future studies of the evolution and molecular epidemiology in the Americas of this emerging virus.

121) WHO reveals its shopping list for weapons against Zika.
Autor: Maurice John
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus – Flaviviridae ; Zika virus – Pathogenesis ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - RNA vírus ; Zika virus – Transmission ; Zika virus – Vaccine ; Zika virus – Epidemiology ; Zika virus – Immunology ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Lancet, v. 387, n. 10020, p. 733, 2016
ISSN: 1474-547X
Resumo: 0

122) Chikungunya virus-associated encephalitis: a cohort study on La Réunion Island, 2005-2009
Autor: Gérardin Patrick, Couderc Thérèse, Bintner Marc, Tournebize Patrice, Renouil Michel, Lémant Jérome, Boisson Véronique, Borgherini Gianandrea, Staikowsky Frédérik, Schramm Frédéric, Lecuit Marc, Michault Alain
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Antibodies ; Chikungunya virus - Infectious diseases ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus
Fonte: Neurology, v. 86, n. 1, p. 94-102, 2016
ISSN: 1526-632X
Resumo: To estimate the cumulative incidence rate (CIR) of Chikungunya virus (CHIKV)-associated CNS disease during the La Réunion outbreak, - assess the disease burden - patient outcome after 3 years. CHIKV-associated CNS disease was characterized retrospectively in a cohort of patients with positive CHIKV reverse transcriptase PCR or anti-CHIKV immunoglobulin M antibodies in the CSF - fulfilling International Encephalitis Consortium criteria for encephalitis or encephalopathy. Neurologic sequelae were assessed after 3 years. Between September 2005 - June 2006, 57 patients were diagnosed with CHIKV-associated CNS disease, including 24 with CHIKV-associated encephalitis, the latter corresponding to a CIR of 8.6 per 100,000 persons. Patients with encephalitis were observed at both extremes of age categories. CIR per 100,000 persons were 187 - 37 in patients below 1 year - over 65 years, respectively, both far superior to those of cumulated causes of encephalitis in the United States in these age categories. The case-fatality rate of CHIKV-associated encephalitis was 16.6% - the proportion of children discharged with persistent disabilities estimated between 30% - 45%. Beyond the neonatal period, the clinical presentation - outcomes were less severe in infants than in adults. In the context of a large outbreak, CHIKV is a significant cause of CNS disease. As with other etiologies, CHIKV-associated encephalitis case distribution by age follows a U-shaped parabolic curve.

123) Update: Interim Guidelines for Health Care Providers Caring for Infants and Children with Possible Zika Virus Infection - United States, February 2016.
Autor: Fleming-Dutra Katherine E,Nelson Jennifer M,Fischer Marc,Staples J Erin,Karwowski Mateusz P,Mead Paul,Villanueva Julie,Renquist Christina M,Minta Anna A,Jamieson Denise J,Honein Margaret A,Moore Cynthia A,Rasmussen Sonja A
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Clinical examination ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Head circumference ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, v. 65, n. 7, p. 182-187, 2016
ISSN: 1545-861X
Resumo: CDC has updated its interim guidelines for U.S. health care providers caring for infants born to mothers who traveled to or resided in areas with Zika virus transmission during pregnancy and expanded guidelines to include infants and children with possible acute Zika virus disease (1). This update contains a new recommendation for routine care for infants born to mothers who traveled to or resided in areas with Zika virus transmission during pregnancy but did not receive Zika virus testing, when the infant has a normal head circumference, normal prenatal and postnatal ultrasounds (if performed), and normal physical examination. Acute Zika virus disease should be suspected in an infant or child aged <18 years who 1) traveled to or resided in an affected area within the past 2 weeks and 2) has ?2 of the following manifestations: fever, rash, conjunctivitis, or arthralgia. Because maternal-infant transmission of Zika virus during delivery is possible, acute Zika virus disease should also be suspected in an infant during the first 2 weeks of life 1) whose mother traveled to or resided in an affected area within 2 weeks of delivery and 2) who has ?2 of the following manifestations: fever, rash, conjunctivitis, or arthralgia. Evidence suggests that Zika virus illness in children is usually mild (2). As an arboviral disease, Zika virus disease is nationally notifiable. Health care providers should report suspected cases of Zika virus disease to their local, state, or territorial health departments to arrange testing and so that action can be taken to reduce the risk for local Zika virus transmission. As new information becomes available, these guidelines will be updated: http://www.cdc.gov/zika/.

124) Arboviruses and apoptosis: the role of cell death in determining vector competence
Autor: Clem Rollie J
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Arbovirus ; Chikungunya virus - Cell ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever ; Chikungunya virus - Dengue
Fonte: The Journal of General Virology, v. 97, n. 5, p. 1033-1036, 2016
ISSN: 1465-2099
Resumo: A relatively small number of mosquito species transmit arboviruses such as dengue, yellow fever, chikungunya - West Nile viruses to hundreds of millions of people each year, yet we still lack a thorough underst-ing of the molecular factors that determine vector competence. Apoptosis has been shown to be an important factor in determining the outcome of virus infection for many viruses. However, until recently, it was not clear whether apoptosis plays a role in determining the outcome of arbovirus infections in mosquitoes. Recent work has begun to shed light on the roles of apoptosis in this important process.

125) Zika virus infections in three travellers returning from South America and the Caribbean respectively, to Montpellier, France, December 2015 to January 2016
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Maria A.T., Maquart M., Makinson A., Flusin O., Segondy M., Leparc-Goffart I., Le Moing V., Foulongne V.
Assunto: Flavivirus infection (diagnosis), travel, zika virus infection (diagnosis)
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Serology ; Zika virus - Serological diagnosis ; Zika virus - Chikungunya Fever ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Rash maculopapular ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Eurosurveillance, v. 21, n. 6, feb. 2016
ISSN: 1560-7917 (electronic),1025-496X
Resumo: We report three unrelated cases of Zika virus infection in patients returning from Martinique, Brazil and Colombia respectively, to Montpellier, France. They developed symptoms compatible with a mosquito- borne disease, and serological and molecular investigations indicated a recent Zika virus infection. Considering the recent warning for the likely teratogenicity of Zika virus and the presence of competent mosquito vectors in southern France, these cases highlight the need for awareness of physicians and laboratories in Europe.

126) Lineamientos técnicos para la prevención, diagnóstico y tratamiento de la infección por virus Zika
Titulo Alternativo: Technical guidelines for the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of Zika virus infection
Autor: Barrera-Cruz, Antonio; Díaz-Ramos, Rita Delia; López-Morales, Ana Belem; Grajales-Muñiz, Concepción; Viniegra-Osorio, Arturo; Zaldívar-Cervera, Jaime Antonio; Arriaga-Dávila, José Jesús
Assunto: Arbovirus infections; Arboviruses; Communicable disease control; Epidemiology; Virus diseases
Descritores: Zika Virus - Arbovirus ; Zika Virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika Virus - Viral infections ; Zika Virus - RNA virus ; Zika Virus - Vaccine ; Zika Virus - Epidemiology ; Zika Virus - Rash maculopapular ; Zika Virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Revista Médica del Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social, v. 54, n. 2, p. 211-224, 2016.
ISSN: 0443-5117
Resumo: Infection Zika virus is an emerging disease in the Americas region, which is caused by Zika virus (ZIKV), an arbovirus of the flavivirus genus. The ZIKV is transmitted by the bite of Aedes mosquitoes, both in urban and jungle area. After the mosquito bite, the disease symptoms usually appear after an incubation period of three to twelve days. The infection may be asymptomatic or presented with fever and not purulent conjunctivitis, headache, myalgia, arthralgia, asthenia, maculopapular rash, edema in lower limbs and, less frequently, retro-orbital pain, anorexia, vomiting, diarrhea or pain abdominal. Symptoms last for 4-7 days and are self-limiting. Neurological and autoimmune complications are rare. Since 2014 it has been detected native circulation of Zika virus in the Americas. So far, there is no specific antiviral treatment or effective vaccine, so it´s giving priority symptomatic and supportive treatment for the acute phase and make an early diagnosis of atypical and severe forms.

127) Larvicidal and pupicidal activities of alizarin isolated from roots of rubia cordifolia against culex quinquefasciatus say and Aedes aegypti (L.) (Diptera: Culicidae)
Autor: Gandhi M R, Reegan A D, Ganesan P, Sivasankaran K, Paulraj M G, Balakrishna K, Ignacimuthu S, Al-Dhabi N A
Assunto: Bioassay; Zika virus; Chikungunya; Dengue; Lymphatic filariasis; Mosquito control; Sustainable pest control; Vector control
Descritores: Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Larvicide ; Chikungunya virus - Dengue
Fonte: Neotropical Entomology, v. 45, n. 4, p. 441-448, 2016
ISSN: 1678-8052
Resumo: The mosquitocidal activities of different fractions - a compound alizarin from the methanol extract of Rubia cordifolia roots were evaluated on larvae - pupae of Culex quinquefasciatus Say - Aedes aegypti (L.) (Diptera: Culicidae). Larvae - pupae were exposed to concentrations of 2.5, 5.0, 7.5 - 10 ppm for fractions - 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 - 2.0 ppm for compound. After 24 h, the mortality was assessed - the LC50 - LC90 values were estimated for larvae - pupae. Among the 23 fractions screened, fraction 2 from the methanol extract of R. cordifolia showed good mosquitocidal activity against C. quinquefasciatus - A. aegypti. LC50 - LC90 values of fraction 2 were 3.53 - 7.26 ppm for C. quinquefasciatus - 3.86 - 8.28 ppm for A. aegypti larvae, - 3.76 - 7.50 ppm for C. quinquefasciatus - 3.92 - 8.05 ppm for A. aegypti pupae, respectively. Further, the isolated compound alizarin presented good larvicidal - pupicidal activities. LC50 - LC90 values of alizarin for larvae were 0.81 - 3.86 ppm against C. quinquefasciatus - 1.31 - 6.04 ppm for A. aegypti larvae, respectively. Similarly, the LC50 - LC90 values of alizarin for pupae were 1.97 - 4.79 ppm for C. quinquefasciatus - 2.05 - 5.59 ppm for A. aegypti pupae, respectively. The structure of the isolated compound was identified on the basis of spectroscopic analysis - compared with reported spectral data. The results indicated that alizarin could be used as a potential larvicide - pupicide.

128) Chikungunya fever in Japan imported from the Caribbean Islands
Autor: Imai Kazuo, Nakayama Eri, Maeda Takuya, Mikita Kei, Kobayashi Yukiko, Mitarai Aoi, Honma Yasuko, Miyake Satoru, Kaku Koki, Miyahira Yasushi, Kawana Akihiko
Assunto: Chikungunya virus; Caribbean; Japan; Chikungunya fever
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Antibodies ; Chikungunya virus - Infectious diseases ; Chikungunya virus - Serology ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya virus - Serology ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever
Fonte: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases, v. 69, n. 2, p. 151-153, 2016
ISSN: 1884-2836
Resumo: A 53-year-old Japanese woman who was working as a volunteer in the Commonwealth of Dominica in the Caribbean isl-s presented with a high-grade fever - severe incapacitating generalized arthralgia. The Asian genotype of the chikungunya virus was confirmed using reverse transcription-PCR - serology, based on the presence of a specific neutralization titer - immunoglobulin M antibodies. She was diagnosed with post-chikungunya chronic arthritis based on persistence of her polyarthritis for 3 months - the presence of rheumatoid factor, immunoglobulin G-rheumatoid factor, - matrix metalloproteinase-3. Chikungunya virus should be considered as a causative pathogen in travelers returning from Caribbean isl-s. Clinicians should consider chikungunya fever in the differential diagnosis of patients who complain of chronic arthritis - have a history of travel to an endemic area.

129) Zika virus infection in a traveller returning from the Maldives, June 2015
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Korhonen E.M., Huhtamo E., Smura T., Kallio-Kokko H., Raassina M., Vapalahti O.
Assunto: virus infection (diagnosis), zika virus infection (diagnosis)
Descritores: Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Phylogenesis ; Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - Antibodies ; Zika virus - Immunology ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - RT-PCR ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Immunology ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Eurosurveillance, v. 21, n. 2, jan. 2016
ISSN: 1560-7917 (electronic),1025-496X
Resumo: We report a Zika virus (ZIKV) infection in a patient with fever and rash after returning to Finland from Maldives, June 2015. The patient had dengue virus (DENV) IgG and IgM antibodies but pan-flavivirus RT-PCR and subsequent sequencing showed presence of ZIKV RNA in urine. Recent association of ZIKV with microcephaly highlights the need for laboratory differentiation of ZIKV from DENV infection and the circulation of ZIKV in areas outside its currently known distribution range.

130) Isolation of infectious zika virus from saliva and prolonged viral RNA shedding in a traveller returning from the Dominican Republic to Italy, January 2016
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Barzon, Luisa; Pacenti, Monia; Berto, Alessandro; Sinigaglia, Alessandro; Franchin, Elisa; Lavezzo, Enrico; Brugnaro, Pierluigi; Palù, Giorgio
Assunto: Zika virus; Diagnosis; Genome sequencing; Saliva; Transmission; Virus isolation
Descritores: Zika Virus - Cell ; Zika Virus - Genome ; Zika Virus - RNA ; Zika Virus - RNA virus ; Zika Virus - Molecular screening ; Zika Virus - Transmission
Fonte: Eurosurveillance, v. 21, n. 10, 2016.
ISSN: 1560-7917
Resumo: We report the isolation of infectious Zika virus (ZIKV) in cell culture from the saliva of a patient who developed a febrile illness after returning from the Dominican Republic to Italy, in January 2016. The patient had prolonged shedding of viral RNA in saliva and urine, at higher load than in blood, for up to 29 days after symptom onset. Sequencing of ZIKV genome showed relatedness with strains from Latin America.

131) Study of viremic profile in febrile specimens of chikungunya in Bandung, Indonesia
Autor: Riswari S F, Ma'roef C N, Djauhari H, Kosasih H, Perkasa A, Yudhaputri F A, Artika I M, Williams M, van der Ven A, Myint K S, Alisjahbana B, Ledermann J P, Powers A M, Jaya U A
Assunto: Chikungunya; Indonesia; Infection kinetics; Viremia profile
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Cell ; Chikungunya virus - RNA ; Chikungunya virus - Infectious diseases ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya virus - RT-PCR ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Transmission ; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever ; Chikungunya virus - Dengue ; Chikungunya virus - Public health
Fonte: Journal of Clinical Virology, v. 74, p. 61-65, 2016
ISSN: 1873-5967
Resumo: Data regarding the viremia profile of chikungunya virus (CHIKV) infected patients especially during the pre-febrile period is limited. To obtain virological kinetic data on CHIKV infections. A two-week community observation for dengue transmission was conducted in B-ung, Indonesia, from 2005 to 2009. Acute specimens from non-dengue febrile patients were screened by pan-alphavirus conventional RT-PCR. The positives were confirmed for CHIKV RNA by a specific RT-PCR followed by sequencing. Simultaneously these specimens were also cultured in Vero cells - tested for anti-CHIK IgM MAC-ELISA. All the available serial specimens,including the pre-febrile specimens, from confirmed CHIK cases, were tested by virus isolation, RT-PCR, qRT-PCR, - CHIK IgM ELISA. There were five laboratory confirmed CHIK cases identified - studied. Among these, viremia was determined to extend from as early as 6 days prior to until 13 days post fever onset. Quantitative RT-PCR showed viremia peaked at or near onset of illness. In this study, individuals were identified with viremia prior to fever onset - extending beyond the febrile phase. This extended viremic phase has the potential to impact transmission dynamics - thus the public health response to CHIK outbreaks.

132) Differential susceptibilities of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus from the Americas to zika virus
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Chouin-Carneiro, Thais; Vega-Rua, Anubis; Vazeille, Marie; Yebakima, André; Girod, Romain; Goindin, Daniella; Dupont-Rouzeyrol, Myrielle; Lourenço-de-Oliveira, Ricardo; Failloux, Anna-Bella
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika Virus - Arbovirus ; Zika Virus - RNA virus ; Zika Virus - Transmission ; Zika Virus - Dengue
Fonte: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, 2016.
ISSN: 1935-2735
Resumo: Since the major outbreak in 2007 in the Yap Island, Zika virus (ZIKV) causing dengue-like syndromes has affected multiple islands of the South Pacific region. In May 2015, the virus was detected in Brazil and then spread through South and Central America. In December 2015, ZIKV was detected in French Guiana and Martinique. The aim of the study was to evaluate the vector competence of the mosquito spp. Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus from the Caribbean (Martinique, Guadeloupe), North America (southern United States), South America (Brazil, French Guiana) for the currently circulating Asian genotype of ZIKV isolated from a patient in April 2014 in New Caledonia. Mosquitoes were orally exposed to an Asian genotype of ZIKV (NC-2014-5132). Upon exposure, engorged mosquitoes were maintained at 28°±1°C, a 16h:8h light:dark cycle and 80% humidity. 25-30 mosquitoes were processed at 4, 7 and 14 days post-infection (dpi). Mosquito bodies (thorax and abdomen), heads and saliva were analyzed to measure infection, dissemination and transmission, respectively. High infection but lower disseminated infection and transmission rates were observed for both Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus. Ae. aegypti populations from Guadeloupe and French Guiana exhibited a higher dissemination of ZIKV than the other Ae. aegypti populations examined. Transmission of ZIKV was observed in both mosquito species at 14 dpi but at a low level. This study suggests that although susceptible to infection, Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus were unexpectedly low competent vectors for ZIKV. This may suggest that other factors such as the large naïve population for ZIKV and the high densities of human-biting mosquitoes contribute to the rapid spread of ZIKV during the current outbreak.

133) Immunological evidence of Zika virus transmission in Thailand
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Wikan N., Suputtamongkol Y., Yoksan S., Smith D.R., Auewarakul P.
Assunto: virus transmission
Descritores: Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Molecular methods ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Chikungunya Fever ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine, v. 9, n. 2, p. 141–144, feb. 2016
ISSN: 1995-7645
Resumo: Objective: To identify immunological evidence of Zika virus transmission in Thailand. Methods: To undertake a preliminary serosurvey of possible exposure to Zika virus, 21 serum samples from cohort of acute undifferentiated fever patients were examined for immunoreactivity to Zika, Dengue, Japanese encephalitis and Chikungunya envelope antigens by Western blot analysis. Results: Twenty of the 21 serum samples showed immunoreactivity to at least one of the antigens, with seven samples showing immunoreactivity to all antigens. Of particular note, two serum samples showed immunoreactivity only to Zika envelope antigen, with no immunoreactivity to other envelope antigens. Conclusions: This study presents the first evidence of Zika virus transmission in Thailand, although as yet the relationship between transmission and possible cases of Zika fever in Thailand requires further investigation.

134) Investigation into an outbreak of dengue-like illness in Pernambuco, Brazil, revealed a cocirculation of zika, chikungunya, and dengue virus type 1
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Pessôa, Rodrigo; Patriota, João Veras; Lourdes de Souza, Maria de; Felix, Alvina Clara; Mamede, Nubia; Sanabani, Sabri S.
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika Virus - Arbovirus ; Zika Virus - Cytopathology ; Zika Virus - RNA ; Zika Virus - Antibodies ; Zika Virus - Real Time PCR ; Zika Virus - RNA virus ; Zika Virus - Molecular screening ; Zika Virus - Dengue
Fonte: Medicine, v. 95, n. 12, 2016.
ISSN: 1536-5964
Resumo: In April 2015, an outbreak of dengue-like illness occurred in Tuparetama, a small city in the northeast region of Brazil; this outbreak was characterized by its fast expansion. An investigation was initiated to identify the viral etiologies and advise the health authorities on implementing control measures to contain the outbreak. This is the first report of this outbreak in the northeast, even though a few cases were documented earlier in a neighboring city.Plasma samples were obtained from 77 suspected dengue patients attending the main hospital in the city. Laboratory assays, such as real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, virus cDNA sequencing, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, were employed to identify the infecting virus and molecular phylogenetic analysis was performed to define the circulating viral genotypes.RNA of Zika virus (ZIKV) and Dengue virus (DENV) or IgM antibodies (Abs) to DENV or chikungunya (CHIKV) were detected in 40 of the 77 plasma samples (51.9%). DENV was found in 9 patients (11.7%), ZIKV was found in 31 patients (40.2%), CHIKV in 1 patient (1.3%), and coinfection of DENV and ZIKV was detected in 2 patients (2.6%). The phylogenetic analysis of 2 available partial DENV and 14 ZIKV sequences revealed the identities of genotype 1 and the Asiatic lineage, respectively.Consistent with recent reports from the same region, our results showed that the ongoing outbreak is caused by ZIKV, DENV, and CHIKV. This emphasizes the need for a routine and differential diagnosis of arboviruses in patients with dengue-like illness. Coordinated efforts are necessary to contain the outbreak. Continued surveillance will be important to assess the effectiveness of current and future prevention strategies.

135) Next generation sequencing of DNA-launched Chikungunya vaccine virus
Autor: Hidajat Rachmat, Nickols Brian, Forrester Naomi, Tretyakova Irina, Weaver Scott, Pushko Peter
Assunto: Alphavirus; CHIKV; Chikungunya fever; Chikungunya virus; DNA vaccine; Live attenuated vaccine
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Cytopathology ; Chikungunya virus - DNA ; Chikungunya virus - RNA ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Vaccine ; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever
Fonte: Virology, v. 490, p. 83-90, 2016
ISSN: 1096-0341
Resumo: Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) represents a p-emic threat with no approved vaccine available. Recently, we described a novel vaccination strategy based on iDNA® infectious clone designed to launch a live-attenuated CHIKV vaccine from plasmid DNA in vitro or in vivo. As a proof of concept, we prepared iDNA plasmid pCHIKV-7 encoding the full-length cDNA of the 181/25 vaccine. The DNA-launched CHIKV-7 virus was prepared - compared to the 181/25 virus. Illumina HiSeq2000 sequencing revealed that with the exception of the 3' untranslated region, CHIKV-7 viral RNA consistently showed a lower frequency of single-nucleotide polymorphisms than the 181/25 RNA including at the E2-12 - E2-82 residues previously identified as attenuating mutations. In the CHIKV-7, frequencies of reversions at E2-12 - E2-82 were 0.064% - 0.086%, while in the 181/25, frequencies were 0.179% - 0.133%, respectively. We conclude that the DNA-launched virus has a reduced probability of reversion mutations, thereby enhancing vaccine safety.

136) Association of Oligoadenylate Synthetase Gene Cluster and DC-SIGN (CD209) Gene Polymorphisms with Clinical Symptoms in Chikungunya Virus Infection
Autor: Chaaithanya Itta Krishna, Muruganandam Nagarajan, Surya Palani, Anwesh Maile, Alagarasu Kalichamy, Vijayachari Paluru
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Cell ; Chikungunya virus - DNA ; Chikungunya virus - Pathogenesis ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Dengue
Fonte: DNA and Cell Biology, v. 35, n. 1, p. 44-50, 2016
ISSN: 1557-7430
Resumo: Biology and pathogenesis of chikungunya virus (CHIKV) are not clearly established. Host factors play an important role in determining the progression - severity of the disease. Polymorphisms in the promoter region of CD209 gene (rs735239, rs4804803, rs2287886) - OAS1 (rs1131454 - rs10774671), OAS2 (rs15895 - rs1732778), - OAS3 (rs2285932 - rs2072136) genes were investigated in 100 patients with CHIKV infection - 101 healthy controls to find out the association of these polymorphisms with CHIKV infection. To evaluate the association of OAS - CD209 gene polymorphisms with the presence or absence of disease symptoms in CHIKV-infected patients. DNA was extracted - typed using polymerase chain reaction followed by restriction fragment length polymorphism methods. Results revealed that the allele - genotype frequencies of OAS1, OAS3, - OAS2 gene polymorphisms were not different between healthy controls - CHIKV patients. The frequency of CD209 gene G/G genotype of rs4804803 was significantly higher in CHIKV patients compared to healthy controls (p = 0.046). The present study suggests that rs4804803 GG genotype of CD209 gene is associated with susceptibility to CHIKV infection. To conclude, the present preliminary study suggests that OAS gene cluster - CD209 gene polymorphisms influence the risk of developing clinical symptoms in CHIKV-infected patients. Further follow-up studies with a large number of samples are needed to assess the role of these genes in association with post-sequela symptoms observed in CHIKV patients. A detailed research is required in these directions to underst- the biology behind CHIKV infection - disease severity.

137) Pseudotyping viral vectors with emerging virus envelope proteins
Autor: Steffen Imke, Simmons Graham
Assunto: Pseudotypes; Lentiviral vectors; Rhabdoviral vectors; Emerging viruses; Enveloped viruses; Serology; Drug screening
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Proteins ; Chikungunya virus - Serology ; Chikungunya virus - Serology ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus
Fonte: Current Gene Therapy, v. 16, n. 1, p. 47-55, 2016
ISSN: 1875-5631
Resumo: Previously unidentified viruses, such as Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus, continue to emerge - threaten populations, while powerful new techniques have identified many new human - animal viruses. Similarly, existing viruses, from Ebola virus to chikungunya virus, are reemerging - spreading to new geographical regions. These viruses often pose a challenge for researchers to study due to their highly pathogenic nature. Lentiviral - rhabdoviral pseudotypes are excellent tools for studying enveloped viruses - have contributed to many recent advances in areas such as receptor usage, viral entry - serology. In particular, pseudotypes allow the safe study of unknown or highly pathogenic viruses. They also allow the initial characterization of aspects of infection such as cellular tropism for difficult to culture viruses. In this review we will introduce various pseudotyping systems for emerging viruses, including chikungunya virus, Ebola virus, SARS - MERS coronaviruses - Nipah virus, as well as their use in diverse studies including drug screening - antibody neutralization. We will also discuss the limitations - potential caveats using pseudotypes.

138) Characterization of RyDEN (C19orf66) as an interferon-stimulated cellular inhibitor against Dengue Virus replication
Autor: Suzuki Youichi, Chin Wei-Xin, Han Qi'En, Ichiyama Koji, Lee Ching Hua, Eyo Zhi Wen, Ebina Hirotaka, Takahashi Hirotaka, Takahashi Chikako, Tan Beng Hui, Hishiki Takayuki, Ohba Kenji, Matsuyama Toshifumi, Koyanagi Yoshio, Tan Yee-Joo, Sawasaki Tatsuya, Chu Justin Jang Hann, Vasudevan Subhash G, Sano Kouichi, Yamamoto Naoki
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Cell ; Chikungunya virus - Immune response ; Chikungunya virus - Pathogenesis ; Chikungunya virus - Protein synthesis ; Chikungunya virus - Proteins ; Chikungunya virus - RNA ; Chikungunya virus - Immune response ; Chikungunya virus - Infectious diseases ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Vaccine ; Chikungunya virus - Dengue
Fonte: PLoS Pathogens, v. 12, n. 1, p. e1005357, 2016
ISSN: 1553-7374
Resumo: Dengue virus (DENV) is one of the most important arthropod-borne pathogens that cause life-threatening diseases in humans. However, no vaccine or specific antiviral is available for dengue. As seen in other RNA viruses, the innate immune system plays a key role in controlling DENV infection - disease outcome. Although the interferon (IFN) response, which is central to host protective immunity, has been reported to limit DENV replication, the molecular details of how DENV infection is modulated by IFN treatment are elusive. In this study, by employing a gain-of-function screen using a type I IFN-treated cell-derived cDNA library, we identified a previously uncharacterized gene, C19orf66, as an IFN-stimulated gene (ISG) that inhibits DENV replication, which we named Repressor of yield of DENV (RyDEN). Overexpression - gene knockdown experiments revealed that expression of RyDEN confers resistance to all serotypes of DENV in human cells. RyDEN expression also limited the replication of hepatitis C virus, Kunjin virus, Chikungunya virus, herpes simplex virus type 1, - human adenovirus. Importantly, RyDEN was considered to be a crucial effector molecule in the IFN-mediated anti-DENV response. When affinity purification-mass spectrometry analysis was performed, RyDEN was revealed to form a complex with cellular mRNA-binding proteins, poly(A)-binding protein cytoplasmic 1 (PABPC1), - La motif-related protein 1 (LARP1). Interestingly, PABPC1 - LARP1 were found to be positive modulators of DENV replication. Since RyDEN influenced intracellular events on DENV replication -, suppression of protein synthesis from DENV-based reporter construct RNA was also observed in RyDEN-expressing cells, our data suggest that RyDEN is likely to interfere with the translation of DENV via interaction with viral RNA - cellular mRNA-binding proteins, resulting in the inhibition of virus replication in infected cells.

139) A report on the outbreak of zika virus on Easter Island, South Pacific, 2014
Autor: Tognarelli, J.; Ulloa, S.; Villagra, E.; Lagos, J.; Aguayo, C.; Fasce, R.; Parra, B.; Mora, J.; Becerra, N.; Lagos, N.; Vera, L.; Olivares, B.; Vilches, M.; Fernandez, J.
Assunto: Easter Island; Outbreak; South Pacific; ZIKV; Zika virus
Descritores: Zika virus - RT-PCR ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Viral infections
Fonte: Archives of Virology, v. 161, n. 3, p. 665-668, 2016.
ISSN: 0304-8608
Resumo: Zika virus (ZIKV) is an emerging mosquito-borne flavivirus circulating in Asia and Africa. In 2013, a large outbreak was reported on the archipelago of French Polynesia. In this study, we report the detection and molecular characterization of Zika virus for the first time in Chile from an outbreak among the inhabitants of Easter Island. A total of 89 samples from patients suspected of having ZIKV infection were collected between the period from January to May, 2014. Molecular diagnosis of the virus was performed by RT-PCR followed by the sequencing of the region containing the NS5 gene. A comparison of the viral nucleic acid sequence with those of other strains of ZIKA virus was performed using the MEGA software. Fifty-one samples were found positive for ZIKV by RT-PCR analysis. Further analysis of the NS5 gene revealed that the ZIKV strains identified in Easter Island were most closely related to those found in French Polynesia (99.8 to 99.9 % nt and 100 % aa sequence identity). These results strongly suggest that the transmission pathway leading to the introduction of Zika virus on Easter Island has its origin in French Polynesia.

140) A survey of malaria and some arboviral infections among suspected febrile patients visiting a health centre in Simawa, Ogun State, Nigeria
Autor: Ayorinde Adenola F, Oyeyiga Ayorinde M, Nosegbe Nwakaego O, Folarin Onikepe A
Assunto: Chikungunya; Dengue; Febrile; Malaria; Plasmodium falciparum; Plasmodium vivax
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Antibodies ; Chikungunya virus - Infectious diseases ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever ; Chikungunya virus - Dengue ; Chikungunya virus - Public health
Fonte: Journal of Infection and Public Health, v. 9, n. 1, p. 52-59, 2016
ISSN: 1876-035X
Resumo: Most febrile patients are often misdiagnosed with malaria due to similar symptoms, such as fever shared by malaria - certain arboviral infections. This study surveyed the incidence of malaria, chikungunya - dengue infections among a number of suspected febrile patients visiting Simawa Health Centre, Ogun State, Nigeria. Venous blood samples were obtained from 60 febrile patients (age 3-70 years) visiting the centre between April - May 2014. The rapid diagnostic test (RDT) was used to detect the presence of chikungunya (CHK) antibodies (IgM), dengue (DEN) virus - antibodies (NS1, IgM - IgG) - malaria parasites (Plasmodium falciparum - Plasmodium vivax). Malarial confirmatory tests were by microscopy - nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using the polymorphic region of Glutamate-Rich Protein (GLURP) gene. The complexity of P. falciparum infection in the community also determined by the use of nested PCR. These three mosquito-borne infections were observed in 63% (38) of the patients. The prevalence of CHK, DEN - malarial infections singularly were 11%, 0% - 63%, respectively, whereas malaria with either CHK or DEN infections were 24% (9) - 3% (1), respectively. No subjects were positive for CHK - DEN co-infection. Malarial microscopic confirmation was in 94% (32) of the malaria RDT-positive samples, 50% (17) were successfully analysed by nested PCR - the mean multiplicity of infection was 1.6 (1-3 clones). One patient sample harboured both P. falciparum - P. vivax. The study reports the presence of some arboviral infections having similar symptoms with malaria at Simawa, Ogun State. The proper diagnosis of infectious diseases is important for controlling them.

141) Hemispherx Biopharma, Inc. has unveiled a voluntary pay for stock plan (the Plan).
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor:
Assunto: Biotechnology industry, Planning, Stock prices
Descritores: Zika virus - Cell ; Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Head size
Fonte: Biotech Financial Reports, v. 23, n. 3, 2016.
ISSN:
Resumo: In addition, the CEO/Chairman and President/CFO, will both voluntarily reduce their salaries further to a cumulative reduction of 50%. The plan goes in effect immediately. We are all excited for the opportunity to invest in Hemispherxs future, said Hemispherxs Chairman and CEO, Dr. William A. Carter, Our efforts will be redoubled in 2016 to make progress on all of our major goals. Foremost, in the major goal categories are: a) accelerating success in the recently initiated Expanded Access programs globally for both Ampligen (an experimental therapeutic) and Alferon N; b) achieving further regulatory progress with Ampligen as a potential biotherapeutic for Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS) treatment; c) advancing new clinical tests in cancer immunotherapy, including potential treatment of metastatic colon cancer wherein all standard of care therapies have faltered; and expanding research on the use of our experimental drug Ampligen and Alferon N as an early onset broad spectrum antivirals for diseases such as MERS, Ebola virus, Equine Encephalitis and, given the new pandemic threat, the Zika virus. Previous studies (preclinical) have shown that both Ampligen and interferon are active against the flavivirus family of viruses which includes the West Nile virus and Zika virus. About Hemispherx Biopharma Hemispherx Biopharma, Inc. is an advanced specialty pharmaceutical company engaged in the manufacture and clinical development of new drug entities for treatment of seriously debilitating disorders. Hemispherxs flagship products include Alferon N Injection and the experimental therapeutics Ampligen and Alferon LDO.

142) Zika virus: new clinical syndromes and its emergence in the Western Hemisphere
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Lazear, Helen M.; Diamond, Michael S.
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika Virus - Cytopathology ; Zika Virus - RNA virus ; Zika Virus - Vaccine ; Zika Virus - Dengue ; Zika Virus - Epidemiology ; Zika Virus - Immunology ; Zika Virus - Microcephaly ; Zika Virus - Public health
Fonte: Journal of Virology, v. 90, n. 10, p. 4864-4875, 2016.
ISSN: 1098-5514
Resumo: Zika virus (ZIKV) had remained a relatively obscure flavivirus until a recent series of outbreaks accompanied by unexpectedly severe clinical complications brought this virus into the spotlight as an infection of global public health concern. In this review, we discuss the history and epidemiology of ZIKV infection, recent outbreaks in Oceania and the emergence of ZIKV in the Western Hemisphere, newly ascribed complications of ZIKV infection including Guillain-Barré syndrome and microcephaly, potential interactions between ZIKV and dengue virus, and the prospects for the development of antiviral agents and vaccines.

143) Detection and sequencing of Zika virus from amniotic fluid of fetuses with microcephaly in Brazil: A case study
Autor: Calvet Guilherme, Aguiar Renato S, Melo Adriana S O, Sampaio Simone A, de Filippis Ivano, Fabri Allison, Araujo Eliane S M, de Sequeira Patricia C, de Mendonça Marcos C L, de Oliveira Louisi, Tschoeke Diogo A, Schrago Carlos G, Thompson Fabiano L, Brasil Patricia, Dos Santos Flavia B, Nogueira Rita M R, Tanuri Amilcar, de Filippis Ana M B
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Cell ; Chikungunya virus - DNA ; Chikungunya virus - Genome ; Chikungunya virus - Pathogenesis ; Chikungunya virus - RNA ; Chikungunya virus - PCR detection ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever ; Chikungunya virus - Dengue ; Chikungunya virus - Microcephaly ; Chikungunya virus - Zika fever
Fonte: The Lancet. Infectious Diseases, v. 16, n. 6, p. 653-660, 2016
ISSN: 1474-4457
Resumo: The incidence of microcephaly in Brazil in 2015 was 20 times higher than in previous years. Congenital microcephaly is associated with genetic factors - several causative agents. Epidemiological data suggest that microcephaly cases in Brazil might be associated with the introduction of Zika virus. We aimed to detect - sequence the Zika virus genome in amniotic fluid samples of two pregnant women in Brazil whose fetuses were diagnosed with microcephaly. In this case study, amniotic fluid samples from two pregnant women from the state of Paraíba in Brazil whose fetuses had been diagnosed with microcephaly were obtained, on the recommendation of the Brazilian health authorities, by ultrasound-guided transabdominal amniocentesis at 28 weeks' gestation. The women had presented at 18 weeks' - 10 weeks' gestation, respectively, with clinical manifestations that could have been symptoms of Zika virus infection, including fever, myalgia, - rash. After the amniotic fluid samples were centrifuged, DNA - RNA were extracted from the purified virus particles before the viral genome was identified by quantitative reverse transcription PCR - viral metagenomic next-generation sequencing. Phylogenetic reconstruction - investigation of recombination events were done by comparing the Brazilian Zika virus genome with sequences from other Zika strains - from flaviviruses that occur in similar regions in Brazil. We detected the Zika virus genome in the amniotic fluid of both pregnant women. The virus was not detected in their urine or serum. Tests for dengue virus, chikungunya virus, Toxoplasma gondii, rubella virus, cytomegalovirus, herpes simplex virus, HIV, Treponema pallidum, - parvovirus B19 were all negative. After sequencing of the complete genome of the Brazilian Zika virus isolated from patient 1, phylogenetic analyses showed that the virus shares 97-100% of its genomic identity with lineages isolated during an outbreak in French Polynesia in 2013, - that in both envelope - NS5 genomic regions, it clustered with sequences from North - South America, southeast Asia, - the Pacific. After assessing the possibility of recombination events between the Zika virus - other flaviviruses, we ruled out the hypothesis that the Brazilian Zika virus genome is a recombinant strain with other mosquito-borne flaviviruses. These findings strengthen the putative association between Zika virus - cases of microcephaly in neonates in Brazil. Moreover, our results suggest that the virus can cross the placental barrier. As a result, Zika virus should be considered as a potential infectious agent for human fetuses. Pathogenesis studies that confirm the tropism of Zika virus for neuronal cells are warranted. Consellho Nacional de Desenvolvimento e Pesquisa (CNPq), Fundação de Amparo a Pesquisa do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (FAPERJ).

144) Curcumin and Boswellia serrata gum resin extract inhibit chikungunya and vesicular stomatitis virus infections in vitro
Autor: von Rhein Christine, Weidner Tatjana, Henß Lisa, Martin Judith, Weber Christopher, Sliva Katja, Schnierle Barbara S
Assunto: Boswellic acid; Chikungunya virus; Curcumin; Traditional medicine; Vesicular stomatitis virus
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Vaccine ; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever
Fonte: Antiviral Research, v. 125, p. 51-57, 2016
ISSN: 1872-9096
Resumo: Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a mosquito-transmitted alphavirus that causes chikungunya fever - has infected millions of people mainly in developing countries. The associated disease is characterized by rash, high fever, - severe arthritis that can persist for years. CHIKV has adapted to Aedes albopictus, which also inhabits temperate regions including Europe - the United States of America. CHIKV has recently caused large outbreaks in Latin America. No treatment or licensed CHIKV vaccine exists. Traditional medicines are known to have anti-viral effects; therefore, we examined whether curcumin or Boswellia serrata gum resin extract have antiviral activity against CHIKV. Both compounds blocked entry of CHIKV Env-pseudotyped lentiviral vectors - inhibited CHIKV infection in vitro. In addition, vesicular stomatitis virus vector particles - viral infections were also inhibited to the same extent, indicating a broad antiviral activity. Although the bioavailability of these compounds is rather poor, they might be used as a lead structure to develop more effective antiviral drugs or might be used topically to prevent CHIKV spread in the skin after mosquito bites.

145) Misguided strategy for mosquito control.
Autor: Azevedo-Santos Valter M,Vitule Jean R S,García-Berthou Emili,Pelicice Fernando M,Simberloff Daniel
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Pathogenesis ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Science, v. 351, n. 6274, p. 675, 2016
ISSN: 1095-9203
Resumo:

146) Acute uncomplicated febrile illness in children aged 2-59 months in Zanzibar - aetiologies, antibiotic treatment and outcome
Autor: Elfving Kristina, Shakely Deler, Andersson Maria, Baltzell Kimberly, Ali Abdullah S, Bachelard Marc, Falk Kerstin I, Ljung Annika, Msellem Mwinyi I, Omar Rahila S, Parola Philippe, Xu Weiping, Petzold Max, Trollfors Birger, Björkman Anders, Lindh Magnus, Mårtensson Andreas
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Cell ; Chikungunya virus - Infectious diseases ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Transmission ; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever ; Chikungunya virus - Dengue
Fonte: PloS One, v. 11, n. 1, p. e0146054, 2016
ISSN: 1932-6203
Resumo: Despite the fact that a large proportion of children with fever in Africa present at primary health care facilities, few studies have been designed to specifically study the causes of uncomplicated childhood febrile illness at this level of care, especially in areas like Zanzibar that has recently undergone a dramatic change from high to low malaria transmission. We prospectively studied the aetiology of febrile illness in 677 children aged 2-59 months with acute uncomplicated fever managed by IMCI (Integrated Management of Childhood Illness) guidelines in Zanzibar, using point-of-care tests, urine culture, blood-PCR, chest X-ray (CXR) of IMCI-pneumonia classified patients, - multiple quantitative (q)PCR investigations of nasopharyngeal (NPH) (all patients) - rectal (GE) swabs (diarrhoea patients). For comparison, we also performed NPH - GE qPCR analyses in 167 healthy community controls. Final fever diagnoses were retrospectively established based on all clinical - laboratory data. Clinical outcome was assessed during a 14-day follow-up. The utility of IMCI for identifying infections presumed to require antibiotics was evaluated. NPH-qPCR - GE-qPCR detected ?1 pathogen in 657/672 (98%) - 153/164 (93%) of patients - 158/166 (95%) - 144/165 (87%) of controls, respectively. Overall, 57% (387/677) had IMCI-pneumonia, but only 12% (42/342) had CXR-confirmed pneumonia. Two patients were positive for Plasmodium falciparum. Respiratory syncytial virus (24.5%), influenza A/B (22.3%), rhinovirus (10.5%) - group-A streptococci (6.4%), CXR-confirmed pneumonia (6.2%), Shigella (4.3%) were the most common viral - bacterial fever diagnoses, respectively. Blood-PCR conducted in a sub-group of patients (n = 83) without defined fever diagnosis was negative for rickettsiae, chikungunya, dengue, Rift Valley fever - West Nile viruses. Antibiotics were prescribed to 500 (74%) patients, but only 152 (22%) had an infection retrospectively considered to require antibiotics. Clinical outcome was generally good. However, two children died. Only 68 (11%) patients remained febrile on day 3 - three of them had verified fever on day 14. An additional 29 (4.5%) children had fever relapse on day 14. Regression analysis determined C-reactive Protein (CRP) as the only independent variable significantly associated with CXR-confirmed pneumonia. This is the first study on uncomplicated febrile illness in African children that both applied a comprehensive laboratory panel - a healthy control group. A majority of patients had viral respiratory tract infection. Pathogens were frequently detected by qPCR also in asymptomatic children, demonstrating the importance of incorporating controls in fever aetiology studies. The precision of IMCI for identifying infections requiring antibiotics was low.

147) Surveillance of mosquito-borne infectious diseases in febrile travelers entering China via Shenzhen ports, China, 2013
Autor: Shi Lei, Fu Shihong, Wang Lihua, Li Xiaolong, Gu Dayong, Liu Chunxiao, Zhao Chunzhong, He Jian'an, Liang Guodong
Assunto: Chikungunya virus; Dengue virus; Febrile travelers; Mosquito-borne diseases
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Antibodies ; Chikungunya virus - Infectious diseases ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever ; Chikungunya virus - Dengue
Fonte: Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease, v. 14, n. (2), p. 123-130, 2016
ISSN: 1873-0442
Resumo: About 100 million passengers enter China via Shenzhen ports every year - such huge populations increase the risk of various infectious diseases, particularly mosquito-borne diseases, entering China. This paper reports the testing - monitoring of mosquito-borne diseases in febrile travelers through Shenzhen ports in 2013. The blood samples of 619 febrile cases were collected - the serum of each sample was used for the specific gene amplification - IgM antibody detection of five typical mosquito-borne pathogens: Dengue virus (DENV), Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), Chikungunya virus (CHIKV), yellow fever virus (YFV), - West Nile Virus (WNV). Additionally, malaria was diagnosed by rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs). In total, 34 cases were detected of DENV infection (serotype I to IV), 17 cases of JEV infection, 2 cases of CHIKV infection, - 3 cases of malaria infection. No virus genes or IgM antibodies of YFV or WNV were detected in the samples. DENV, JEV - CHIKV cases were mainly from Southeast Asia, while malaria cases from Africa. DENV, JEV - CHIKV were the primary pathogens imported via Shenzhen ports. International travelers with mosquito-borne infections would accelerate the spread of these diseases, thus reinforcing the need for surveillance of mosquito-borne infections at ports should become a high priority.

148) Tropical ophthalmology
Autor: Pleyer U, Klauß V, Wilking H, Nentwich M M
Assunto: Chikungunya fever; Dengue fever; Ebola infection; West Nile virus; Zoonoses
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Infectious diseases; Chikungunya virus - Inflammation; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections; Chikungunya Virus - Virus; Chikungunya virus - Transmission; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever; Chikungunya virus - Dengue
Fonte: Der Ophthalmologe, v. 113, n. 1, p. 35-46, 2016
ISSN: 1433-0423
Resumo: A number of new" (emerging) infections that can also cause inflammatory eye changes are appearing - becoming increasingly important. In the past, diseases such as chikungunya, dengue fever or West Nile virus infections were endemic in tropical regions, but are now exp-ing worldwide - causing significant morbidity - even mortality. "Globalization" - human migration are important factors leading to the import of these infections. Climate changes are probably even more important. Increasing temperatures provide suitable conditions for new vectors, - may lead to autochthonous transmission of infectious pathogens. Diagnosis of these diseases requires not only careful assessment of medical - travel history, but also the application of specific laboratory diagnostic tests. A broad spectrum of ocular involvement has been reported, with frequent posterior segment involvement. Emerging infections should therefore be considered in the differential diagnosis of retinitis, chorioretinitis, retinal vasculitis - optic neuropathy in a patient living in or traveling back from an endemic area. Since these infections are often vector (insect) borne - effective treatments are almost uniformly lacking, prevention is at least as important as prompt diagnosis - initiation of supportive care. Here, we focus on Chikungunya, Dengue fever, Ebola fever, the West Nile virus - Rickettsioses, which frequently demonstrate ocular involvement."

149) Isolation of infectious zika virus from saliva and prolonged viral RNA shedding in a traveller returning from the Dominican Republic to Italy, January 2016.
Autor: Barzon Luisa,Pacenti Monia,Berto Alessandro,Sinigaglia Alessandro,Franchin Elisa,Lavezzo Enrico,Brugnaro Pierluigi,Palù Giorgio
Assunto: Zika virus, Diagnosis, Genome sequencing, Saliva, Transmission, Virus isolation
Descritores: Zika virus - Cell ; Zika virus - Genome ; Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Molecular screening ; Zika virus - Transmission
Fonte: EuroSurveillance, v. 21, n. 10, 2016
ISSN: 1560-7917
Resumo: We report the isolation of infectious Zika virus (ZIKV) in cell culture from the saliva of a patient who developed a febrile illness after returning from the Dominican Republic to Italy, in January 2016. The patient had prolonged shedding of viral RNA in saliva and urine, at higher load than in blood, for up to 29 days after symptom onset. Sequencing of ZIKV genome showed relatedness with strains from Latin America.

150) Zika virus outbreak in Brazil
Autor: Heukelbach Jorg,Alencar Carlos Henrique,Kelvin Alyson Ann,De Oliveira Wanderson Kleber,Pamplona de Góes Cavalcanti Luciano
Assunto: Zika virus; Flavivirus; Chikungunya; Dengue virus; Brazil; Microcephaly
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - virus ; Aedes aegypti - Vaccine ; Aedes aegypti - Head circumference ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Epidemic ; Aedes aegypti - Microcephaly
Fonte: Journal of Infection in Developing Countries, v. 10, n. 2; p. 116-120, 2016
ISSN: 1972-2680
Resumo: Zika virus (ZIKV) infection is spreading rapidly within the Americas after originating from an outbreak in Brazil. We describe the current ZIKV infection epidemic in Brazil and the neurological symptoms arising. First cases of an acute exanthematic disease were reported in Brazil's Northeast region at the end of 2014. In March 2015, autochthonous ZIKV was determined to be the causative agent of the exanthematic disease. As cases of neurological syndromes in regions where ZIKV, dengue and/or Chikungunya viruses co-circulate were reported, ZIKV was also identified in the cerebrospinal fluid of patients with acute neurological syndromes and previous exanthematic disease. By the end of September 2015, an increasing number of infants with small head circumference or microcephaly were noted in Brazil's Northeast which was estimated to be 29 cases between August and October. ZIKV was identified in blood and tissue samples of a newborn and in mothers who had given birth to infants with microcephaly and ophthalmological anomalies. In 2015, there were an estimated 440,000 - 1,300,000 Zika cases in Brazil. There have been 4,783 suspected cases of microcephaly, most of them in the Northeast of Brazil associated with 76 deaths. The Ministry of Health is intensifying control measures against the mosquito Aedes aegypti and implemented intensive surveillance actions. Further studies are needed to confirm the suspected association between ZIKV infection and microcephaly; to identify antiviral, immunotherapy, or prophylactic vaccine; to introduce diagnostic ELISA testing. Clinical and epidemiological studies must be performed to describe viral dynamics and expansion of the outbreak.

151) Zika virus infection: global update on epidemiology and potentially associated clinical manifestations.
Autor:
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Pathogenesis ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Releve? É?pide?miologique Hebdomadaire, v. 91, n. 7, p. 73-81, 2016
ISSN: 0049-8114
Resumo:

152) Zika virus emergence and expansion: lessons learned from dengue and chikungunya may not provide all the answers
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Christofferson, Rebecca C.
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika Virus - Arbovirus ; Zika Virus - RNA virus ; Zika Virus - Transmission ; Zika Virus - Dengue
Fonte: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 2016.
ISSN: 1476-1645
Resumo: Following the emergence of Zika in the past decade, there are lessons to be learned from similar emergence events of dengue (DENV) and chikungunya (CHIKV). Specifically, as Zika emerges in the Americas there is a natural tendency to apply the knowledge base of DENV and CHIKV to mitigation and control of a virus with such a similar transmission system. However, there are marked differences that may preclude such broad stroke application of this knowledge base without making potentially faulty assumptions. Herein, Zika virus (ZIKV) transmission is reviewed, and the commonalities among these three arboviruses are discussed. Importantly, the divergence of this particular arbovirus is discussed, as is the need to develop ZIKV-specific knowledge base for mitigation of this disease. Specifically reviewed are 1) emergence and persistence patterns, 2) genetic and phenotypic diversity, 3) vector host range, and finally, 4) alternate transmission routes and added complexity of ZIKV transmission and presentation.

153) Ocular findings in infants with microcephaly associated with presumed zika virus congenital infection in Salvador, Brazil
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: de Paula Freitas, Bruno; de Oliveira Dias, João Rafael; Prazeres, Juliana; Sacramento, Gielson Almeida; Ko, Albert Icksang; Maia, Maurício; Belfort, Rubens
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika Virus - Viral infections ; Zika Virus - RNA virus ; Zika Virus - Epidemic ; Zika Virus - Epidemiology ; Zika Virus - Microcephaly ; Zika Virus - Public health
Fonte: JAMA Ophthalmology, v. 134, n. 5, p. 529-535, 2016.
ISSN: 2168-6173
Resumo: The Zika virus (ZIKV) has rapidly reached epidemic proportions, especially in northeastern Brazil, and has rapidly spread to other parts of the Americas. A recent increase in the prevalence of microcephaly in newborn infants and vision-threatening findings in these infants is likely associated with the rapid spread of ZIKV. To evaluate the ocular findings in infants with microcephaly associated with presumed intrauterine ZIKV infection in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil. Case series at a tertiary hospital. Twenty-nine infants with microcephaly (defined by a cephalic circumference of ≤32 cm) with a presumed diagnosis of congenital ZIKV were recruited through an active search and referrals from other hospitals and health unities. The study was conducted between December 1 and December 21, 2015. All infants and mothers underwent systemic and ophthalmic examinations from December 1 through December 21, 2015, in the Roberto Santos General Hospital, Salvador, Brazil. Anterior segment and retinal, choroidal, and optic nerve abnormalities were documented using a wide-field digital imaging system. The differential diagnosis included toxoplasmosis, rubella, cytomegalovirus, herpes simplex virus, syphilis, and human immunodeficiency virus, which were ruled out through serologic and clinical examinations. Ocular abnormalities associated with ZIKV. Twenty-three of 29 mothers (79.3%) reported suspected ZIKV infection signs and symptoms during pregnancy, 18 in the first trimester, 4 in the second trimester, and 1 in the third trimester. Of the 29 infants (58 eyes) examined (18 [62.1%] female), ocular abnormalities were present in 17 eyes (29.3%) of 10 children (34.5%). Bilateral findings were found in 7 of 10 patients presenting with ocular lesions, the most common of which were focal pigment mottling of the retina and chorioretinal atrophy in 11 of the 17 eyes with abnormalities (64.7%), followed by optic nerve abnormalities in 8 eyes (47.1%), bilateral iris coloboma in 1 patient (2 eyes [11.8%]), and lens subluxation in 1 eye (5.9%). Congenital infection due to presumed ZIKV exposure is associated with vision-threatening findings, which include bilateral macular and perimacular lesions as well as optic nerve abnormalities in most cases.

154) Emerging and changing viral diseases in the new millennium
Autor: Scully C, Samaranayake L P
Assunto: Chikungunya; Ebola; HIV; HPV; Dengue; Herpes; Infections; Mouth; Oral; Virus
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever ; Chikungunya virus - Dengue
Fonte: Oral Diseases, v. 22, n. 3, p. 171-179, 2016
ISSN: 1601-0825
Resumo: Most viral infections encountered in resource-rich countries are relatively trivial - transient with perhaps fever, malaise, myalgia, rash (exanthema) - sometimes mucosal manifestations (enanthema), including oral in some. However, the apparent benignity may be illusory as some viral infections have unexpected consequences - such as the oncogenicity of some herpesviruses - human papillomaviruses. Infections are transmitted from various human or animal vectors, especially by close proximity, - the increasing movements of peoples across the globe, mean that infections hitherto confined largely to the tropics now appear worldwide. Global warming also increases the range of movement of vectors such as mosquitoes. Thus recent decades have seen a most dramatic change with the emergence globally also of new viral infections - notably human immunodeficiency viruses (HIV) - - the appearance of some other dangerous - sometimes lethal infections formerly seen mainly in, - reported from, resource-poor areas especially in parts of Asia, Latin America - Africa. This study offers a brief update of the most salient new aspects of the important viral infections, especially those with known orofacial manifestations or other implications for oral health care.

155) Missing link: animal models to study whether zika causes birth defects
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Becker, Rachel
Assunto: Zika virus, Birth defects, Animals, Models
Descritores: Zika virus - Cell ; Zika virus - Immune response ; Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - Proteins ; Zika virus - Antibodies ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Inflammation ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - RT-PCR ; Zika virus - Sexual ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Chikungunya Fever ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Nature Medicine, v. 22, n. 3, p. 225-227, 2016.
ISSN: 1078-8956
Resumo: When Patricia Pestana Garcez returned home to Brazil to start her new position as an assistant professor at the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro in June, she knew that she would study the neurobiology of brain malformations. But she hadnt yet decided whether to continue her research into microcephaly, a birth defect characterized by an unusually small head and caused by genetic mutation or maternal infection.

156) Chronic chikungunya virus musculoskeletal disease: What are the underlying mechanisms?
Autor: McCarthy Mary K, Morrison Thomas E
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Immunology
Fonte: Future Microbiology, v. 11, n. 3, 2016
ISSN: 1746-0921
Resumo:

157) Zika virus in the Americas--yet another Arbovirus threat.
Autor: Fauci Anthony S,Morens David M
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Pathogenesis ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Chikungunya Fever ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: The New England Journal of Medicine, v. 374, n. 7, p. 601-604, 2016
ISSN: 1533-4406
Resumo:

158) Correlation of phylogenetic clade diversification and in vitro infectivity differences among Cosmopolitan genotype strains of Chikungunya virus
Autor: Abraham Rachy, Manakkadan Anoop, Mudaliar Prashant, Joseph Iype, Sivakumar Krishnankutty Chandrika, Nair Radhakrishnan Reghunathan, Sreekumar Easwaran
Assunto: Bayesian analysis; Chikungunya; Infection kinetics; Mammalian cell
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Cell ; Chikungunya virus - Proteins ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus
Fonte: Infection, Genetics and Evolution, v. 37, p. 174-184, 2016
ISSN: 1567-7257
Resumo: Cosmopolitan genotypes of Chikungunya virus caused the large-scale febrile disease outbreaks in the last decade in Asian - African continents. Molecular analyses of these strains had revealed significant genetic diversification - occurrence of novel mosquito-adaptive mutations. In the present study we looked into whether the genetic diversification has implications in the infectivity phenotype. A detailed sequence - phylogenetic analyses of these virus strains of Indian Ocean lineage from Kerala, South India from the years 2008 to 2013 identified three distinct genetic clades (I, II - III), which had presence of clade-specific amino acid changes. The E2 envelope protein of the strains from the years 2012 to 2013 had a K252Q or a novel K252H change. This site is reported to affect mosquito cell infectivity. Most of these strains also had the E2 G82R mutation, a mutation previously identified to increase mammalian cell infectivity, - a novel mutation E2 N72S. Positive selection was identified in four sites in the envelope proteins (E1 K211E, A226V - V291I; E2 K252Q/H). In infectivity analysis, we found that strains from clade III had enhanced cytopathogenicity in HEK293 - Vero cells than by strains representing other two clades. These two strains formed smaller sized plaques - had distinctly higher viral protein expression, infectious virus production - apoptosis induction in HEK293 cells. They had novel mutations R171Q in the nsP1; I539S in nsP2; N409T in nsP3; - N72S in E2. Our study identifies a correlation between phylogenetic clade diversification - differences in mammalian cell infectivity phenotype among Cosmopolitan genotype CHIKV strains.

159) Guillain-Barré Syndrome outbreak associated with zika virus infection in French Polynesia: a case-control study.
Autor: Cao-Lormeau Van-Mai,Blake Alexandre,Mons Sandrine,Lastère Stéphane,Roche Claudine,Vanhomwegen Jessica,Dub Timothée,Baudouin Laure,Teissier Anita,Larre Philippe,Vial Anne-Laure,Decam Christophe,Choumet Valérie,Halstead Susan K,Willison Hugh J,Musset Lucile,Manuguerra Jean-Claude,Despres Philippe,Fournier Emmanuel,Mallet Henri-Pierre,Musso Didier,Fontanet Arnaud,Neil Jean,Ghawché Frédéric
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Antibodies ; Zika virus - Autoimmunity ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Inflammation ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - RT-PCR ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - ImmunologyZika virus - Antibodies ; Zika virus - Autoimmunity ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Inflammation ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - RT-PCR ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - ImmunologyZika virus - Antibodies ; Zika virus - Autoimmunity ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Inflammation ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - RT-PCR ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - ImmunologyZika virus - Antibodies ; Zika virus - Autoimmunity ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Inflammation ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - RT-PCR ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - ImmunologyZika virus - Antibodies ; Zika virus - Autoimmunity ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Inflammation ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - RT-PCR ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - ImmunologyZika virus - Antibodies ; Zika virus - Autoimmunity ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Inflammation ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - RT-PCR ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - ImmunologyZika virus - Antibodies ; Zika virus - Autoimmunity ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Inflammation ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - RT-PCR ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - ImmunologyZika virus - Antibodies ; Zika virus - Autoimmunity ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Inflammation ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - RT-PCR ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - ImmunologyZika virus - Antibodies ; Zika virus - Autoimmunity ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Inflammation ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - RT-PCR ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - ImmunologyZika virus - Antibodies ; Zika virus - Autoimmunity ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Inflammation ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - RT-PCR ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - ImmunologyZika virus - Antibodies ; Zika virus - Autoimmunity ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Inflammation ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - RT-PCR ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Immunology
Fonte: The Lancet, v. 387, n. 10027, p. 1531-1539, 2016
ISSN: 1474-547X
Resumo: Between October, 2013, and April, 2014, French Polynesia experienced the largest Zika virus outbreak ever described at that time. During the same period, an increase in Guillain-Barré syndrome was reported, suggesting a possible association between Zika virus and Guillain-Barré syndrome. We aimed to assess the role of Zika virus and dengue virus infection in developing Guillain-Barré syndrome. In this case-control study, cases were patients with Guillain-Barré syndrome diagnosed at the Centre Hospitalier de Polynésie Française (Papeete, Tahiti, French Polynesia) during the outbreak period. Controls were age-matched, sex-matched, and residence-matched patients who presented at the hospital with a non-febrile illness (control group 1; n=98) and age-matched patients with acute Zika virus disease and no neurological symptoms (control group 2; n=70). Virological investigations included RT-PCR for Zika virus, and both microsphere immunofluorescent and seroneutralisation assays for Zika virus and dengue virus. Anti-glycolipid reactivity was studied in patients with Guillain-Barré syndrome using both ELISA and combinatorial microarrays. 42 patients were diagnosed with Guillain-Barré syndrome during the study period. 41 (98%) patients with Guillain-Barré syndrome had anti-Zika virus IgM or IgG, and all (100%) had neutralising antibodies against Zika virus compared with 54 (56%) of 98 in control group 1 (p<0·0001). 39 (93%) patients with Guillain-Barré syndrome had Zika virus IgM and 37 (88%) had experienced a transient illness in a median of 6 days (IQR 4-10) before the onset of neurological symptoms, suggesting recent Zika virus infection. Patients with Guillain-Barré syndrome had electrophysiological findings compatible with acute motor axonal neuropathy (AMAN) type, and had rapid evolution of disease (median duration of the installation and plateau phases was 6 [IQR 4-9] and 4 days [3-10], respectively). 12 (29%) patients required respiratory assistance. No patients died. Anti-glycolipid antibody activity was found in 13 (31%) patients, and notably against GA1 in eight (19%) patients, by ELISA and 19 (46%) of 41 by glycoarray at admission. The typical AMAN-associated anti-ganglioside antibodies were rarely present. Past dengue virus history did not differ significantly between patients with Guillain-Barré syndrome and those in the two control groups (95%, 89%, and 83%, respectively). This is the first study providing evidence for Zika virus infection causing Guillain-Barré syndrome. Because Zika virus is spreading rapidly across the Americas, at risk countries need to prepare for adequate intensive care beds capacity to manage patients with Guillain-Barré syndrome. Labex Integrative Biology of Emerging Infectious Diseases, EU 7th framework program PREDEMICS. and Wellcome Trust.

160) Post-licensure surveillance of quadrivalent inactivated influenza (IIV4) vaccine in the United States, Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS), July 1, 2013-May 31, 2015.
Autor: Haber Penina.; Moro Pedro L.; Lewis Paige; Woo Emily Jane; Jankosky Christopher; Cano Maria
Assunto: Post-licensure surveillance, Quadrivalent inactivated influenza vaccines, Vaccine safety
Descritores: Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Infectious diseases ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Virus ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Vaccine ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Epidemiology
Fonte: Vaccine, 2016
ISSN: 1873-2518
Resumo: Quadrivalent inactivated influenza vaccines (IIV4) were first available for use during 2013-14 influenza season for individuals aged ?6 months. IIV4 is designed to protect against four different flu viruses; two influenza A viruses and two influenza B viruses. We searched the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS) for US reports after IIV4 and trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine (IIV3) from 7/1/2013-5/31/2015. Medical records were requested for non-manufacturer reports classified as serious (i.e. death, hospitalization, prolonged hospitalization, life-threatening illness, permanent disability). The review included automated data analysis, clinical review of all serious reports, reports of special interest, and empirical Bayesian data mining. VAERS received 1,838 IIV4 reports; 512 (28%) in persons aged 6 months-17 years of which 42 (8.2%) were serious reports; 1,265 (69%) in persons aged >18 years of which 84 (6.6%) were serious reports; two in children <6 months and 59 in persons of unknown age. Injection site erythema (24%), fever (14%) and injection site swelling (17%) were the most frequent adverse events among persons aged 6 months-17 years, while injection site pain (16%), pain (15%) and pain in extremity (13%) were the most frequent among persons aged 18-64 years given the vaccine alone. Among non-death serious reports, injection site reactions, constitutional symptoms, Guillain-Barré syndrome, seizures, and anaphylaxis were the most frequently reported adverse events. Data mining detected disproportional reporting for incorrect vaccine administration with no associated adverse events. Adverse events following IIV4 reported to VAERS were similar to those following IIV3. In our review of VAERS reports, IIV4 had a similar safety profile to IIV3. Most of the reported AEs were non-serious. Our findings are consistent with data from pre-licensure studies of IIV4.

161) Community crystal gazing
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Acharya, Anu; Bingham, Kate; Bradner, Jay; Burke, Wylie; Charo, R Alta; Cherry, Joel; Choulika, André; Coles, Tony; Cook-deegan, Robert; Crook, Stanley T; Díaz, Emilia; Erickson, Brent; Giddings, L Val; Giwa, Sebastian Eriksson; Greenwood, James C; Gulati, Vishal; Hall, Sam; Harris, John; Heywood, Jamie; Hill, Colin; Levin, Jeremy; Mangubat, Adina; Maraganore, John; Mariggi, Giovanni; Mazur, Barbara J; Mcguire, Amy L; Moll, Nathalie; Moreno, Jonathan; Naughton, Gail; Nelsen, Lita; Osbourn, Jane; Perez, Daniel; Reed, John; Schmidt, Eric; Seyfert-margolis, Vicki; Stoffels, Paul; Thorball, Jorgen; O'toole, Tara; Vainu, Indrek; Van Deventer, Sander; Zerhouni, Elias; Zohar, Daphne
Assunto: Biotechnology industry, Business innovations
Descritores: Zika virus - Antibodies ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Clinical examination ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Nature Biotechnology, v. 34, n. 3, p. 276-283, 2016.
ISSN: 1087-0156
Resumo:

162) Effects of an in-frame deletion of the 6k gene locus from the genome of Ross River virus
Autor: Taylor Adam, Melton Julian V, Herrero Lara J, Thaa Bastian, Karo-Astover Liis, Gage Peter W, Nelson Michelle A, Sheng Kuo-Ching, Lidbury Brett A, Ewart Gary D, McInerney Gerald M, Merits Andres, Mahalingam Suresh
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Cell ; Chikungunya virus - Genome ; Chikungunya virus - Proteins ; Chikungunya virus - Inflammation ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Vaccine ; Chikungunya virus - Epidemic
Fonte: Journal of Virology, v. 90, n. 8, p. 4150-4159, 2016
ISSN: 1098-5514
Resumo: The alphaviral 6k region encodes the two structural proteins 6K protein -, due to a ribosomal frameshift event, TF protein. Here, we characterized the role of the 6k proteins in the arthritogenic alphavirus Ross River virus (RRV) in infected cells - in mice, using a novel 6k in-frame deletion mutant. Comprehensive microscopic analysis revealed that the 6k proteins were predominantly localized at the endoplasmic reticulum of RRV-infected cells. RRV virions that lack the 6k proteins were more vulnerable to changes in pH - corresponding virus had increased sensitivity to higher temperature. While the 6k deletion did not reduce RRV particle production in BHK-21 cells, it affected virion release from the host cell. Subsequent in vivo studies demonstrated that RRV-(?6K) caused a milder disease than wild-type virus, with reduced viral titres in infected mice. Immunisation of mice with RRV-(?6K) resulted in reduced viral load - accelerated viral elimination upon secondary infection with WT-RRV or another alphavirus, chikungunya virus (CHIKV). Our results show that the 6k proteins may contribute to alphaviral disease manifestations - suggest that manipulating the 6k gene may be a potential strategy to facilitate viral vaccine development. Arthritogenic alphaviruses such as chikungunya virus (CHIKV) - Ross River virus (RRV) cause epidemics of debilitating rheumatic disease in endemic areas - can emerge in new regions worldwide. RRV is of considerable medical significance in Australia, where it is the leading cause of arboviral disease. The mechanisms by which alphaviruses persist - cause disease in the host are ill-defined. This paper describes the phenotypic properties of an RRV 6k-deletion mutant. The absence of the 6k gene reduced virion release from infected cells - also reduced the severity of disease - viral titres in infected mice. Immunisation with the mutant virus protected mice against viraemia not only upon exposure to RRV, but also upon challenge with CHIKV. These findings could lead to the development of safer - more immunogenic alphavirus vectors for vaccine delivery.

163) Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) muscle satellite cells are targets of salmonid alphavirus infection
Autor: Biacchesi Stéphane, Jouvion Grégory, Mérour Emilie, Boukadiri Abdelhak, Desdouits Marion, Ozden Simona, Huerre Michel, Ceccaldi Pierre-Emmanuel, Brémont Michel
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Cell ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Transmission
Fonte: Veterinary Research, v. 47, n. 1, p. 9, 2016
ISSN: 1297-9716
Resumo: Sleeping disease in rainbow trout is characterized by an abnormal swimming behaviour of the fish which stay on their side at the bottom of the tanks. This sign is due to extensive necrosis - atrophy of red skeletal muscle induced by the sleeping disease virus (SDV), also called salmonid alphavirus 2. Infections of humans with arthritogenic alphaviruses, such as Chikungunya virus (CHIKV), are global causes of debilitating musculoskeletal diseases. The mechanisms by which the virus causes these pathologies are poorly understood due to the restrictive availability of animal models capable of reproducing the full spectrum of the disease. Nevertheless, it has been shown that CHIKV exhibits a particular tropism for muscle stem cells also known as satellite cells. Thus, SDV - its host constitute a relevant model to study in details the virus-induced muscle atrophy, the pathophysiological consequences of the infection of a particular cell-type in the skeletal muscle, - the regeneration of the muscle tissue in survivors together with the possible virus persistence. To study a putative SDV tropism for that particular cell type, we established an in vivo - ex vivo rainbow trout model of SDV-induced atrophy of the skeletal muscle. This experimental model allows reproducing the full panel of clinical signs observed during a natural infection since the transmission of the virus is arthropod-borne independent. The virus tropism in the muscle tissue was studied by immunohistochemistry together with the kinetics of the muscle atrophy, - the muscle regeneration post-infection was observed. In parallel, an ex vivo model of SDV infection of rainbow trout satellite cells was developed - virus replication - persistence in that particular cell type was followed up to 73 days post-infection. These results constitute the first observation of a specific SDV tropism for the muscle satellite cells.

164) Chikungunya virus sequences across the first epidemic in Nicaragua, 2014-2015
Autor: Wang Chunling, Saborio Saira, Gresh Lionel, Eswarappa Meghana, Wu Diane, Fire Andrew, Parameswaran Poornima, Balmaseda Angel, Harris Eva
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Cytopathology ; Chikungunya virus - Infectious diseases ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Epidemic ; Chikungunya virus - Public health
Fonte: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, v. 94, n. 2, p. 400-403, 2016
ISSN: 1476-1645
Resumo: Chikungunya is caused by the mosquito-borne arthrogenic alphavirus, chikungunya virus (CHIKV). Chikungunya was introduced into the Americas in late 2013 - Nicaragua in mid-2014. Here, we sequenced five imported - 30 autochthonous Nicaraguan CHIKV from cases identified in the first epidemic in the country between August 2014 - April 2015. One full-length - two partial genomic sequences were obtained by deep sequencing; Sanger methodology yielded 33 E1 sequences from five imported - 28 autochthonous cases. Phylogenetic analysis indicates that Nicaraguan CHIKV all belonged to the Asian genotype, Caribbean clade. Moreover, E1 gene sequences revealed accumulation of mutations in later months of the epidemic, including four silent mutations in 11 autochthonous cases - three non-synonymous mutations in three autochthonous cases. No mutations contributing to increased transmissibility by Aedes albopictus were identified in the E1 gene. This represents the most comprehensive set of CHIKV sequences available from the Americas to date.

165) Possible Association Between Zika Virus Infection and Microcephaly - Brazil, 2015.
Autor: Schuler-Faccini Lavinia,Ribeiro Erlane M,Feitosa Ian M L,Horovitz Dafne D G,Cavalcanti Denise P,Pessoa André,Doriqui Maria Juliana R,Neri Joao Ivanildo,Neto Joao Monteiro de Pina,Wanderley Hector Y C,Cernach Mirlene,El-Husny Antonette S,Pone Marcos V S,Serao Cassio L C,Sanseverino Maria Teresa V,
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Head circumference ; Zika virus - Microcephaly
Fonte: Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, v. 65, n. 3, p. 59-62, 2016
ISSN: 1545-861X
Resumo: In early 2015, an outbreak of Zika virus, a flavivirus transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes, was identified in northeast Brazil, an area where dengue virus was also circulating. By September, reports of an increase in the number of infants born with microcephaly in Zika virus-affected areas began to emerge, and Zika virus RNA was identified in the amniotic fluid of two women whose fetuses had been found to have microcephaly by prenatal ultrasound. The Brazil Ministry of Health (MoH) established a task force to investigate the possible association of microcephaly with Zika virus infection during pregnancy and a registry for incident microcephaly cases (head circumference ?2 standard deviations [SD] below the mean for sex and gestational age at birth) and pregnancy outcomes among women suspected to have had Zika virus infection during pregnancy. Among a cohort of 35 infants with microcephaly born during August-October 2015 in eight of Brazil's 26 states and reported to the registry, the mothers of all 35 had lived in or visited Zika virus-affected areas during pregnancy, 25 (71%) infants had severe microcephaly (head circumference >3 SD below the mean for sex and gestational age), 17 (49%) had at least one neurologic abnormality, and among 27 infants who had neuroimaging studies, all had abnormalities. Tests for other congenital infections were negative. All infants had a lumbar puncture as part of the evaluation and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples were sent to a reference laboratory in Brazil for Zika virus testing; results are not yet available. Further studies are needed to confirm the association of microcephaly with Zika virus infection during pregnancy and to understand any other adverse pregnancy outcomes associated with Zika virus infection. Pregnant women in Zika virus-affected areas should protect themselves from mosquito bites by using air conditioning, screens, or nets when indoors, wearing long sleeves and pants, using permethrin-treated clothing and gear, and using insect repellents when outdoors. Pregnant and lactating women can use all U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)-registered insect repellents according to the product label.

166) SUN2 overexpression deforms nuclear shape and inhibits HIV
Autor: Donahue Daniel A, Amraoui Sonia, di Nunzio Francesca, Kieffer Camille, Porrot Françoise, Opp Silvana, Diaz-Griffero Felipe, Casartelli Nicoletta, Schwartz Olivier
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Cell ; Chikungunya virus - Proteins ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Vaccine ; Chikungunya virus - Immunology
Fonte: Journal of Virology, v. 90, n. 8, p. 4199-4214, 2016
ISSN: 1098-5514
Resumo: In a previous screen of putative interferon-stimulated genes, SUN2 was shown to inhibit HIV-1 infection in an uncharacterized manner. SUN2 is an inner nuclear membrane protein belonging to the linker of nucleoskeleton - cytoskeleton complex. We have analyzed here the role of SUN2 in HIV infection. We report that in contrast to what was initially thought, SUN2 is not induced by type-I interferon, - that SUN2 silencing does not modulate HIV infection. However, SUN2 overexpression in cell lines - in primary monocyte-derived dendritic cells inhibits replication of HIV but not murine leukemia virus or chikungunya virus. We identified HIV-1 - HIV-2 strains that are unaffected by SUN2, suggesting that the effect is specific to particular viral components or cofactors. Intriguingly, SUN2 overexpression induces a multilobular flower-like" nuclear shape that does not impact cell viability, - is similar to cells isolated from patients with HTLV-I-associated adult T-cell leukemia or with progeria. Nuclear shape changes - HIV inhibition both mapped to the nucleoplasmic domain of SUN2 that interacts with the nuclear lamina. This block to HIV replication occurs between reverse transcription - nuclear entry, - passaging experiments selected for a single amino acid change in capsid (CA) that leads to resistance to overexpressed SUN2. Furthermore, using chemical inhibition or silencing of cyclophilin A (CypA), as well as CA mutant viruses, we implicated CypA in the SUN2-imposed block to HIV infection. Our results demonstrate that SUN2 overexpression perturbs both nuclear shape - early events of HIV infection. Cells encode proteins that interfere with viral replication, a number of which have been identified in overexpression screens. SUN2 is a nuclear membrane protein that was shown to inhibit HIV infection in such a screen, but how it blocked HIV infection was not known. We show that SUN2 overexpression blocks infection of certain strains of HIV, before nuclear entry. Mutation of the viral capsid protein yielded SUN2-resistant HIV. Additionally, the inhibition of HIV infection by SUN2 involves Cyclophilin A, a protein that binds the HIV capsid - directs subsequent steps of infection. We also found that SUN2 overexpression substantially changes the shape of the cell's nucleus resulting in many "flower-like" nuclei. Both HIV inhibition - deformation of nuclear shape required the domain of SUN2 that interacts with the nuclear lamina. Our results demonstrate that SUN2 interferes with HIV infection, - highlight novel links between nuclear shape - viral infection."

167) Concern over Zika virus grips the world
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Samarasekera, Udani; Triunfol, Marcia
Assunto: Womens health, Mosquitoes, Disease control, Abortion, Pregnancy, Public health, Zika virus, Infections
Descritores: Zika virus - DNA ; Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Real Time PCR ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Repellent ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Chikungunya Fever ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Head circumference ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public Health ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: The Lancet, v. 387, n. 10018, p. 521-524, 2016.
ISSN: 0140-6736
Resumo: Worldwide concern over Zika virus and its temporal and geographical association with clusters of birth and neurological conditions escalated this week, with WHO declaring a Public Health Emergency of International Concern.

168) Chikungunya and Dengue virus infections during pregnancy: seroprevalence, seroincidence and maternal-fetal transmission, southern Thailand, 2009-2010
Autor: Laoprasopwattana K, Suntharasaj T, Petmanee P, Suddeaugrai O, Geater A
Assunto: CHIK; Chikungunya; Dengue viral infection; Seroprevalence
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Cytopathology ; Chikungunya virus - Flaviviridae ; Chikungunya virus - Pathogenesis ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Transmission ; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever ; Chikungunya virus - Dengue ; Chikungunya virus - Epidemic ; Chikungunya virus - Epidemiology ; Chikungunya virus - Public health
Fonte: Epidemiology & Infection, v. 144, n. 2, p. 381-388, 2016
ISSN: 1469-4409
Resumo: Limited information is available on the seroprevalence of chikungunya virus (CHIKV) infection - maternal-fetal transmission incidence of CHIKV - dengue virus (DENV) infections during the 2008-2009 CHIKV outbreak in southern Thail-. A community-based post-epidemic seroprevalence study was conducted in parturient women admitted to the Thepa District Hospital in Songkhla Province, Thail-, for delivery from November 2009 to May 2010. The women were tested for chikungunya (CHIK) IgM/IgG - dengue (DEN) IgM/IgG. Cord blood samples were also tested for CHIK IgM or DEN IgM in women who tested positive for CHIK IgM or DEN IgM, respectively. The seroprevalence of CHIKV infection (CHIK IgM or IgG positive) was 227/319 (71·2%) with pre-outbreak seroprevalence (IgM-/IgG+) of 43·6% - the seroprevalence of DENV infection was 288/319 (90·3%). Complications during pregnancy, newborn outcomes - congenital anomalies were not different in those who had recent, remote or no CHIKV infections. None of the newborns whose mothers were CHIK or DEN IgM positive had cord blood positive for both CHIK - DEN IgM. In conclusion, both CHIKV - DENV are endemic in southern Thail-; during the recent CHIKV outbreak CHIK seroprevalence increased from 43·6% to 71·2%.

169) Low seroprevalence indicates vulnerability of Eastern and Central Sudan to infection with Chikungunya virus
Autor: Adam Awadalkareem, Seidahmed Osama M E, Weber Christopher, Schnierle Barbara, Schmidt-Chanasit Jonas, Reiche Sven, Jassoy Christian
Assunto: Chikungunya; Epidemiology
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Arbovirus ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever ; Chikungunya virus - Epidemic ; Chikungunya virus - Epidemiology
Fonte: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases, v. 16, n. 4, p. 290-291, 2016
ISSN: 1557-7759
Resumo: Outbreaks of infections with chikungunya virus (CHIKV) have previously been reported from Sudan but the prevalence in the general population is unknown. We investigated the seroprevalence of CHIKV infection in 379 serum samples from patients with fever in the outpatient clinics of three hospitals in eastern - central Sudan. The seroprevalence was 1.8%, indicating that CHIKV infections are rare in these parts of Sudan. As the vector Aedes aegypti is endemic in this area, the population is at risk for a CHIKV epidemic.

170) Does the mosquito have more of a role in certain cancers than is currently appreciated? And The mosquito cocktail hypothesis
Autor: Ward M, Ward A, Johansson O
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever ; Chikungunya virus - Dengue
Fonte: Medical Hypotheses, v. 86, p. 85-91, 2016
ISSN: 1532-2777
Resumo: The International Agency for Research on Cancer recognises five viruses, one bacterium - three parasites as having a causal relationship to cancer, - one virus, HIV, that by suppressing the immune system assists in the development of cancer. In addition numerous researchers have claimed links between cancer - other viruses - bacteria, many of which have been isolated from tumours. Excluding the non-causal HIV, 33 infectious agents linked with cancer have been identified in the literature, 27 of which have one thing in common: they are all present in mosquitoes. There are over 3000 species of mosquito - very few have been fully analysed, so the six remaining infectious agents may be present in some unexamined species. This hypothesis proposes that more cancers than are presently appreciated may arise from the long-term outcome of a mosquito bite, which by releasing a complex cocktail of up to 60 infectious agents directly into the blood stream, often results in contemporaneous immuno-suppression - a multiplicity of co-infections. These co-infections may act synergistically in whole, or in part, - in complex ways. Whether - if so which type of cancer ensues will depend on the constituent ingredients in the cocktail, determined by multiple factors such as the mosquito's drinking - feeding patterns, number of previous blood-meals - the variety of intermediate hosts from which these meals are taken. Only a few mosquito species carry malaria, dengue fever, chikungunya - the other recognised serious human ailments. This hypothesis suggests that the number of species carrying the cancer cocktail will be few in number but collectively have a worldwide presence.

171) Mefenamic acid in combination with ribavirin shows significant effects in reducing chikungunya virus infection in vitro and in vivo
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Rothan, Hussin A.; Bahrani, Hirbod; Abdulrahman, Ammar Y.; Mohamed, Zulqarnain; Teoh, Teow Chong; Othman, Shatrah; Rashid, Nurshamimi Nor; Rahman, Noorsaadah A.; Yusof, Rohana
Assunto: Chikungunya virus; Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs; Mefenamic acid; Meclofenamic acid; Ribavirin
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Viral infections ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Antiviral Research, v. 127, n. , p. 50-56, 2016
ISSN: 0166-3542
Resumo: Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) infection is a persistent problem worldwide due to efficient adaptation of the viral vectors, Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus mosquitoes. Therefore, the absence of effective anti-CHUN drugs to combat chikungunya outbreaks often leads to a significant impact on public health care. In this study, we investigated the antiviral activity of drugs that are used to alleviate infection symptoms, namely, the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), on the premise that active compounds with potential antiviral and anti-inflammatory activities could be directly subjected for human use to treat CHIKV infections. Amongst the various NSAID compounds, Mefenamic acid (MEFE) and Meclofenamic acid (MECLO) showed considerable antiviral activity against viral replication individually or in combination with the common antiviral drug, Ribavirin (RIBA). The 50% effective concentration (EC50) was estimated to be 13 mu M for MEFE, 18 mu M for MECLO and 10 mu M for RIBA, while MEFE + RIBA (1:1) exhibited an EC50 of 3 mu M, and MECLO + RIBA (1:1) was 5 mu M. Because MEFE is commercially available and its synthesis is easier compared with MECLO, MEFE was selected for further in vivo antiviral activity analysis. Treatment with MEFE + RIBA resulted in a significant reduction of hypertrophic effects by CHIKN on the mouse liver and spleen. Viral titre quantification in the blood of CHIKV-infected mice through the plaque formation assay revealed that treatment with MEFE + RIBA exhibited a 6.5-fold reduction compared with untreated controls. In conclusion, our study demonstrated that MEFE in combination with RIBA exhibited significant anti-CHIKV activity by impairing viral replication in vitro and in vivo. Indeed, this finding may lead to an even broader application of these combinatorial treatments against other viral infections. (C) 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

172) Rapid molecular detection of Zika virus in urine using the recombinase polymerase amplification assay
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Wahed, Ahmed Abd El ; Sanabani, Sabri S. ; Faye, Oumar ; Pessoa, Rodrigo ; Patriota, Joao-Veras ; Rodrigues-Giorgi, Rodrigues ; Patel, Pranav ; Boehlken-Fascher, Susanne ; Landt, Olfert ; Niedrig, Matthias ; Zanotto, Paolo M. de A. ; Czerny, Claus-Peter ; Sall, Amadou A. ; Weidmann, Manfred
Assunto:
Descritores: ZIKV - Viral infections ; ZIKV - RT-PCR ; ZIKV - PCR detection
Fonte: BiorXiv Beta, 2016
ISSN:
Resumo: Currently detection of Zika virus (ZIKV) in patient samples is done by real-time RT-PCR. Samples collected from rural area are sent to highly equipped laboratories for screening. A rapid point-of-care test is needed to detect the virus, especially at low resource settings. Methodology/Principal Findings: In this report, we describe the development of a reverse transcription isothermal recombinase polymerase amplification (RT-RPA) assay for the identification of ZIKV. RT-RPA assay was portable, sensitive (21 RNA molecules), and rapid (3-15 minutes). No cross-reactivity was detected to other flaviviruses, alphaviruses and arboviruses. Compared to real-time RT-PCR, the diagnostic sensitivity was 92% while the specificity was 100%. Conclusions/Significance: The developed assay is a promising platform for rapid point of need detection of ZIKV in low resource settings and elsewhere (e.g. during mass gathering)

173) Zika virus genome from the Americas
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Enfissi A., Codrington J., Roosblad J., Kazanji M., Rousset D.
Assunto: RNA virus, virus genome, Zika virus
Descritores: Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Genome ; Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Epidemic
Fonte: The Lancet, v. 387, n. 10015, p. 227-228, jan. 2016
ISSN: 1474-547X (electronic),0140-6736
Resumo:

174) Guillain–Barré Syndrome associated with Zika virus infection in Colombia
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Parra, Beatriz ; Lizarazo, Jairo ; Jiménez-Arango, Jorge A. ; Zea-Vera, Andrés F. ; González-Manrique, Guillermo ; Vargas, José ; Angarita, Jorge A. ; Zuñiga, Gonzalo ; Lopez-Gonzalez, Reydmar; Beltran ; Cindy L. ; Rizcala, Karen H. ; Morales, Maria T. ; Pacheco, Oscar ; Ospina, Martha L. Ospina ; Kumae, Anupama Kumar ; Cornblath, David R. ; Muñoz, Laura S. ; Osorio, Lyda ; Barreras, Paula ; Pardo, Carlos A.
Assunto:
Descritores: ZIKV - Infectious diseases ; ZIKV - Inflammation ; ZIKV - Flaviviridae ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - virus
Fonte: The New England Journal os Medicine, v. 375, p. 1513-1523, 2016
ISSN: 1533-4406
Resumo: Zika virus (ZIKV), a mosquito-borne RNA flavivirus, has caused a major outbreak in the Americas that began in 2014.1 ZIKV infection manifests as a self-limited febrile syndrome associated with rash, conjunctivitis, and arthralgias.2-4 In 2013 and 2014, an increase in the number of cases of the Guillain–Barré syndrome was observed during an outbreak of ZIKV infection in French Polynesia.5,6 Recently, clusters of the Guillain–Barré syndrome and microcephaly have been spatially and temporally related to the current outbreak of ZIKV infection in the Americas.7 In Colombia, the government reported the first autochthonous case of ZIKV infection in October 2015.8 In December 2015, the Colombian Instituto Nacional de Salud (INS) documented an unusual number of cases of the Guillain–Barré syndrome in the Caribbean and the northeastern regions of Colombia. By January 2016, the outbreak of ZIKV infection had spread to most regions of Colombia. Concomitantly, an increase in the number of neuroinflammatory disorders was reported.7 Here, we describe an observational clinical and virologic study of the Guillain–Barré syndrome cases that were evaluated in the context of the ZIKV outbreak in Colombia, which further supports the association between ZIKV infection and the Guillain–Barré syndrome — in particular, the acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (AIDP) form of the syndrome

175) Rapid and long-term immunity elicited by DNA encoded antibody prophylaxis and DNA vaccination against Chikungunya virus
Autor: Muthumani Karuppiah, Block Peter, Flingai Seleeke, Muruganantham Nagarajan, Chaaithanya Itta Krishna, Tingey Colleen, Wise Megan, Reuschel Emma L, Chung Christopher, Muthumani Abirami, Sarangan Gopalsamy, Srikanth Padma, Khan Amir S, Vijayachari Paluru, Sardesai Niranjan Y, Kim J Joseph, Ugen Kenneth E, Weiner David B
Assunto: DNA plasmid; Chikungunya virus; dMAb; Monoclonal antibody; Passive antibody prophylaxis and therapy
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Cytopathology ; Chikungunya virus - DNA ; Chikungunya virus - Antibodies ; Chikungunya virus - Infectious diseases ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya virus - Molecular methods ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Vaccine
Fonte: The Journal of Infectious Diseases, v. 214, n. 3, p. 369-378, 2016
ISSN: 1537-6613
Resumo: Vaccination - passive antibody therapies are critical for controlling infectious diseases. Passive antibody administration has limitations including the necessity for purification - the delivery of multiple injections required for efficacy. Vaccination is associated with a lag phase before generation of immunity. Novel approaches reported here utilize the benefits of both methods for the rapid generation of effective immunity. An antibody-based prophylaxis/therapy entailing the electroporation-mediated delivery of synthetic plasmids, encoding biologically active anti-Chikungunya virus envelope mAb (designated dMAb), was designed - evaluated for anti-viral efficacy as well as for the ability to overcome shortcomings inherent with conventional active vaccination by a novel passive immune-based strategy. One intramuscular injection of the CHIKV-dMAb produced antibodies in vivo more rapidly than active vaccination with a CHIKV-DNA vaccine. This dMAb neutralized diverse CHIKV clinical isolates - protected mice from viral challenge. Combinations of both afford rapid as well as long-lived protection. We report that a DNA based dMAb strategy induces rapid protection against an emerging viral infection, which can be combined with DNA vaccination providing a uniquely both short term - long-term protection against this emerging infectious disease. These studies have implications for pathogen treatment - control strategies.

176) Chikungunya virus: recent advances in epidemiology, host pathogen interaction and vaccine strategies
Autor: Deeba Farah, Islam Asimul, Kazim Syed Naqui, Naqvi Irshad Hussain, Broor Shobha, Ahmed Anwar, Parveen Shama
Assunto: Chikungunya virus; Disease dissemination; Host-pathogen interactions
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Biochemistry ; Chikungunya virus - Cell ; Chikungunya virus - Pathogenesis ; Chikungunya virus - Cytokines ; Chikungunya virus - Molecular methods ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Molecular screening ; Chikungunya virus - Vaccine ; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever ; Chikungunya virus - Epidemic ; Chikungunya virus - Epidemiology ; Chikungunya virus - Public health
Fonte: Pathogens and Disease, v. 74, n. 3, 2016
ISSN: 2049-632X
Resumo: The Chikungunya virus is a re-emerging alphavirus that belongs to the family Togaviridae. The symptoms include fever, rashes, nausea - joint pain that may last for months. The laboratory diagnosis of the infection is based on the serologic assays, virus isolation - molecular methods. The pathogenesis of the Chikungunya viral infection is not completely understood. Some of the recent investigations have provided information on replication of the virus in various cells - organs. In addition, some recent reports have indicated that the severity of the disease is correlated with the viral load - cytokines. The Chikungunya virus infection re-emerged as an explosive epidemic during 2004-09 affecting millions of people in the Indian Ocean. Subsequent global attention was given to research on this viral pathogen due to its broad area of geographical distribution during this epidemic. Chikungunya viral infection has become a challenge for the public health system because of the absence of a vaccine as well as antiviral drugs. A number of potential vaccine c-idates have been tested on humans - animal models during clinical - preclinical trials. In this review, we mainly discuss the host-pathogen relationship, epidemiology - recent advances in the development of drugs - vaccines for the Chikungunya viral infection.

177) A comprehensiveeEntomological, serological and molecular study of 2013 Dengue outbreak of Swat, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan
Autor: Khan, Jehangir; Khan, Inamullah; Amin, Ibne
Assunto: Biological surveys; Human diseases; Pest control; Aquatic insects; Disease transmission; Public health; Genomes; Climatic changes; Pest outbreaks; Infection; Dengue; RNA-directed DNA polymerase; Environmental conditions; Larvae; Outbreaks; Dengue virus; Aedes aegypti; Aedes albopictus
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Viral infections ; Aedes aegypti - Molecular methods ; Aedes aegypti - virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Epidemic
Fonte: Plos One, v. 11, n. 2, 2016.
ISSN:
Resumo: Background Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus play a fundamental role in transmission of dengue virus to humans. A single infected Aedes mosquito is capable to act as a reservoir/amplifier host for dengue virus and may cause epidemics via horizontal and vertical modes of dengue virus (DENV) transmission. The present and future dengue development can be clarified by understanding the elements which help the dissemination of dengue transmission. The current study deals with molecular surveillance of dengue in addition to ecological and social context of 2013 dengue epidemics in Swat, Pakistan. Methods Herein, we reported dengue vectors surveillance in domestic and peridomistic containers in public and private places in 7 dengue epidemic-prone sites in District Swat, Pakistan from July to November 2013. Using the Flaviviruses genus-specific reverse transcriptase (RT) semi nested-PCR assay, we screened blood samples (N = 500) of dengue positive patients, 150 adult mosquito pools and 25 larval pools. Results The 34 adult and 7 larval mosquito pools were found positive. The adult positive pools comprised 30 pools of Ae. aegypti and 4 pools of Ae. albopictus, while among the 7 larval pools, 5 pools of Ae. aegypti and 2 pools of Ae. albopictus were positive. The detected putative genomes of dengue virus were of DENV-2 (35% in 14 mosquito pools & 39% in serum) and DENV-3 (65% in 27 mosquito pools & 61% in serum). The higher vector density and dengue transmission rate was recorded in July and August (due to favorable conditions for vector growth). About 37% of Ae. aegpti and 34% Ae. albopictus mosquitoes were collected from stagnant water in drums, followed by drinking water tanks (23% & 26%), tires (20% & 18%) and discarded containers (10% & 6%). Among the surveyed areas, Saidu was heavily affected (26%) by dengue followed by Kanju (20% and Landikas (12%). The maximum infection was observed in the age group of 45 (25%) years and was more in males (55.3%) as compare to females (44.7%). The increase in vector mosquito density and the subsequent viral transmission was determined by a complex interplay of ecological, biological and social factors. Conclusion The suitable environmental conditions and discriminable role of Aedes through trans-ovarial transmission of DENV is indispensable in the recent geographic increase of dengue in Pakistan. Climate change affects the survival and dispersion of vectors as well as the transmission rates of dengue. Control of Aedes mosquitoes (vectors) and elimination of breeding sources must be emphasized and prioritized. Such actions may not only reduce the risk of dengue transmission during epidemics, but also minimize the chances of dengue viruses establishment in new (non endemic) areas of the region.

178) Zika virus detection in urine from patients with Guillain-Barré syndrome on Martinique, January 2016
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Rozé, Benoît; Najioullah, Fatiha; Fergé, Jean-Louis; Apetse, Kossivi; Brouste, Yannick; Cesaire, Raymond; Fagour, Cédric; Fagour, Laurence; Hochedez, Patrick; Jeannin, Séverine; Joux, Julien; Mehdaoui, Hossein; Valentino, Ruddy; Signate, Aïssatou; Cabié, André
Assunto: Martinique, emerging or re-emerging diseases, outbreaks, vector-borne infections, viral infections
Descritores: Zika Virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika Virus - Viral infections ; Zika Virus - RNA virus
Fonte: Eurosurveillance, v. 21, n. 9, 2016.
ISSN: 1560-7917
Resumo: We report two cases of Guillain-Barré syndrome who had concomitant Zika virus viruria. This viruria persisted for longer than 15 days after symptom onset. The cases occurred on Martinique in January 2016, at the beginning of the Zika virus outbreak. Awareness of this possible neurological complication of ZikV infection is needed.

179) Zika virus spreads to new areas: region of the Americas, May 2015-January 2016
Autor: Hennessey, Morgan; Fischer, Marc; Staples, J. Erin
Assunto: Micronesia
Descritores: Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - RT-PCR ; Zika virus - Antibodies ; Zika virus - Biochemistry ; Zika virus - Cell ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - Viral infections
Fonte: Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, v. 65, n. 3, p. 55-58, 2016
ISSN: 0149-2195
Resumo:

180) Bilateral posterior uveitis associated with Zika virus infection
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Kodati, Shilpa; Palmore, Tara N.; Spellman, Frank A.; Cunningham, Denise; Weistrop, Benjamin; Sen, H Nida
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - PCR detection ; Zika virus - RT-PCR
Fonte: The Lancet, 2016
ISSN: 0140-6736
Resumo:

181) Proving Zika link to birth defects poses huge challenge.
Autor: Check Hayden Erika
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Cytopathology ; Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Pathogenesis ; Zika virus - Proteins ; Zika virus - Antibodies ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Immunology ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Nature, v. 530, n. 7589, p. 142-143, 2016
ISSN: 1476-4687
Resumo:

182) Zika virus infects human cortical neural progenitors and attenuates their growth
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Tang, Hengli; Hammack, Christy; Ogden, Sarah C; Wen, Zhexing; Qian, Xuyu; Li, Yujing; Yao, Bing; Shin, Jaehoon; Zhang, Feiran; Lee, Emily M; Christian, Kimberly M; Didier, Ruth A; Jin, Peng; Song, Hongjun; Ming, Guo-Li
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika Virus - Cell ; Zika Virus - RNA virus ; Zika Virus - Microcephaly
Fonte: Cell Stem Cell, v. 18, n. 5, p. 587-590, 2016.
ISSN: 1875-9777
Resumo: The suspected link between infection by Zika virus (ZIKV), a re-emerging flavivirus, and microcephaly is an urgent global health concern. The direct target cells of ZIKV in the developing human fetus are not clear. Here we show that a strain of the ZIKV, MR766, serially passaged in monkey and mosquito cells efficiently infects human neural progenitor cells (hNPCs) derived from induced pluripotent stem cells. Infected hNPCs further release infectious ZIKV particles. Importantly, ZIKV infection increases cell death and dysregulates cell-cycle progression, resulting in attenuated hNPC growth. Global gene expression analysis of infected hNPCs reveals transcriptional dysregulation, notably of cell-cycle-related pathways. Our results identify hNPCs as a direct ZIKV target. In addition, we establish a tractable experimental model system to investigate the impact and mechanism of ZIKV on human brain development and provide a platform to screen therapeutic compounds.

183) Researchers Focus on Solving the Zika Riddles.
Autor: Jacob Julie A
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Pathogenesis ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Immunology ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: The Journal of the American Medical Association, v. 315, n. 11, p. 1097-1099, 2016
ISSN: 1538-3598
Resumo:

184) Zika virus in the Americas - yet another arbovirus threat
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Fauci, Anthony S.; Morens, David M.
Assunto: Aedes aegypti; Arbovirus; Bed rest; Caribbean; Central America; Chikungunya; Clinical feature; Disease re-emergence; Disease surveillance; Ecological niche; Exhaustion; Eye pain; Fever; Genetic analysis; Guillain Barre syndrome; High risk population; Human; Maculopapular rash; Mosquito; Myalgia; Neurologic disease; Nonhuman; Pandemic; Patient monitoring; Polymerase chain reaction; Pregnant woman; Priority journal; Public health; Review; RNA virus infection; South America; Tick; United States; Virus transmission; Zika virus infection
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Zika fever ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Rash maculopapular ; Zika virus - Chikungunya Fever ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: New England Journal of Medicine, v. 374, n. 7, p. 601-604, 2016.
ISSN: 1533-4406
Resumo:

185) Cheating evolution: engineering gene drives to manipulate the fate of wild populations
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Champer, Jackson; Buchman, Anna; Akbari, Omar S
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Cell ; Zika virus - Genome ; Zika virus - Immune response ; Zika virus - Molecular structure ; Zika virus - DNA ; Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - Proteins ; Zika virus - Antibodies ; Zika virus - Immune response ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zuka virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Molecular methods ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Sexual ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Chikungunya Fever ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Nature Reviews. Genetics, v. 17, n. 3, p. 146-159, 2016.
ISSN: 1471-0056
Resumo: Engineered gene drives -- the process of stimulating the biased inheritance of specific genes -- have the potential to enable the spread of desirable genes throughout wild populations or to suppress harmful species, and may be particularly useful for the control of vector-borne diseases such as malaria. Although several types of selfish genetic elements exist in nature, few have been successfully engineered in the laboratory thus far. With the discovery of RNA-guided CRISPR-Cas9 (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats-CRISPR-associated 9) nucleases, which can be utilized to create, streamline and improve synthetic gene drives, this is rapidly changing. Here, we discuss the different types of engineered gene drives and their potential applications, as well as current policies regarding the safety and regulation of gene drives for the manipulation of wild populations.

186) A report on the outbreak of Zika virus on Easter Island, South Pacific, 2014
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Tognarelli, J.; Ulloa, S.; Villagra, E.; Lagos, J.; Aguayo, C.; Fasce, R.; Parra, B.; Mora, J.; Becerra, N.; Lagos, N.; Vera, L.; Olivares, B.; Vilches, M.; Fernandez, J.
Assunto: Zika virus; Outbreak; ZIKV
Descritores: Zika Virus - Viral infections ; Zika Virus - PCR detection ; Zika Virus - RT-PCR ; Zika Virus - RNA virus ; Zika Virus - Transmission
Fonte: Archives of Virology, v. 161, n. 3, p. 665-668, 2016.
ISSN: 0304-8608
Resumo: Zika virus (ZIKV) is an emerging mosquito-borne flavivirus circulating in Asia and Africa. In 2013, a large outbreak was reported on the archipelago of French Polynesia. In this study, we report the detection and molecular characterization of Zika virus for the first time in Chile from an outbreak among the inhabitants of Easter Island. A total of 89 samples from patients suspected of having ZIKV infection were collected between the period from January to May, 2014. Molecular diagnosis of the virus was performed by RT-PCR followed by the sequencing of the region containing the NS5 gene. A comparison of the viral nucleic acid sequence with those of other strains of ZIKA virus was performed using the MEGA software. Fifty-one samples were found positive for ZIKV by RT-PCR analysis. Further analysis of the NS5 gene revealed that the ZIKV strains identified in Easter Island were most closely related to those found in French Polynesia (99.8 to 99.9 % nt and 100 % aa sequence identity). These results strongly suggest that the transmission pathway leading to the introduction of Zika virus on Easter Island has its origin in French Polynesia.

187) Preventing Transmission of Zika Virus in Labor and Delivery Settings Through Implementation of Standard Precautions - United States, 2016.
Autor: Olson Christine K,Iwamoto Martha,Perkins Kiran M,Polen Kara N D,Hageman Jeffrey,Meaney-Delman Dana,Igbinosa Irogue I,Khan Sumaiya,Honein Margaret A,Bell Michael,Rasmussen Sonja A,Jamieson Denise J
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Sexual ; Zika virus - Transmission
Fonte: Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, v. 65, n. 11, p. 290-292, 2016
ISSN: 1545-861X
Resumo: Zika virus transmission was detected in the Region of the Americas (Americas) in Brazil in May 2015, and as of March 21, 2016, local mosquito-borne transmission of Zika virus had been reported in 32 countries and territories in the Americas, including Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands.* Most persons infected with Zika virus have a mild illness or are asymptomatic. However, increasing evidence supports a link between Zika virus infection during pregnancy and adverse pregnancy and birth outcomes (1), and a possible association between recent Zika virus infection and Guillain-Barré syndrome has been reported (2). Although Zika virus is primarily transmitted through the bite of Aedes species of mosquitoes, sexual transmission also has been documented (3). Zika virus RNA has been detected in a number of body fluids, including blood, urine, saliva, and amniotic fluid (3-5), and whereas transmission associated with occupational exposure to these body fluids is theoretically possible, it has not been documented. Although there are no reports of transmission of Zika virus from infected patients to health care personnel or other patients, minimizing exposures to body fluids is important to reduce the possibility of such transmission. CDC recommends Standard Precautions in all health care settings to protect both health care personnel and patients from infection with Zika virus as well as from blood-borne pathogens (e.g., human immunodeficiency virus [HIV] and hepatitis C virus [HCV]) (6). Because of the potential for exposure to large volumes of body fluids during the labor and delivery process and the sometimes unpredictable and fast-paced nature of obstetrical care, the use of Standard Precautions in these settings is essential to prevent possible transmission of Zika virus from patients to health care personnel.

188) Comparative analysis of viral RNA signatures on different RIG-I-like receptors
Autor: Sanchez David Raul Y, Combredet Chantal, Sismeiro Odile, Dillies Marie-Agnès, Jagla Bernd, Coppée Jean-Yves, Mura Marie, Guerbois Galla Mathilde, Despres Philippe, Tangy Frédéric, Komarova Anastassia V
Assunto: Human; Immunology; Infectious disease; Microbiology
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Genome ; Chikungunya virus - RNA ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Immunology
Fonte: eLife, v. 5, p. e11275, 2016
ISSN: 2050-084X
Resumo: The RIG-I-like receptors (RLRs) play a major role in sensing RNA virus infection to initiate - modulate antiviral immunity. They interact with particular viral RNAs, most of them being still unknown. To decipher the viral RNA signature on RLRs during viral infection, we tagged RLRs (RIG-I, MDA5, LGP2) - applied tagged protein affinity purification followed by next-generation sequencing (NGS) of associated RNA molecules. Two viruses with negative- - positive-sense RNA genome were used: measles (MV) - chikungunya (CHIKV). NGS analysis revealed that distinct regions of MV genome were specifically recognized by distinct RLRs: RIG-I recognized defective interfering genomes, whereas MDA5 - LGP2 specifically bound MV nucleoprotein-coding region. During CHIKV infection, RIG-I associated specifically to the 3' untranslated region of viral genome. This study provides the first comparative view of the viral RNA lig-s for RIG-I, MDA5 - LGP2 in the presence of infection.

189) Zika without symptoms in returning travellers: What are the implications?
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Ginier M., Neumayr A., Günther S., Schmidt-Chanasit J., Blum J.
Assunto: symptom, travel
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Serological diagnosis ; Zika virus - Sexual ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Chikungunya Fever ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease, v. 14, n. 1, p. 16-20, jan–feb. 2016
ISSN: 1873-0442 (electronic),1477-8939
Resumo: Against the background of the emergence and rapid spread of Zika virus (ZIKV) in the Americas, we report the case of an afebrile ZIKV infection in a traveller returning from Central America to highlight relevant clinical and diagnostic aspects. ZIKV should be considered in the differential diagnosis of patients with clinical symptoms suggestive of dengue or chikungunya fever. Given the frequent subfebril and afebrile manifestations of ZIKV infections, we propose abstaining from the term "Zika fever (ZF)" in favour of "Zika virus disease (ZVD)". Owing to its unspecific clinical presentation and cross-reactivity in serological assays, ZVD may easily be missed or misdiagnosed as dengue fever. Until conclusive data on the currently suspected link between ZIKV infection in pregnancy and foetal microcephaly become available, pregnant women and women who are trying to become pregnant should be advised against travelling to regions with ongoing ZIKV transmission. In addition, male travellers returning from regions with ongoing transmission should be informed of the potential risk of sexual transmission until conclusive data on the significance of this mode of transmission become available. Although probably low and seasonally restricted, there is a risk of ZIKV importation to Aedes mosquito-infested regions in temperate climates (including regions of North America and Europe) with consecutive autochthonous transmission.

190) Zika virus: diagnostics for an emerging pandemic threat
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Waggoner, Jesse J.; Pinsky, Benjamin A.
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika Virus - Arbovirus ; Zika Virus - Cytopathology ; Zika Virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika Virus - Viral infections ; Zika Virus - RNA virus ; Zika Virus - Dengue
Fonte: Journal of Clinical Microbiology, v. 54, n. 4, p. 860-867, 2016.
ISSN: 1098-660X
Resumo: Zika virus (ZIKV) is an Aedes mosquito-borne flavivirus that emerged in Brazil in 2015 and then rapidly spread throughout the tropical and subtropical Americas. Based on clinical criteria alone, ZIKV cannot be reliably distinguished from infections with other pathogens that cause an undifferentiated systemic febrile illness, including infections with two common arboviruses, dengue virus and chikungunya virus. This review details the methods that are available to diagnose ZIKV infection.

191) Clinical evaluation of a single-reaction real-time RT-PCR for pan-dengue and chikungunya virus detection.
Autor: Waggoner Jesse J,Ballesteros Gabriela,Gresh Lionel,Mohamed-Hadley Alisha,Tellez Yolanda,Sahoo Malaya K,Abeynayake Janaki,Balmaseda Angel,Harris Eva,Pinsky Benjamin A
Assunto: Background, Chikungunya virus, Dengue virus, Molecular diagnostics, Multiplex real-time RT-PCR
Descritores: Zika virus - Real Time PCR
Fonte: Journal of Clinical Virology, v. 78, p. 57-61, 2016
ISSN: 1873-5967
Resumo: Dengue virus (DENV) and chikungunya virus (CHIKV) now co-circulate throughout tropical regions of the world, with billions of people living at risk of infection. The differentiation of these infections is important for epidemiologic surveillance as well as clinical care, though widely-used molecular diagnostics for DENV and CHIKV require the performance of two to four separate PCR reactions for detection. In the current study, we sought to develop and evaluate a single-reaction, multiplex real-time RT-PCR (rRT-PCR) for the detection and differentiation of DENV and CHIKV (the pan-DENV-CHIKV rRT-PCR). From an alignment of all available CHIKV complete genome sequences in GenBank, a new CHIKV rRT-PCR was designed for use in multiplex with a previously described assay for pan-DENV detection. Analytical evaluation was performed in accordance with published recommendations, and the pan-DENV-CHIKV rRT-PCR was clinically compared to reference molecular diagnostics for DENV and CHIKV using 182 serum samples from suspected cases in Managua, Nicaragua. The pan-DENV-CHIKV rRT-PCR had a dynamic range extending from 7.0 to 2.0 log10copies/?L for each DENV serotype and CHIKV, and the lower limits of 95% detection were 7.9-37.4copies/?L. The pan-DENV-CHIKV rRT-PCR detected DENV in 81 patients compared to 75 using a reference, hemi-nested DENV RT-PCR, and it demonstrated perfect agreement with a reference CHIKV rRT-PCR (54 positive samples). The single-reaction, multiplex format of the pan-DENV-CHIKV rRT-PCR, combined with sensitive detection of both viruses, has the potential to improve detection while decreasing testing costs and streamlining molecular workflow.

192) Discovery of berberine, abamectin and ivermectin as antivirals against chikungunya and other alphaviruses
Autor: Varghese Finny S, Kaukinen Pasi, Gläsker Sabine, Bespalov Maxim, Hanski Leena, Wennerberg Krister, Kümmerer Beate M, Ahola Tero
Assunto: Alphavirus; Antiviral screening; Chikungunya virus; RNA replication; Yellow fever virus
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Arbovirus ; Chikungunya virus - Cell ; Chikungunya virus - Protein synthesis ; Chikungunya virus - RNA ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Molecular screening ; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever
Fonte: Antiviral Research, v. 126, p. 117-124, 2016
ISSN: 1872-9096
Resumo: Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is an arthritogenic arbovirus of the Alphavirus genus, which has infected millions of people after its re-emergence in the last decade. In this study, a BHK cell line containing a stable CHIKV replicon with a luciferase reporter was used in a high-throughput platform to screen approximately 3000 compounds. Following initial validation, 25 compounds were chosen as primary hits for secondary validation with wild type - reporter CHIKV infection, which identified three promising compounds. Abamectin (EC50 = 1.5 ?M) - ivermectin (EC50 = 0.6 ?M) are fermentation products generated by a soil dwelling actinomycete, Streptomyces avermitilis, whereas berberine (EC50 = 1.8 ?M) is a plant-derived isoquinoline alkaloid. They inhibited CHIKV replication in a dose-dependent manner - had broad antiviral activity against other alphaviruses - Semliki Forest virus - Sindbis virus. Abamectin - ivermectin were also active against yellow fever virus, a flavivirus. These compounds caused reduced synthesis of CHIKV genomic - antigenomic viral RNA as well as downregulation of viral protein expression. Time of addition experiments also suggested that they act on the replication phase of the viral infectious cycle.

193) The risk of dengue virus transmission in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania during an epidemic period of 2014
Autor: Mboera, Leonard E. G.; Mweya, Clement N.; Rumisha, Susan F.; Tungu, Patrick K.; Stanley, Grades; Makange, Mariam R.; Misinzo, Gerald; De Nardo, Pasquale; Vairo, Francesco; Oriyo, Ndekya M.
Assunto: Biological surveys; Human diseases; Transcription; Pest control; Hosts; Aquatic insects; Risks; Disease transmission; Public health; Houses; Serotypes; Epidemics; Vectors; Infection; Reverse transcription; Infestation; Carbon; Breeding; Dengue; Tires; Polymerase chain reaction; Traps; Plastics; Risk assessment; Containers; Housing; Households; Larvae; Residential areas; Outbreaks; Urban areas; Dengue virus; Aedes aegypti
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Real Time PCR ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Epidemic
Fonte: Plos Neglected Tropical Diseases, v. 10, n. 1, 2016.
ISSN: 1935-2727
Resumo: Until 2010, little was known about Dengue in Tanzania. Since then, four outbreaks have been reported in Dar es Salaam City. This study was therefore carried out to assess the risk of transmission of dengue in Dar es Salaam during an outbreak in 2014. In this study adult mosquitoes were collected using carbon dioxide-propane powered traps. In addition, household compounds were visited and all water-holding containers examined for presence of mosquito larvae and pupae. Mosquito virus infection was determined using real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Of the total of 1,000 adult mosquitoes collected, Aedes aegypti accounted for 17.2%. A total of 796 houses were inspected and 38.3% had water-holding containers in their premises. The most common breeding containers for the Aedes mosquitoes were discarded plastic containers and tires. High Aedes infestation indices were observed for all districts and sites, with a house and container indices ranging from 18.1-25.5% and 65.2-80.2%, respectively. The Breteaux indices were 30.6, 20.8 and 25.3 in Ilala, Kinondoni and Temeke, respectively. An overall 8.18% of mosquito pools were infected with dengue virus serotype 2. The overall maximum likelihood estimate of pooled infection rate of 8.49 per 1,000 mosquitoes was observed. This information is useful for the design of appropriate vector surveillance and control strategies in the City of Dar es Salaam.

194) Disability with persistent pain following an epidemic of Chikungunya in rural South India
Autor: Rahim Asma A, Thekkekara Romy Jose, Bina Thomas, Paul Binoy J
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Epidemic
Fonte: The Journal of Rheumatology, v. 43, n. 2, p. 440-444, 2016
ISSN: 0315-162X
Resumo: We investigated the effects of chronic rheumatic - musculoskeletal symptoms on the functional status of people affected by the chikungunya (CKG) epidemic in the Calicut District, Kerala, South India in 2009. A cross-sectional house-to-house survey was conducted 18 months after the CKG epidemic to assess functional status of individuals with post-epidemic persistent pain. All respondents over age 15 years with persistent pain fitting the epidemiological case definition were included. Participants' functional status was assessed using the Health Assessment Questionnaire-Disability Index (HAQ-DI). Factors affecting severity of HAQ-DI were analyzed by ordinal regression. Of 3869 subjects interviewed, 1195 (34.3%) had a positive history of CHIKV virus infection (epidemiological or confirmed); 36.28% (624/1720) of CKG-affected individuals had persistent pain 18 months post epidemic. Mean age of those affected was 48.22 ± 15.6 years; 23.2% had no disability, while 16.2% had moderate to severe disability on the HAQ-DI. Significant factors affecting severity of disability on HAQ-DI included previous rheumatic musculoskeletal disease (OR 2.27), joint - soft-tissue involvement (OR 3.74), only joint involvement (OR 2.14), female sex (OR 1.44), diet (OR 4.73), - history of joint swelling (OR 1.72). Persistence of pain noted in post-CKG disease resulted in significantly deteriorated functional status of those affected.

195) Update: interim guidelines for health care providers caring for pregnant women and women of reproductive age with possible Zika Virus exposure - United States, 2016
Autor: Oduyebo, Titilope; Petersen, Emily E.; Rasmussen, Sonja A.; Mead, Paul S.; Meaney-Delman, Dana; Renquist, Christina M.; Ellington, Sascha R.; Fischer, Marc; Staples, J. Erin; Powers, Ann M.; Villanueva, Julie; Galang, Romeo R.; Dieke, Ada; Munoz, Jorge L.; Honein, Margaret A.; Jamieson, Denise J.
Assunto: Infection; Antibody
Descritores: Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Antibodies ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Viral infections
Fonte: Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, v. 65, n. 5, p. 122-127, 2016
ISSN: 0149-2195
Resumo:

196) Zika virus and pregnancy: a review of the literature and clinical considerations
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Marrs, Caroline; Olson, Gayle; Saade, George; Hankins, Gary; Wen, Tony; Patel, Janak; Weaver, Scott
Assunto: Zika virus; Pregnancy; Fetus; Transmission; Microcephaly
Descritores: Zika Virus - Cytopathology ; Zika Virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika Virus - Viral infections ; Zika Virus - RNA virus ; Zika Virus - Epidemic ; Zika Virus - Immunology ; Zika Virus - Microcephaly
Fonte: American Journal of Perinatology, v. 33, n. 7, p. 625-639, 2016.
ISSN: 1098-8785
Resumo: The latest Zika virus (ZIKV) outbreak has reached epidemic proportions as it spreads throughout South and Central America. In November 2015, the Brazilian Ministry of Health reported a 20-fold increase in the number of cases of neonatal microcephaly, which corresponds geographically and temporally to the ZIKV outbreak. Case reports have provided some evidence of a causal link between maternal ZIKV infection, fetal microcephaly, and intracranial calcifications. The sparse data regarding ZIKV in pregnancy come solely from case reports and personal communications, and recommendations for management of ZIKV exposure during pregnancy are rapidly evolving. Our objective is to review and synthesize the current literature regarding ZIKV as it pertains to pregnancy and provide some assistance to clinicians who may have to manage a pregnant patient with potential exposure to ZIKV. We will also explore certain aspects of related viruses in pregnancy in hopes to shed light on this little-known topic.

197) Local transmission of zika virus - Puerto Rico, November 23, 2015-January 28, 2016
Autor: Thomas, Dana L.; Sharp, Tyler M.; Torres, Jomil; Armstrong, Paige A.; Munoz-Jordan, Jorge; Ryff, Kyle R.; Martinez-Quinones, Alma; Arias-Berrios, Jose; Mayshack, Marrielle; Garayalde, Glenn J.; Saavedra, Sonia; Luciano, Carlos A.; Valencia-Prado, Miguel; Waterman, Steve; Rivera-Garcia, Brenda
Assunto: States
Descritores: Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Viral infections
Fonte: Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, v. 65, n. 6, p. 154-158, 2016.
ISSN: 0149-2195
Resumo:

198) Zika Virus on the MoveReferences
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor:
Assunto: single-stranded RNA virus, Zika virus
Descritores: Zika virus - Cell ; Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Genome ; Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Dengue
Fonte: Cell, v. 164, n. 4, p. 585-586, feb. 2016
ISSN: 1097-4172 (electronic),0092-8674
Resumo:

199) Interim guidelines for prevention of sexual transmission of zika virus - United States, 2016
Autor: Oster, Alexandra M.; Brooks, John T.; Stryker, Jo Ellen; Kachur, Rachel E.; Mead, Paul; Pesik, Nicki T.; Petersen, Lyle R.
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Immunology ; Zika virus - Immunopathology ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Sexual ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Viral infections
Fonte: Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, v. 65, n. 5, p. 120-121, 2016.
ISSN: 0149-2195
Resumo:

200) Alphavirus capsid proteins self-assemble into core-like particles in insect cells: A promising platform for nanoparticle vaccine development
Autor: Hikke Mia C, Geertsema Corinne, Wu Vincen, Metz Stefan W, van Lent Jan W, Vlak Just M, Pijlman Gorben P
Assunto: Alphavirus; Baculovirus expression; Core-like particle; Protein carrier; Subunit vaccine
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Cell ; Chikungunya virus - Proteins ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Vaccine
Fonte: Biotechnology Journal, v. 11, n. 2, p. 266-273, 2016
ISSN: 1860-7314
Resumo: The mosquito-borne chikungunya virus (CHIKV) causes arthritic diseases in humans, whereas the aquatic salmonid alphavirus (SAV) is associated with high mortality in aquaculture of salmon - trout. Using modern biotechnological approaches, promising vaccine c-idates based upon highly immunogenic, enveloped virus-like particles (eVLPs) have been developed. However, the eVLP structure (core, lipid membrane, surface glycoproteins) is more complex than that of non-enveloped, protein-only VLPs, which are structurally - morphologically 'simple'. In order to develop an alternative to alphavirus eVLPs, in this paper we engineered recombinant baculovirus vectors to produce high levels of alphavirus core-like particles (CLPs) in insect cells by expression of the CHIKV - SAV capsid proteins. The CLPs localize in dense nuclear bodies within the infected cell nucleus - are purified through a rapid - scalable protocol involving cell lysis, sonication - low-speed centrifugation steps. Furthermore, an immunogenic epitope from the alphavirus E2 glycoprotein can be successfully fused to the N-terminus of the capsid protein without disrupting the CLP self-assembling properties. We propose that immunogenic epitope-tagged alphavirus CLPs produced in insect cells present a simple - perhaps more stable alternative to alphavirus eVLPs.

201) The Convergence of a Virus, Mosquitoes, and Human Travel in Globalizing the Zika Epidemic
Autor: Imperato Pascal James
Assunto: Aedes aegypti; Guillain-Barré syndrome; Kisubi Catholic Mission; Microcephaly; Zika Forest and Pascal James Imperato; Zika virus; Zika virus and travel; Zika virus infection
Descritores: Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Virus ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Sexual ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Transmission ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Dengue ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Epidemic ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Microcephaly ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Public health
Fonte: Journal of Community Health, v. 41, n. 3, p. 674-679, 2016
ISSN: 1573-3610
Resumo: The Zika virus was first identified in 1947 in the Zika Forest of Uganda. It was discovered in a rhesus monkey that had been placed in a cage on a sentinel platform in the forest by the Virus Research Institute. When this writer visited the institute and the Zika Forest in 1961, work was underway to identify mosquito species at various levels of the tree canopy. This was done through the placement of traps at various levels of a 120-foot-high steel tower which this writer climbed. At that time, researchers isolated 12 strains of Zika virus from traps on the tower. Over the next six decades, the virus spread slowly to other parts of Africa, and eventually appeared in Southeast Asia, transmitted by Aedes aegypti and other Aedes mosquito species. By 1981, only 14 cases of illness had been reported as due to the Zika virus. Since most infections with this virus are either mild or asymptomatic, its true geographic spread was not fully appreciated. The current globalization of the Zika epidemic began on the Pacific island of Yap in the Federated States of Polynesia in 2007. This was the first known presence of the Zika virus outside of Africa and Southeast Asia. It was estimated that 73 % of the island's population had been infected. In 2013, the virus spread to French Polynesia where an estimated 28,000 cases occurred in a population of 270,000. During that year and afterwards, microcephaly and other congenital abnormalities were observed in the infants of women who were pregnant when they contracted the virus. It is currently not known if cases of microcephaly have resulted from infection of pregnant women or from infection plus some other co-factor. The epidemic rapidly spread to the Cook Islands and Easter Island. In 2015, Zika virus infection was diagnosed in Brazil where it was associated with microcephaly in the infants of some women who were pregnant when they contracted the disease. Cases of the Guillain-Barré syndrome were also found to be associated with Zika virus infection. How the disease entered Brazil is a matter of conjecture. However, the strain responsible for the epidemic in Brazil and elsewhere in South and Central America is phylogenetically identical to that which caused the epidemic in French Polynesia. The wide distribution of Aedes aegypti, a principal vector of the virus, and other Aedes species has greatly facilitated the spread of the disease. Aedes aegypti is an invasive species of mosquito in the Western Hemisphere that has adapted well to densely-populated urban environments. In addition, male-to-female human sexual transmission has increasingly been demonstrated in the US and elsewhere. In February 2016, the World Health Organization (WHO) declared the current Zika outbreak a Public Health Emergency of international concern. On the recommendation of its Emergency Committee on Zika Virus and Observed Increase in Neurological Disorders and Neonatal Malformations, WHO issued a group of recommendations to contain the epidemic. The globalization of the Zika virus was made possible by the widespread presence in various parts of the world of Aedes vectors and increased human travel that facilitated geographic spread. This globalization of Zika follows upon that of West Nile, Ebola, Dengue, and Chikungunya. Its ultimate spread is difficult to predict, but will hopefully be restricted through vigorous preventive measures.

202) Comparison of Mosquito magnet and Biogents sentinel traps for operational surveillance of container-inhabiting Aedes (Diptera: Culicidae) Species
Autor: Rochlin Ilia, Kawalkowski Margaret, Ninivaggi Dominick V
Assunto: Aedes albopictus; Aedes japonicus; Chikungunya; Dengue; West Nile virus
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Transmission ; Chikungunya virus - Dengue
Fonte: Journal of Medical Entomology, v. 53, n. 2, p. 454-459, 2016
ISSN: 0022-2585
Resumo: Container-inhabiting Aedes are among the most medically important mosquito vectors of diseases. They also impact health - quality of life by their persistent - severe biting. Monitoring of container-inhabiting Aedes species is challenging due to the need for specialized traps - lures. Biogents Sentinel (BGS) trap has become a st-ard for Aedes albopictus (Skuse) surveillance; however, it has substantial problems with durability, quality of construction, - sample exposure to the elements. The goal of this study was to develop a methodology for collecting medically important container-inhabiting Aedes species in numbers sufficient for population trend analysis, control efficacy studies, - pathogen testing. Mosquito Magnets (MM) baited with BG lure - R-octenol were selected as the most practical alternative to BGS, collecting significantly more Ae. albopictus (32.1 ± 0.7 vs. 5.6 ± 0.1), Aedes japonicus (Theobald) (10.1 ± 0.4 vs. 1.2 ± 0.02), - Aedes triseriatus (Say) (0.9 ± 0.04 vs. 0.04 ± 0.004) females on average per trapping under a variety of weather conditions. MM can be particularly useful for long-term surveillance or when large numbers of specimens are required for pathogen isolation, such as at the sites with suspected dengue or chikungunya transmission.

203) Zika virus infection-the next wave after dengue?
Autor: Wong Samson Sai-Yin,Poon Rosana Wing-Shan,Wong Sally Cheuk-Ying
Assunto: Aedes; Flavivirus; Zika virus; Congenital abnormalities; travel medicine
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Epidemic ; Aedes aegypti - Immunology ; Aedes aegypti - Microcephaly
Fonte: Journal of the Formosan Medical Association = Taiwan yi zhi, v. 115, n. 4, p. 226-242, 2016
ISSN: 0929-6646
Resumo: Zika virus was initially discovered in east Africa about 70 years ago and remained a neglected arboviral disease in Africa and Southeast Asia. The virus first came into the limelight in 2007 when it caused an outbreak in Micronesia. In the ensuing decade, it spread widely in other Pacific islands, after which its incursion into Brazil in 2015 led to a widespread epidemic in Latin America. In most infected patients the disease is relatively benign. Serious complications include Guillain-Barré syndrome and congenital infection which may lead to microcephaly and maculopathy. Aedes mosquitoes are the main vectors, in particular, Ae. aegypti. Ae. albopictus is another potential vector. Since the competent mosquito vectors are highly prevalent in most tropical and subtropical countries, introduction of the virus to these areas could readily result in endemic transmission of the disease. The priorities of control include reinforcing education of travellers to and residents of endemic areas, preventing further local transmission by vectors, and an integrated vector management programme. The container habitats of Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus means engagement of the community and citizens is of utmost importance to the success of vector control.

204) Zika virus infection in pregnant women in Rio de Janeiro - preliminary report
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Brasil, Patrícia; Pereira, Jose P; Raja Gabaglia, Claudia; Damasceno, Luana; Wakimoto, Mayumi; Ribeiro Nogueira, Rita M; Carvalho de Sequeira, Patrícia; Machado Siqueira, André; Abreu de Carvalho, Liege M; Cotrim da Cunha, Denise; Calvet, Guilherme A; Neves, Elizabeth S; Moreira, Maria E; Rodrigues Baião, Ana E; Nassar de Carvalho, Paulo R; Janzen, Carla; Valderramos, Stephanie G; Cherry, James D; Bispo de Filippis, Ana M; Nielsen-Saines, Karin
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika Virus - RT-PCR ; Zika Virus - RNA virus ; Zika Virus - Microcephaly ; Zika Virus - Rash maculopapular ; Zika Virus - Zika fever
Fonte: The New England Journal of Medicine, 2016.
ISSN: 1533-4406
Resumo: Background Zika virus (ZIKV) has been linked to neonatal microcephaly. To characterize the spectrum of ZIKV disease in pregnancy, we followed patients in Rio de Janeiro to describe clinical manifestations in mothers and repercussions of acute ZIKV infection in fetuses. Methods We enrolled pregnant women in whom a rash had developed within the previous 5 days and tested blood and urine specimens for ZIKV by reverse-transcriptase-polymerase-chain-reaction assays. We followed the women prospectively and collected clinical and ultrasonographic data. Results A total of 88 women were enrolled from September 2015 through February 2016; of these 88 women, 72 (82%) tested positive for ZIKV in blood, urine, or both. The timing of acute ZIKV infection ranged from 5 to 38 weeks of gestation. Predominant clinical features included pruritic descending macular or maculopapular rash, arthralgias, conjunctival injection, and headache; 28% had fever (short-term and low-grade). Women who were positive for ZIKV were more likely than those who were negative for the virus to have maculopapular rash (44% vs. 12%, P=0.02), conjunctival involvement (58% vs. 13%, P=0.002), and lymphadenopathy (40% vs. 7%, P=0.02). Fetal ultrasonography was performed in 42 ZIKV-positive women (58%) and in all ZIKV-negative women. Fetal abnormalities were detected by Doppler ultrasonography in 12 of the 42 ZIKV-positive women (29%) and in none of the 16 ZIKV-negative women. Adverse findings included fetal deaths at 36 and 38 weeks of gestation (2 fetuses), in utero growth restriction with or without microcephaly (5 fetuses), ventricular calcifications or other central nervous system (CNS) lesions (7 fetuses), and abnormal amniotic fluid volume or cerebral or umbilical artery flow (7 fetuses). To date, 8 of the 42 women in whom fetal ultrasonography was performed have delivered their babies, and the ultrasonographic findings have been confirmed. Conclusions Despite mild clinical symptoms, ZIKV infection during pregnancy appears to be associated with grave outcomes, including fetal death, placental insufficiency, fetal growth restriction, and CNS injury.

205) Zika Virus as a Cause of Neurologic Disorders
Autor: Broutet Nathalie,Krauer Fabienne,Riesen Maurane,Khalakdina Asheena,Almiron Maria,Aldighieri Sylvain,Espinal Marcos,Low Nicola,Dye Christopher
Assunto:
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission
Fonte: The New England Journal of Medicine, v. 374, n. 16, p. 1506-1509, 2016
ISSN: 1533-4406
Resumo: Zika virus infections have been known in Africa and Asia since the 1940s, but the virus's geographic range has expanded dramatically since 2007. Between January 1, 2007, and March 1, 2016, local transmission was reported in an additional 52 countries and territories, mainly in the Americas and the western Pacific, but also in Africa and southeast Asia. Zika virus infections acquired by travelers visiting those countries have been discovered at sites worldwide. Aedes aegypti mosquitoes are the principal vectors, though other mosquito species may contribute to transmission. The virus was found to be neurotropic in animals in experiments conducted in . . .

206) Comparative genomic analysis of pre-epidemic and epidemic zika virus strains for virological factors potentially associated with the rapidly expanding epidemic
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Zhu, Zheng; Chan, Jasper Fuk-Woo; Tee, Kah-Meng; Choi, Garnet Kwan-Yue; Lau, Susanna Kar-Pui; Woo, Patrick Chiu-Yat; Tse, Herman; Yuen, Kwok-Yung
Assunto: Arbovirus; Flavivirus; Genome; Microcephaly; Mosquito; Mutation; Virus; Zika
Descritores: Zika Virus - Genome ; Zika Virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika Virus - Viral infections ; Zika Virus - RNA virus ; Zika Virus - Epidemic ; Zika Virus - Immunology
Fonte: Emerging Microbes & Infections, v. 5, n. e22, 2016.
ISSN: 2222-1751
Resumo: Less than 20 sporadic cases of human Zika virus (ZIKV) infection were reported in Africa and Asia before 2007, but large outbreaks involving up to 73% of the populations on the Pacific islands have started since 2007, and spread to the Americas in 2014. Moreover, the clinical manifestation of ZIKV infection has apparently changed, as evident by increasing reports of neurological complications, such as Guillain-Barré syndrome in adults and congenital anomalies in neonates. We comprehensively compared the genome sequences of pre-epidemic and epidemic ZIKV strains with complete genome or complete polyprotein sequences available in GenBank. Besides the reported phylogenetic clustering of the epidemic strains with the Asian lineage, we found that the topology of phylogenetic tree of all coding regions is the same except that of the non-structural 2B (NS2B) coding region. This finding was confirmed by bootscan analysis and multiple sequence alignment, which suggested the presence of a fragment of genetic recombination at NS2B with that of Spondweni virus. Moreover, the representative epidemic strain possesses one large bulge of nine bases instead of an external loop on the first stem-loop structure at the 3'-untranslated region just distal to the stop codon of the NS5 in the 1947 pre-epidemic prototype strain. Fifteen amino acid substitutions are found in the epidemic strains when compared with the pre-epidemic strains. As mutations in other flaviviruses can be associated with changes in virulence, replication efficiency, antigenic epitopes and host tropism, further studies would be important to ascertain the biological significance of these genomic changes.

207) Zika Virus: New Clinical Syndromes and its Emergence in the Western Hemisphere
Autor: Lazear Helen M,Diamond Michael S
Assunto:
Descritores: Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Cytopathology ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Virus ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Vaccine ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Dengue ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Epidemiology ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Immunology ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Microcephaly ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Public health
Fonte: Journal of Virology, v. 90, n. 10, p. 4864-4875, 2016
ISSN: 1098-5514
Resumo: Zika virus (ZIKV) had remained a relatively obscure flavivirus until a recent series of outbreaks accompanied by unexpectedly severe clinical complications brought this virus into the spotlight as an infection of global public health concern. In this review, we discuss the history and epidemiology of ZIKV infection, recent outbreaks in Oceania and the emergence of ZIKV in the Western Hemisphere, newly ascribed complications of ZIKV infection including Guillain-Barré syndrome and microcephaly, potential interactions between ZIKV and dengue virus, and the prospects for the development of antiviral agents and vaccines.

208) A report on the outbreak of zika virus on Easter Island, South Pacific, 2014
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Tognarelli, J.; Ulloa, S.; Villagra, E.; Lagos, J.; Aguayo, C.; Fasce, R.; Parra, B.; Mora, J.; Becerra, N.; Vera, L.; Olivares, B.; Vilches, M.; Fernández, J.
Assunto: Easter Island; Outbreak; South Pacific; Zika virus; ZIKV
Descritores: Zika Virus - PCR detection ; Zika Virus - RT-PCR ; Zika Virus - transmission
Fonte: Archives of Virology, v. 161, n. 3, p. 665-668, 2016.
ISSN: 0304-8608
Resumo: Zika virus (ZIKV) is an emerging mosquito-borne flavivirus circulating in Asia and Africa. In 2013, a large outbreak was reported on the archipelago of French Polynesia. In this study, we report the detection and molecular characterization of Zika virus for the first time in Chile from an outbreak among the inhabitants of Easter Island. A total of 89 samples from patients suspected of having ZIKV infection were collected between the period from January to May, 2014. Molecular diagnosis of the virus was performed by RT-PCR followed by the sequencing of the region containing the NS5 gene. A comparison of the viral nucleic acid sequence with those of other strains of ZIKA virus was performed using the MEGA software. Fifty-one samples were found positive for ZIKV by RT-PCR analysis. Further analysis of the NS5 gene revealed that the ZIKV strains identified in Easter Island were most closely related to those found in French Polynesia (99.8 to 99.9 percent nt and 100 percent aa sequence identity). These results strongly suggest that the transmission pathway leading to the introduction of Zika virus on Easter Island has its origin in French Polynesia.

209) Interim Guidelines for Prevention of Sexual Transmission of Zika Virus - United States, 2016.
Autor: Oster Alexandra M; Brooks John T.; Stryker Jo Ellen; Kachur Rachel E.; Mead Paul; Pesik Nicki T.; Petersen Lyle R.
Assunto:
Descritores: Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Virus ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Sexual ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Transmission ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Vaccine ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Microcephaly
Fonte: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, v. 201665, n. 5, p. 120-121
ISSN: 1545-861X
Resumo: Zika virus is a mosquito-borne flavivirus primarily transmitted by Aedes aegypti mosquitoes (1,2). Infection with Zika virus is asymptomatic in an estimated 80% of cases (2,3), and when Zika virus does cause illness, symptoms are generally mild and self-limited. Recent evidence suggests a possible association between maternal Zika virus infection and adverse fetal outcomes, such as congenital microcephaly (4,5), as well as a possible association with Guillain-Barré syndrome. Currently, no vaccine or medication exists to prevent or treat Zika virus infection. Persons residing in or traveling to areas of active Zika virus transmission should take steps to prevent Zika virus infection through prevention of mosquito bites (http://www.cdc.gov/zika/prevention/).

210) Chikungunya: out of the tropical forests and heading our way ?
Autor: Rowland-Jones Sarah L
Assunto: Aedes mosquito; Alpha virus; Arthritis; Immunopathology; Vaccine
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Immunopathology ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Vaccine
Fonte: Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, v. 110, n. 2, p. 85-86, 2016
ISSN: 1878-3503
Resumo:

211) Local Transmission of Zika Virus - Puerto Rico, November 23, 2015-January 28, 2016.
Autor: Thomas Dana L,Sharp Tyler M,Torres Jomil,Armstrong Paige A,Munoz-Jordan Jorge,Ryff Kyle R,Martinez-Quiñones Alma,Arias-Berríos José,Mayshack Marrielle,Garayalde Glenn J,Saavedra Sonia,Luciano Carlos A,Valencia-Prado Miguel,Waterman Steve,Rivera-García Brenda
Assunto:
Descritores: Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Virus ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Repellent ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Transmission ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Microcephaly ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Public health ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Zika fever
Fonte: Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, v. 65, n. 6, p. 154-158, 2016
ISSN: 1545-861X
Resumo: Zika virus, a mosquito-borne flavivirus, spread to the Region of the Americas (Americas) in mid-2015, and appears to be related to congenital microcephaly and Guillain-Barré syndrome (1,2). On February 1, 2016, the World Health Organization (WHO) declared the occurrence of microcephaly cases in association with Zika virus infection to be a Public Health Emergency of International Concern.* On December 31, 2015, Puerto Rico Department of Health (PRDH) reported the first locally acquired (index) case of Zika virus disease in a jurisdiction of the United States in a patient from southeastern Puerto Rico. During November 23, 2015-January 28, 2016, passive and enhanced surveillance for Zika virus disease identified 30 laboratory-confirmed cases. Most (93%) patients resided in eastern Puerto Rico or the San Juan metropolitan area. The most frequently reported signs and symptoms were rash (77%), myalgia (77%), arthralgia (73%), and fever (73%). Three (10%) patients were hospitalized. One case occurred in a patient hospitalized for Guillain-Barré syndrome, and one occurred in a pregnant woman. Because the most common mosquito vector of Zika virus, Aedes aegypti, is present throughout Puerto Rico, Zika virus is expected to continue to spread across the island. The public health response in Puerto Rico is being coordinated by PRDH with assistance from CDC. Clinicians in Puerto Rico should report all cases of microcephaly, Guillain-Barré syndrome, and suspected Zika virus disease to PRDH. Other adverse reproductive outcomes, including fetal demise associated with Zika virus infection, should be reported to PRDH. To avoid infection with Zika virus, residents of and visitors to Puerto Rico, particularly pregnant women, should strictly follow steps to avoid mosquito bites, including wearing pants and long-sleeved shirts, using permethrin-treated clothing and gear, using an Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)-registered insect repellent, and ensuring that windows and doors have intact screens.

212) Correction for Okabayashi et al., detection of Chikungunya virus antigen by a novel rapid immunochromatographic test
Autor: Okabayashi Tamaki, Sasaki Tadahiro, Masrinoul Promsin, Chantawat Nantarat, Yoksan Sutee, Nitatpattana Narong, Chusri Sarunyou, Morales Vargas Ronald E, Grandadam Marc, Brey Paul T, Soegijanto Soegeng, Mulyantno Kris Cahyo, Churrotin Siti, Kotaki Tomohiro, Faye Oumar, Faye Ousmane, Sow Abdourahmane, Sall Amadou Alpha, Puiprom Orapim, Chaichana Panjaporn, Kurosu Takeshi, Kato Seiji, Kosaka Mieko, Ramasoota Pongrama, Ikuta Kazuyoshi
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Infectious diseases ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Vaccine ; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever
Fonte: Journal of Clinical Microbiology, v. 54, n. 4, p. 1173-1174, 2016
ISSN: 1098-660X
Resumo:

213) Hepatitis E virus and neurological injury.
Autor: Dalton Harry R; Kamar Nassim; van Eijk Jeroen J. J.; Mclean Brendan N; Cintas Pascal; Bendall Richard P.; Jacobs Bart C.
Assunto:
Descritores: Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Virus ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Immunology
Fonte: Nature Reviews, v. 12, n. 2, 77-85, 2016
ISSN: 1759-4766
Resumo: Hepatitis E is hyperendemic in many developing countries in Asia and Africa, and is caused by hepatitis E virus (HEV) genotypes 1 and 2, which are spread via the faecal-oral route by contaminated water. Recent data show that HEV infection is also endemic in developed countries. In such geographical settings, hepatitis E is caused by HEV genotypes 3 and 4, and is mainly a porcine zoonosis. In a minority of cases, HEV causes acute and chronic hepatitis, but infection is commonly asymptomatic or unrecognized. HEV infection is associated with a number of extrahepatic manifestations, including a range of neurological injuries. To date, 91 cases of HEV-associated neurological injury - most commonly, Guillain-Barré syndrome, neuralgic amyotrophy, and encephalitis/myelitis - have been reported. Here, we review the reported cases, discuss possible pathogenic mechanisms, and present our perspectives on future directions and research questions.

214) Zika virus: history, emergence, biology, and prospects for control
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Weaver, Scott C.; Costa, Federico; Garcia-Blanco, Mariano A.; Ko, Albert I.; Ribeiro, Guilherme S.; Saade, George; Shi, Pei-Yong; Vasilakis, Nikos
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika Virus - Biochemistry ; Zika Virus - Cytopathology ; Zika Virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika Virus - Viral infections ; Zika Virus - RNA virus ; Zika Virus - Transmission ; Zika Virus - Vaccine ; Zika Virus - Dengue ; Zika Virus - Epidemic ; Zika Virus - Epidemiology ; Zika Virus - Immunology ; Zika Virus - Microcephaly ; Zika Virus - Public health ; Zika Virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Antiviral Research, v. 130, p. 69-80, 2016.
ISSN: 1872-9096
Resumo: Zika virus (ZIKV), a previously obscure flavivirus closely related to dengue, West Nile, Japanese encephalitis and yellow fever viruses, has emerged explosively since 2007 to cause a series of epidemics in Micronesia, the South Pacific, and most recently the Americas. After its putative evolution in sub-Saharan Africa, ZIKV spread in the distant past to Asia and has probably emerged on multiple occasions into urban transmission cycles involving Aedes (Stegomyia) spp. mosquitoes and human amplification hosts, accompanied by a relatively mild dengue-like illness. The unprecedented numbers of people infected during recent outbreaks in the South Pacific and the Americas may have resulted in enough ZIKV infections to notice relatively rare congenital microcephaly and Guillain-Barré syndromes. Another hypothesis is that phenotypic changes in Asian lineage ZIKV strains led to these disease outcomes. Here, we review potential strategies to control the ongoing outbreak through vector-centric approaches as well as the prospects for the development of vaccines and therapeutics.

215) Unique PFK regulatory property from some mosquito vectors of disease, and from Drosophila melanogaster
Autor: Nunes Rodrigo Dutra,Romeiro Nelilma Correia,De Carvalho Hugo Tremonte,Moreira Jean Ribeiro,Sola-Penna Mauro,Silva-Neto Mário Alberto C,Braz Glória Regina Cardoso
Assunto: Docking study; Initial reaction; Rate; Filariasis; Triose phosphate isomerase; Docking experiment
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Molecular methods ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue
Fonte: Parasites & Vectors, v. 9, n. 1, p. 107, 2016
ISSN: 1756-3305
Resumo: Arthropod-borne diseases are some of the most rapidly spreading diseases. Reducing the vector population is currently the only effective way to reduce case numbers. Central metabolic pathways are potential targets to control vector populations, but have not been well explored to this aim. The information available on energy metabolism, as a way to control lifespan and dispersion through flight of dipteran vectors, is inadequate. Phosphofructokinase (PFK) activity was measured in the presence of both of its substrates, fructose-6-phosphate (F6P) and ATP, as well as some allosteric effectors: Fructose- 2,6 - bisphosphate (F2, 6BP), citrate and AMP. Aedes aegypti phosphofructokinase sequence (AaPFK) was aligned with many other insects and also vertebrate sequences. A 3D AaPFK model was produced and docking experiments were performed with AMP and citrate. The kinetic parameters of AaPFK were determined for both substrates: F6P (V = 4.47 ± 0.15 ?mol of F1, 6BP/min, K0.5 = 1.48 ± 0.22 mM) and ATP (V = 4.73 ± 0.57 ?mol of F1, 6BP/min, K0.5 = 0.43 ± 0.10 mM). F2,6P was a powerful activator of AaPFK, even at low ATP concentrations. AaPFK inhibition by ATP was not enhanced by citrate, consistent with observations in other insects. After examining the sequence alignment of insect and non-insect PFKs, the hypothesis is that a modification of the citrate binding site is responsible for this unique behavior. AMP, a well-known positive effector of PFK, was not capable of reverting ATP inhibition. Aedes, Anopheles and Culex are dengue, malaria and filariasis vectors, respectively, and are shown to have this distinct characteristic in phosphofructokinase control. The alignment of several insect PFKs suggested a difference in the AMP binding site and a significant change in local charges, which introduces a highly negative charge in this part of the protein, making the binding of AMP unlikely. This hypothesis was supported by 3D modeling of PFK with AMP docking, which suggested that the AMP molecule binds in a reverse orientation due to the electrostatic environment. The present findings imply a potential new way to control PFK activity and are a unique feature of these Diptera. The present findings provide the first molecular explanation for citrate insensitivity in insect PFKs, as well as demonstrating for the first time AMP insensitivity in dipterans. It also identified a potential target for novel insecticides for the control of arthropod-borne diseases.

216) A meta-analysis of the diagnostic accuracy of dengue virus-specific IgA antibody-based tests for detection of dengue infection
Autor: Alagarasu K, Walimbe A M, Jadhav S M, Deoshatwar A R
Assunto: Dengue fever; IgA; Dengue haemorrhagic fever; Immunology; Meta-analysis
Descritores: Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever ; Chikungunya virus - Dengue ; Chikungunya virus - Epidemiology ; Chikungunya virus - Immunology
Fonte: Epidemiology and Infection, v. 144, n. 4, p. 876-886, 2016
ISSN: 1469-4409
Resumo: Immunoglobulin A (IgA)-based tests have been evaluated in different studies for their utility in diagnosing dengue infections. In most of the studies, the results were inconclusive because of a small sample size. Hence, a meta-analysis involving nine studies with 2096 samples was performed to assess the diagnostic accuracy of IgA-based tests in diagnosing dengue infections. The analysis was conducted using Meta-Disc software. The results revealed that IgA-based tests had an overall sensitivity, specificity, diagnostic odds ratio, - positive - negative likelihood ratios of 73·9%, 95·2%, 66·7, 22·0 - 0·25, respectively. Significant heterogeneity was observed between the studies. The type of test, infection status - day of sample collection influenced the diagnostic accuracy. The IgA-based diagnostic tests showed a greater accuracy when the samples were collected 4 days after onset of symptoms - for secondary infections. The results suggested that IgA-based tests had a moderate level of accuracy - are diagnostic of the disease. However, negative results cannot be used alone for dengue diagnosis. More prospective studies comparing the diagnostic accuracy of combinations of antigen-based tests with either IgA or IgM are needed - might be useful for suggesting the best strategy for dengue diagnosis.

217) Preventing Transmission of Zika Virus in Labor and Delivery Settings Through Implementation of Standard Precautions - United States, 2016,
Autor: Olson Christine K.; Iwamoto Martha; Perkins Kiran M.; Polen Kara N. D.; Hageman Jeffrey; Meaney-Delman Dana; Igbinosa Irogue I.; Khan Sumaiya.; Honein Margaret A.; Bell Michael; Rasmussen Sonja A.; Jamieson Denise J.
Assunto:
Descritores: Guillain-Barre Syndrome - RNA ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Virus ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Sexual ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Transmission
Fonte: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, v. 65, n. 11, p. 290-292, 2016
ISSN: 1545-861X
Resumo: Zika virus transmission was detected in the Region of the Americas (Americas) in Brazil in May 2015, and as of March 21, 2016, local mosquito-borne transmission of Zika virus had been reported in 32 countries and territories in the Americas, including Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands.* Most persons infected with Zika virus have a mild illness or are asymptomatic. However, increasing evidence supports a link between Zika virus infection during pregnancy and adverse pregnancy and birth outcomes (1), and a possible association between recent Zika virus infection and Guillain-Barré syndrome has been reported (2). Although Zika virus is primarily transmitted through the bite of Aedes species of mosquitoes, sexual transmission also has been documented (3). Zika virus RNA has been detected in a number of body fluids, including blood, urine, saliva, and amniotic fluid (3-5), and whereas transmission associated with occupational exposure to these body fluids is theoretically possible, it has not been documented. Although there are no reports of transmission of Zika virus from infected patients to health care personnel or other patients, minimizing exposures to body fluids is important to reduce the possibility of such transmission. CDC recommends Standard Precautions in all health care settings to protect both health care personnel and patients from infection with Zika virus as well as from blood-borne pathogens (e.g., human immunodeficiency virus [HIV] and hepatitis C virus [HCV]) (6). Because of the potential for exposure to large volumes of body fluids during the labor and delivery process and the sometimes unpredictable and fast-paced nature of obstetrical care, the use of Standard Precautions in these settings is essential to prevent possible transmission of Zika virus from patients to health care personnel.

218) Chikungunya virus (CHIKV): What can be expected after the acute phase?
Autor: Khoury Vianna J, Camilo Pablo R
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya Virus - Virus
Fonte: Reumatologia Clinica, v. 12, n. 1, p. 1-3, 2016
ISSN: 1885-1398
Resumo:

219) Temporal genetic stability of Stegomyia aegypti (= Aedes aegypti) populations
Autor: Gloria-Soria A,Kellner D A,Brown J E,Gonzalez-Acosta C,Kamgang B,Lutwama J,Powell J R
Assunto: Chikungunya; Stegomyia (Aedes) aegypti; Dengue; Population stability; Temporal dynamics; Yellow fever
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Viral infections ; Aedes aegypti - virus ; Aedes aegypti - Vaccine ; Aedes aegypti - Chikungunya Fever ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue
Fonte: Medical and Veterinary Entomology, v. 30, n. 2, p. 235-240, 2016
ISSN: 1365-2915
Resumo: The mosquito Stegomyia aegypti (= Aedes aegypti) (Diptera: Culicidae) is the primary vector of viruses that cause yellow fever, dengue and Chikungunya fever. In the absence of effective vaccines, the reduction of these diseases relies on vector control strategies. The success of these strategies is tightly linked to the population dynamics of target populations. In the present study, 14 collections from St. aegypti populations separated by periods of 1-13 years were analysed to determine their temporal genetic stability. Although temporal structure is discernible in most populations, the degree of temporal differentiation is dependent on the population and does not obscure the geographic structure of the various populations. The results suggest that performing detailed studies in the years prior to and after population reduction- or modification-based control interventions at each target field site may be useful in assessing the probability of success.

220) Prolonged detection of Zika virus RNA in urine samples during the ongoing Zika virus epidemic in Brazil.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: de M. Campos, Renata, Cirne-Santos, Claudio, Meira, Guilherme L.S., Santos, Luana L.R., de Meneses, Marcelo D., Friedrich, Johannes, Jansen, Stephanie, Ribeiro, Mário S., da Cruz, Igor C., Schmidt-Chanasit, Jonas, Ferreira, Davis F.
Assunto: Zika virus infections, Diagnosis, RNA viruses, Urine - Microbiology, Epidemics, Diagnostic virology, Brazil
Descritores: Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Journal of Clinical Virology, v. 77, p. 69-70, 2016
ISSN: 13866532
Resumo:

221) Zika virus infection-the next wave after dengue?
Autor: Wong Samson Sai-Yin,Poon Rosana Wing-Shan,Wong Sally Cheuk-Ying
Assunto: Aedes; Flavivirus; Zika virus; Congenital abnormalities; Travel medicine
Descritores: Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Virus ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Transmission ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Dengue ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Epidemic ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Immunology ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Microcephaly
Fonte: Journal of the Formosan Medical Association = Taiwan yi zhi, v. 115, n. 4, p. 226-242, 2016
ISSN: 0929-6646
Resumo: Zika virus was initially discovered in east Africa about 70 years ago and remained a neglected arboviral disease in Africa and Southeast Asia. The virus first came into the limelight in 2007 when it caused an outbreak in Micronesia. In the ensuing decade, it spread widely in other Pacific islands, after which its incursion into Brazil in 2015 led to a widespread epidemic in Latin America. In most infected patients the disease is relatively benign. Serious complications include Guillain-Barré syndrome and congenital infection which may lead to microcephaly and maculopathy. Aedes mosquitoes are the main vectors, in particular, Ae. aegypti. Ae. albopictus is another potential vector. Since the competent mosquito vectors are highly prevalent in most tropical and subtropical countries, introduction of the virus to these areas could readily result in endemic transmission of the disease. The priorities of control include reinforcing education of travellers to and residents of endemic areas, preventing further local transmission by vectors, and an integrated vector management programme. The container habitats of Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus means engagement of the community and citizens is of utmost importance to the success of vector control.

222) Zika virus and neurologic autoimmunity: the putative role of gangliosides
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Anaya, Juan-Manuel; Ramirez-Santana, Carolina; Salgado-Castaneda, Ignacio; Chang, Christopher; Ansari, Aftab; Gershwin, M. Eric
Assunto: Autoimmunity; Gangliosides; Guillain-Barré syndrome; Microcephaly; Zika virus
Descritores: Zika Virus - Cell ; Zika Virus - Cytopathology ; Zika Virus - Autoimmunity ; Zika Virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika Virus - Viral infections ; Zika Virus - RNA virus ; Zika Virus - Transmission ; Zika Virus - Immunology ; Zika Virus - Microcephaly
Fonte: BMC Medicine, v. 14, n. 49, 2016.
ISSN: 1741-7015
Resumo: An increasing number of severe neurological complications associated with Zika virus (ZIKV), chiefly Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) and primary microcephaly, have led the World Health Organization to declare a global health emergency. Molecular mimicry between glycolipids and surface molecules of infectious agents explain most of the cases of GBS preceded by infection, while a direct toxicity of ZIKV on neural cells has been raised as the main mechanism by which ZIKV induces microcephaly. Gangliosides are crucial in brain development, and their expression correlates with neurogenesis, synaptogenesis, synaptic transmission, and cell proliferation. Targeting the autoimmune response to gangliosides may represent an underexploited opportunity to examine the increased incidence of neurological complications related to ZIKV infection.

223) Revision to CDC's Zika Travel Notices: Minimal Likelihood for Mosquito-Borne Zika Virus Transmission at Elevations Above 2,000 Meters
Autor: Cetron Martin
Assunto:
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Infectious diseases ; Aedes aegypti - Viral infections ; Aedes aegypti - virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Microcephaly
Fonte: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, v. 65, n. 10, p. 267-268, 2016
ISSN: 1545-861X
Resumo: Since May 2015, when Zika virus, a flavivirus transmitted primarily by Aedes aegypti mosquitoes, was reported in Brazil, the virus has rapidly spread across the Region of the Americas and the Caribbean. The association between maternal Zika virus infection and adverse fetal and reproductive outcomes, including microcephaly, prompted CDC to issue a Level 2 alert travel notice* for the 37 countries and U.S. territories (at the national and territorial level) that have reported recent Zika virus transmission as of March 11, 2016. In addition to mosquito bite precautions for all travelers, CDC advises that pregnant women postpone travel to affected countries and U.S. territories. Within a nation's borders, ecologic characteristics, which determine the distribution of mosquito vectors, can vary considerably. CDC conducted a spatial analysis, focusing on the probability of occurrence of Ae. aegypti, to support the demarcation for subnational travel alerts. Based on results of this analysis, travel that is limited to elevations higher than 2,000 m (6,562 ft) above sea level is considered to have minimal (approximately 1%) likelihood for mosquito-borne Zika virus transmission, even within countries reporting active transmission. Women who are pregnant should avoid travel to elevations <2,000 m in countries with active Zika virus transmission.

224) Development of a TaqMan array card for acute-febrile-illness outbreak investigation and surveillance of emerging pathogens, including Ebola virus
Autor: Liu Jie, Ochieng Caroline, Wiersma Steve, Ströher Ute, Towner Jonathan S, Whitmer Shannon, Nichol Stuart T, Moore Christopher C, Kersh Gilbert J, Kato Cecilia, Sexton Christopher, Petersen Jeannine, Massung Robert, Hercik Christine, Crump John A, Kibiki Gibson, Maro Athanasia, Mujaga Buliga, Gratz Jean, Jacob Shevin T, Banura Patrick, Scheld W Michael, Juma Bonventure, Onyango Clayton O, Montgomery Joel M, Houpt Eric, Fields Barry
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Cytopathology ; Chikungunya virus - Infectious diseases ; Chikungunya virus - Serology ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya virus - PCR detection ; Chikungunya virus - Real Time PCR ; Chikungunya virus - Serology ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever ; Chikungunya virus - Dengue
Fonte: Journal of Clinical Microbiology, v. 54, n. 1, p. 49-58, 2016
ISSN: 1098-660X
Resumo: Acute febrile illness (AFI) is associated with substantial morbidity - mortality worldwide, yet an etiologic agent is often not identified. Convalescent-phase serology is impractical, blood culture is slow, - many pathogens are fastidious or impossible to cultivate. We developed a real-time PCR-based TaqMan array card (TAC) that can test six to eight samples within 2.5 h from sample to results - can simultaneously detect 26 AFI-associated organisms, including 15 viruses (chikungunya, Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever [CCHF] virus, dengue, Ebola virus, Bundibugyo virus, Sudan virus, hantaviruses [Hantaan - Seoul], hepatitis E, Marburg, Nipah virus, o'nyong-nyong virus, Rift Valley fever virus, West Nile virus, - yellow fever virus), 8 bacteria (Bartonella spp., Brucella spp., Coxiella burnetii, Leptospira spp., Rickettsia spp., Salmonella enterica - Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi, - Yersinia pestis), - 3 protozoa (Leishmania spp., Plasmodium spp., - Trypanosoma brucei). Two extrinsic controls (phocine herpesvirus 1 - bacteriophage MS2) were included to ensure extraction - amplification efficiency. Analytical validation was performed on spiked specimens for linearity, intra-assay precision, interassay precision, limit of detection, - specificity. The performance of the card on clinical specimens was evaluated with 1,050 blood samples by comparison to the individual real-time PCR assays, - the TAC exhibited an overall 88% (278/315; 95% confidence interval [CI], 84% to 92%) sensitivity - a 99% (5,261/5,326, 98% to 99%) specificity. This TaqMan array card can be used in field settings as a rapid screen for outbreak investigation or for the surveillance of pathogens, including Ebola virus.

225) Zika virus: a previously slow pandemic spreads rapidly through the Americas
Autor: Gatherer Derek,Kohl Alain
Assunto:
Descritores: Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Arbovirus ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Flaviviridae ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Virus ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Dengue ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Microcephaly
Fonte: The Journal of General Virology, v. 97, n. 2, p. 269-273, 2016
ISSN: 1465-2099
Resumo: Zika virus (family Flaviviridae) is an emerging arbovirus. Spread by Aedes mosquitoes, it was first discovered in Uganda in 1947, and later in humans elsewhere in sub-Saharan Africa, arriving in south-east Asia at latest by the mid-twentieth century. In the twenty-first century, it spread across the Pacific islands reaching South America around 2014. Since then it has spread rapidly northwards reaching Mexico in November 2015. Its clinical profile is that of a dengue-like febrile illness, but associations with Guillain-Barré syndrome and microcephaly have appeared recently. The final geographical range and ultimate clinical impact of Zika virus are still a matter for speculation.

226) Zika virus: epidemiology, clinical features and host-virus interactions
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Hamel, Rodolphe; Liégeois, Florian; Wichit, Sineewanlaya; Pompon, Julien; Diop, Fodé; Talignani, Loïc; Thomas, Frédéric; Desprès, Philippe; Yssel, Hans; Missé, Dorothée
Assunto: ZIKA; Arbovirus; Epidemiology; Host-pathogen interactions; Innate immunity; Vector
Descritores: Zika Virus - Arbovirus ; Zika Virus - RNA virus ; Zika Virus - Epidemic ; Zika Virus - Epidemiology
Fonte: Microbes and Infection, p. 1-9, 2016.
ISSN: 1769-714X
Resumo: Very recently, Zika virus (ZIKV) has gained a medical importance following the large-scale epidemics in South Pacific and Latin America. This paper reviews information on the epidemiology and clinical features of Zika disease with a particular emphasis on the host-virus interactions that contribute to the pathogenicity of ZIKV in humans.

227) The Zika outbreak of the 21st century
Autor: Chang Christopher,Ortiz Kristina,Ansari Aftab,Gershwin M Eric
Assunto: Aedes aegypti; Arborvirus; Autophagy; Centrosome; Dengue; Flavivirus; Glycosylation; Guillain-Barre; Microcephaly; Mosquitoes; Pandemic; Sexual transmission; Zika fever
Descritores: Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Cytopathology ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Virus ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Sexual ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Transmission ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Vaccine ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Chikungunya Fever ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Dengue ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Epidemic ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Immunology ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Microcephaly ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Public health ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Rash maculopapular ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Zika fever
Fonte: Journal of Autoimmunity, v. 68, p. 1-13, 2016
ISSN: 1095-9157
Resumo: The Zika virus outbreak has captivated the attention of the global audience and information has spread rapidly and wildly through the internet and other media channels. This virus was first identified in 1947, when it was isolated from a sentinel rhesus monkey placed by British scientists working at the Yellow Fever Research Laboratory located in the Zika forest area of Uganda, hence its name, and is transmitted primarily by the mosquito vector, Aedes aegypti. The fact that the rhesus macaque is an Asian species being placed in an African forest brings to mind the possibility of rapid adaptation of the virus from an African to Asian species, an issue that has not been considered. Whether such adaptation has played any role in acquiring pathogenicity due to cross species transmission remains to be identified. The first human infection was described in Nigeria in 1954, with only scattered reports of about a dozen human infections identified over a 50-year period. It was not until 2007 that Zika virus raised its ugly head with infections noted in three-quarters of the population on the tiny island of Yap located between the Philippines and Papua New Guinea in the western Pacific Ocean, followed by a major outbreak in French Polynesia in 2013. The virus remained confined to a narrow equatorial band in Africa and Asia until 2014 when it began to spread eastward, first toward Oceania and then to South America. Since then, millions of infected individuals have been identified in Brazil, Colombia, Venezuela, including 25 additional countries in the Americas. While the symptoms associated with Zika virus infection are generally mild, consisting of fever, maculopapular rash, arthralgia and conjunctivitis, there have been reports of more severe reactions that are associated with neurological complications. In pregnant women, fetal neurological complications include brain damage and microcephaly, while in adults there have been several cases of virus-associated Guillain-Barre syndrome. The virus was until recently believed to only be transmitted via mosquitoes. But when the Zika virus was isolated from the semen specimens from a patient in Texas, this provided the basis for the recent report of possible sexual transmission of the Zika virus. Due to the neurological complications, various vectors for infection as well as the rapid spread throughout the globe, it has prompted the World Health Organization to issue a global health emergency. Various governmental organizations have recommended that pregnant women do not travel to countries where the virus is epidemic, and within the countries affected by the virus, recommendations were provided for women of childbearing age to delay pregnancy. The overall public health impact of these above findings highlights the need for a rapid but specific diagnostic test for blood banks worldwide to identify those infected and for the counseling of women who are pregnant or contemplating pregnancy. As of this date, there are neither commercially licensed diagnostic tests nor a vaccine. Because cross-reactivity of the Zika virus with dengue and Chikungunya virus is common, it may pose difficulty in being able to quickly develop such tests and vaccines. So far the most effective public health measures include controlling the mosquito populations via insecticides and preventing humans from direct exposure to mosquitoes.

228) Congenital zika syndrome with arthrogryposis: retrospective case series study
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Linden, Vanessa van der ; Rolim Filho, Epitacio Leite ; Lins, Otavio Gomes ; Linden, Ana van der ; Aragão, Maria de Fátima Viana Vasco ; Brainer-Lima, Alessandra Mertens ; Cruz, Danielle Di Cavalcanti Sousa ; Rocha, Maria Angela Wanderley ; Silva, Paula Fabiana Sobral da ; Carvalho, Maria Durce Costa Gomes
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Molecular methods
Fonte: The BMJ, v. 354, i3899, 2016
ISSN: 1756-1833
Resumo: To describe the clinical, radiological, and electromyographic features in a series of children with joint contractures (arthrogryposis) associated with congenital infection presumably caused by Zika virus

229) Zika virus and neurologic autoimmunity: the putative role of gangliosides
Autor: Anaya Juan-Manuel,Ramirez-Santana Carolina,Salgado-Castaneda Ignacio,Chang Christopher,Ansari Aftab,Gershwin M Eric
Assunto: Autoimmunity; Gangliosides; Guillain-Barré syndrome; Microcephaly; Zika virus
Descritores: Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Cell ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Cytopathology ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Autoimmunity ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Infectious diseases ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Viral infections ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Virus ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Transmission ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Immunology ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Microcephaly
Fonte: BMC Medicine, v. 14, n. 1, p. 49, 2016
ISSN: 1741-7015
Resumo: An increasing number of severe neurological complications associated with Zika virus (ZIKV), chiefly Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) and primary microcephaly, have led the World Health Organization to declare a global health emergency. Molecular mimicry between glycolipids and surface molecules of infectious agents explain most of the cases of GBS preceded by infection, while a direct toxicity of ZIKV on neural cells has been raised as the main mechanism by which ZIKV induces microcephaly. Gangliosides are crucial in brain development, and their expression correlates with neurogenesis, synaptogenesis, synaptic transmission, and cell proliferation. Targeting the autoimmune response to gangliosides may represent an underexploited opportunity to examine the increased incidence of neurological complications related to ZIKV infection.

230) Zika virus - an overview
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Zanluca, Camila; Dos Santos, Claudia Nunes Duarte
Assunto: Arthropod-borne virus; Flavivirus; Viral emergence; Zika virus
Descritores: Zika Virus - RNA virus ; Zika Virus - Epidemic
Fonte: Microbes and Infection, v. 18, n. 5, p. 295-301, 2016.
ISSN: 1769-714X
Resumo: Zika virus (ZIKV) is currently one of the most important emerging viruses in the world. Recently, it has caused outbreaks and epidemics, and has been associated with severe clinical manifestations and congenital malformations. However to date, little is known about the pathogenicity of the virus and the consequences of ZIKV infection. In this paper, we provide an overview of the current knowledge on ZIKV.

231) The Asian tiger hunts in Maputo city-the first confirmed report of Aedes (Stegomyia) albopictus (Skuse, 1895) in Mozambique
Autor: Kampango Ayubo, Abílio Ana Paula
Assunto: Aedes albopictus; New record; Dengue; Chikungunya; Maputo City; Mozambique
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Arbovirus ; Aedes aegypti - virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Chikungunya Fever ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Zika fever
Fonte: Parasites & Vectors, v. 9, n. 1, p. 76, 2016
ISSN: 1756-3305
Resumo: Increasing evidence suggests that dengue fever is endemic in Mozambique. Larvae of both the Afrotropical vector Aedes aegypti and its subspecies, Ae. aegypti formosus, have been reported from three provinces in Mozambique, two of which recently experienced dengue outbreaks. Despite reports of the invasive Oriental vector Ae. albopictus on the islands in the Mozambique Channel and nearby Indian Ocean, the species has not yet been reported in Mozambique. Four host-seeking female mosquitoes, collected biting the authors in an urban neighbourhood of Maputo City in the late afternoon of 6 December, 2015, are herein morphologically confirmed as Ae. albopictus. This is the first report confirming the occurrence in Mozambique of Ae. albopictus, an invasive species and an important vector of human arboviruses. In view of its potential role as a vector of dengue, Chikungunya and Zika viruses, studies are urgently needed to assess the geographical expansion and relative abundance of these important vectors to better understand the potential transmission impact of arboviruses that are efficiently transmitted and globally spread by these vectors.

232) Zika virus emergence and expansion: Lessons learned from dengue and chikungunya may not provide all the answers
Autor: Christofferson Rebecca C
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Arbovirus ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Transmission ; Chikungunya virus - Dengue
Fonte: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, v. 95, n. 1, p. 15-18, 2016
ISSN: 1476-1645
Resumo: Preexisting yellow fever antibody appeared to interfere with the antibody response to YF vaccine. Administration of YF vaccine did elicit antibodies capable of cross-reacting with West Nile, and less so with Langat, arbovirus antigens.

233) Small RNA Profiling in Dengue Virus 2-Infected Aedes Mosquito Cells Reveals Viral piRNAs and Novel Host miRNAs
Autor: Miesen Pascal, Ivens Alasdair, Buck Amy H, van Rij Ronald P
Assunto:
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Arbovirus ; Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - DNA ; Aedes aegypti - Flaviviridae ; Aedes aegypti - Genome ; Aedes aegypti - Proteins ; Aedes aegypti - RNA ; Aedes aegypti - Viral infections ; Aedes aegypti - virus ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue
Fonte: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, v. 10, n. 2, p. e0004452, 2016
ISSN: 1935-2735
Resumo: In Aedes mosquitoes, infections with arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) trigger or modulate the expression of various classes of viral and host-derived small RNAs, including small interfering RNAs (siRNAs), PIWI interacting RNAs (piRNAs), and microRNAs (miRNAs). Viral siRNAs are at the core of the antiviral RNA interference machinery, one of the key pathways that limit virus replication in invertebrates. Besides siRNAs, Aedes mosquitoes and cells derived from these insects produce arbovirus-derived piRNAs, the best studied examples being viruses from the Togaviridae or Bunyaviridae families. Host miRNAs modulate the expression of a large number of genes and their levels may change in response to viral infections. In addition, some viruses, mostly with a DNA genome, express their own miRNAs to regulate host and viral gene expression. Here, we perform a comprehensive analysis of both viral and host-derived small RNAs in Aedes aegypti Aag2 cells infected with dengue virus 2 (DENV), a member of the Flaviviridae family. Aag2 cells are competent in producing all three types of small RNAs and provide a powerful tool to explore the crosstalk between arboviral infection and the distinct RNA silencing pathways. Interestingly, besides the well-characterized DENV-derived siRNAs, a specific population of viral piRNAs was identified in infected Aag2 cells. Knockdown of Piwi5, Ago3 and, to a lesser extent, Piwi6 results in reduction of vpiRNA levels, providing the first genetic evidence that Aedes PIWI proteins produce DENV-derived small RNAs. In contrast, we do not find convincing evidence for the production of virus-derived miRNAs. Neither do we find that host miRNA expression is strongly changed upon DENV2 infection. Finally, our deep-sequencing analyses detect 30 novel Aedes miRNAs, complementing the repertoire of regulatory small RNAs in this important vector species.

234) Isolation of infectious Zika virus from saliva and prolonged viral RNA shedding in a traveller returning from the Dominican Republic to Italy, January 2016
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Barzon, L.; Pacenti, M.; Berto, A.; Sinigaglia, A.; Franchin, E.; Lavezzo, E.; Brugnaro, P.; Palu, G.
Assunto: West Nile virus; French Polynesia; Transmission; Chikungunya; Dengue; Urine; Outbreak
Descritores: Zika Virus - RT-PCR ; Zika Virus - RNA virus ; Zika Virus - Transmission ; Zika Virus - Dengue
Fonte: Eurosurveillance, v. 21, n. 10, p. 2-6, 2016.
ISSN: 1560-7917
Resumo: We report the isolation of infectious Zika virus (ZIKV) in cell culture from the saliva of a patient who developed a febrile illness after returning from the Dominican Republic to Italy, in January 2016. The patient had prolonged shedding of viral RNA in saliva and urine, at higher load than in blood, for up to 29 days after symptom onset. Sequencing of ZIKV genome showed relatedness with strains from Latin America.

235) Zika virus and Guillain-Barré syndrome: another viral cause to add to the list
Autor: Smith David W,Mackenzie John
Assunto:
Descritores: Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Cytopathology ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Virus
Fonte: Lancet (London, England), v. 387, n. 10027, p. 1486-1488, 2016
ISSN: 1474-547X
Resumo:

236) Characterization of RyDEN (C19orf66) as an interferon-stimulated cellular inhibitor against Dengue Virus replication
Autor: Suzuki Youichi, Chin Wei-Xin, Han Qi'En, Ichiyama Koji, Lee Ching Hua, Eyo Zhi Wen, Ebina Hirotaka, Takahashi Hirotaka, Takahashi Chikako, Tan Beng Hui, Hishiki Takayuki, Ohba Kenji, Matsuyama Toshifumi, Koyanagi Yoshio, Tan Yee-Joo, Sawasaki Tatsuya, Chu Justin Jang Hann, Vasudevan Subhash G, Sano Kouichi, Yamamoto Naoki
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Cell ; Chikungunya virus - Immune response ; Chikungunya virus - Pathogenesis ; Chikungunya virus - Protein synthesis ; Chikungunya virus - Proteins ; Chikungunya virus - RNA ; Chikungunya virus - Immune response ; Chikungunya virus - Infectious diseases ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Vaccine ; Chikungunya virus - Dengue
Fonte: PLoS Pathogens, v. 12, n. 1, p. e1005357, 2016
ISSN: 1553-7374
Resumo: Dengue virus (DENV) is one of the most important arthropod-borne pathogens that cause life-threatening diseases in humans. However, no vaccine or specific antiviral is available for dengue. As seen in other RNA viruses, the innate immune system plays a key role in controlling DENV infection - disease outcome. Although the interferon (IFN) response, which is central to host protective immunity, has been reported to limit DENV replication, the molecular details of how DENV infection is modulated by IFN treatment are elusive. In this study, by employing a gain-of-function screen using a type I IFN-treated cell-derived cDNA library, we identified a previously uncharacterized gene, C19orf66, as an IFN-stimulated gene (ISG) that inhibits DENV replication, which we named Repressor of yield of DENV (RyDEN). Overexpression - gene knockdown experiments revealed that expression of RyDEN confers resistance to all serotypes of DENV in human cells. RyDEN expression also limited the replication of hepatitis C virus, Kunjin virus, Chikungunya virus, herpes simplex virus type 1, - human adenovirus. Importantly, RyDEN was considered to be a crucial effector molecule in the IFN-mediated anti-DENV response. When affinity purification-mass spectrometry analysis was performed, RyDEN was revealed to form a complex with cellular mRNA-binding proteins, poly(A)-binding protein cytoplasmic 1 (PABPC1), - La motif-related protein 1 (LARP1). Interestingly, PABPC1 - LARP1 were found to be positive modulators of DENV replication. Since RyDEN influenced intracellular events on DENV replication -, suppression of protein synthesis from DENV-based reporter construct RNA was also observed in RyDEN-expressing cells, our data suggest that RyDEN is likely to interfere with the translation of DENV via interaction with viral RNA - cellular mRNA-binding proteins, resulting in the inhibition of virus replication in infected cells.

237) Transstadial Effects of Bti on Traits of Aedes aegypti and Infection with Dengue Virus
Autor: Alto Barry W,Lord Cynthia C
Assunto:
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - virus ; Aedes aegypti - Larvicide ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue
Fonte: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, v. 10, n. 2, p. e0004370
ISSN: 1935-2735
Resumo: Most mosquito control efforts are primarily focused on reducing the adult population size mediated by reductions in the larval population, which should lower risk of disease transmission. Although the aim of larviciding is to reduce larval abundance and thus recruitment of adults, nonlethal effects on adults are possible, including transstadial effects on phenotypes of adults such as survival and pathogen infection and transmission. In addition, the mortality induced by control efforts may act in conjunction with other sources of mosquito mortality in nature. The consequences of these effects and interactions may alter the potential of the population to transmit pathogens. We tested experimentally the combined effects of a larvicide (Bacillus thuringiensis ssp. israelensis, Bti) and competition during the larval stages on subsequent Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus) traits, population performance, and susceptibility to dengue-1 virus infection. Ae. aegypti that survived exposure to Bti experienced accelerated development, were larger, and produced more eggs with increasing amounts of Bti, consistent with competitive release among surviving mosquitoes. Changing larval density had no significant interactive effect with Bti treatment on development and growth to adulthood. Larval density, but not Bti or treatment interaction, had a strong effect on survival of adult Ae. aegypti females. There were sharper declines in cumulative daily survival of adults from crowded than uncrowded larval conditions, suggesting that high competition conditions of larvae may be an impediment to transmission of dengue viruses. Rates of infection and dengue-1 virus disseminated infections were found to be 87±13% and 88±12%, respectively. There were no significant treatment effects on infection measurements. Our findings suggest that larvicide campaigns using Bti may reduce the number of emerged adults, but survivors will have a fitness advantage (growth, development, enhanced production of eggs) relative to conspecifics that are not under larvicide pressure. However, under most circumstances, these transstadial effects are unlikely to outweigh reductions in the adult population by Bti and altered risk of disease transmission.

238) The Zika outbreak of the 21st century
Autor: Chang Christopher,Ortiz Kristina,Ansari Aftab,Gershwin M Eric
Assunto: Aedes aegypti; Arborvirus; Autophagy; Centrosome; Dengue; Flavivirus; Glycosylation; Guillain-Barre; Microcephaly; Mosquitoes; Pandemic; Sexual transmission; Zika fever
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Cytopathology ; Aedes aegypti - virus ; Aedes aegypti - Sexual ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Vaccine ; Aedes aegypti - Chikungunya Fever ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Epidemic ; Aedes aegypti - Immunology ; Aedes aegypti - Microcephaly ; Aedes aegypti - Public health ; Aedes aegypti - Rash maculopapular ; Aedes aegypti - Zika fever
Fonte: Journal of Autoimmunity, v. 68, p. 1-13, 2016
ISSN: 1095-9157
Resumo: The Zika virus outbreak has captivated the attention of the global audience and information has spread rapidly and wildly through the internet and other media channels. This virus was first identified in 1947, when it was isolated from a sentinel rhesus monkey placed by British scientists working at the Yellow Fever Research Laboratory located in the Zika forest area of Uganda, hence its name, and is transmitted primarily by the mosquito vector, Aedes aegypti. The fact that the rhesus macaque is an Asian species being placed in an African forest brings to mind the possibility of rapid adaptation of the virus from an African to Asian species, an issue that has not been considered. Whether such adaptation has played any role in acquiring pathogenicity due to cross species transmission remains to be identified. The first human infection was described in Nigeria in 1954, with only scattered reports of about a dozen human infections identified over a 50-year period. It was not until 2007 that Zika virus raised its ugly head with infections noted in three-quarters of the population on the tiny island of Yap located between the Philippines and Papua New Guinea in the western Pacific Ocean, followed by a major outbreak in French Polynesia in 2013. The virus remained confined to a narrow equatorial band in Africa and Asia until 2014 when it began to spread eastward, first toward Oceania and then to South America. Since then, millions of infected individuals have been identified in Brazil, Colombia, Venezuela, including 25 additional countries in the Americas. While the symptoms associated with Zika virus infection are generally mild, consisting of fever, maculopapular rash, arthralgia and conjunctivitis, there have been reports of more severe reactions that are associated with neurological complications. In pregnant women, fetal neurological complications include brain damage and microcephaly, while in adults there have been several cases of virus-associated Guillain-Barre syndrome. The virus was until recently believed to only be transmitted via mosquitoes. But when the Zika virus was isolated from the semen specimens from a patient in Texas, this provided the basis for the recent report of possible sexual transmission of the Zika virus. Due to the neurological complications, various vectors for infection as well as the rapid spread throughout the globe, it has prompted the World Health Organization to issue a global health emergency. Various governmental organizations have recommended that pregnant women do not travel to countries where the virus is epidemic, and within the countries affected by the virus, recommendations were provided for women of childbearing age to delay pregnancy. The overall public health impact of these above findings highlights the need for a rapid but specific diagnostic test for blood banks worldwide to identify those infected and for the counseling of women who are pregnant or contemplating pregnancy. As of this date, there are neither commercially licensed diagnostic tests nor a vaccine. Because cross-reactivity of the Zika virus with dengue and Chikungunya virus is common, it may pose difficulty in being able to quickly develop such tests and vaccines. So far the most effective public health measures include controlling the mosquito populations via insecticides and preventing humans from direct exposure to mosquitoes.

239) Study links Zika virus to Guillain-Barré syndrome
Autor: Wise Jacqui
Assunto:
Descritores: Guillain-Barre Syndrome - virus
Fonte: BMJ (Clinical Research ed.), v. 352, p. i1242, 2016
ISSN: 1756-1833
Resumo:

240) Satyrization and satyrization-resistance in competitive displacements of invasive mosquito species
Autor: Bargielowski Irka Ewa,Lounibos Leon Philip
Assunto: Aedes aegypti; Aedes albopictus; Mating interference; Reproductive interference; Satyrization
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - virus ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue
Fonte: Insect Science, v. 23, n. 2, p. 162-174, 2016
ISSN: 1744-7917
Resumo: Competitive displacements or reductions of resident populations of insects, often effected by a related species, may be caused by a variety of mechanisms. Satyrization is a form of mating interference in which males of one species mate with females of another species, significantly decreasing their fitness and not generating hybrids. Satyrization has been established to be the probable cause of competitive displacements of resident mosquitoes by invasive species, especially of Aedes aegypti by Aedes albopictus, two important vectors of dengue and chikungunya viruses. Mathematical models predict that even low levels of asymmetric mating interference are capable of producing competitive displacements or reductions. Couplings of virgin Ae. aegypti females with Ae. albopictus males effectively sterilize these females through the monogamizing actions of male accessory gland products, but the converse interspecific mating does not impact the future reproduction of Ae. albopictus females. Populations of Ae. aegypti exposed to satyrization quickly evolve resistance to interspecific mating, which is believed to ameliorate reproductive interference from, and promote co-existence with, Ae. albopictus. The evolution of satyrization resistance among Ae. aegypti in laboratory cages is accompanied by fitness costs, such as reduced fecundity and slower receptivity to conspecific males. Cage experiments and field observations indicate that Ae. albopictus males are capable of satyrizing females of other species of the Stegomyia subgenus, potentially leading to competitive displacements, and possible extinctions, especially of endemic species on islands. Examination of other examples of reproductive interference in insects reveals few parallels to the mechanism and outcomes of satyrization by Ae. albopictus. We conclude by posing the hypothesis that satyrization may favor the ecological success of Ae. albopictus, and suggest many lines for future research on this phenomenon.

241) The Risk of Dengue Virus Transmission in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania during an Epidemic Period of 2014
Autor: Mboera Leonard E G,Mweya Clement N,Rumisha Susan F,Tungu Patrick K,Stanley Grades,Makange Mariam R,Misinzo Gerald,De Nardo Pasquale,Vairo Francesco,Oriyo Ndekya M
Assunto:
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Genome ; Aedes aegypti - Infectious diseases ; Aedes aegypti - Viral infections ; Aedes aegypti - Real Time PCR ; Aedes aegypti - virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Epidemic
Fonte: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, v. 10, n. 1, p. e0004313, 2016
ISSN: 1935-2735
Resumo: In 2010, 2012, 2013 and 2014 dengue outbreaks have been reported in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. However, there is no comprehensive data on the risk of transmission of dengue in the country. The objective of this study was to assess the risk of transmission of dengue in Dar es Salaam during the 2014 epidemic. This cross-sectional study was conducted in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania during the dengue outbreak of 2014. The study involved Ilala, Kinondoni and Temeke districts. Adult mosquitoes were collected using carbon dioxide-propane powered Mosquito Magnet Liberty Plus traps. In each household compound, water-holding containers were examined for mosquito larvae and pupae. Dengue virus infection of mosquitoes was determined using real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Partial amplification and sequencing of dengue virus genome in infected mosquitoes was performed. A total of 1,000 adult mosquitoes were collected. Over half (59.9%) of the adult mosquitoes were collected in Kinondoni. Aedes aegypti accounted for 17.2% of the mosquitoes of which 90.6% were from Kinondoni. Of a total of 796 houses inspected, 38.3% had water-holding containers in their premises. Kinondoni had the largest proportion of water-holding containers (57.7%), followed by Temeke (31.4%) and Ilala (23.4%). The most common breeding containers for the Aedes mosquitoes were discarded plastic containers and tires. High Aedes infestation indices were observed for all districts and sites, with a house index of 18.1% in Ilala, 25.5% in Temeke and 35.3% in Kinondoni. The respective container indices were 77.4%, 65.2% and 80.2%. Of the reared larvae and pupae, 5,250 adult mosquitoes emerged, of which 61.9% were Ae. aegypti. Overall, 27 (8.18) of the 330 pools of Ae. aegypti were positive for dengue virus. On average, the overall maximum likelihood estimate (MLE) indicates pooled infection rate of 8.49 per 1,000 mosquitoes (95%CI = 5.72-12.16). There was no significant difference in pooled infection rates between the districts. Dengue viruses in the tested mosquitoes clustered into serotype 2 cosmopolitan genotype. Ae. aegypti is the main vector of dengue in Dar es Salaam and breeds mainly in medium size plastic containers and tires. The Aedes house indices were high, indicating that the three districts were at high risk of dengue transmission. The 2014 dengue outbreak was caused by Dengue virus serotype 2. The high mosquito larval and pupal indices in the area require intensification of vector surveillance along with source reduction and health education.

242) The Convergence of a Virus, Mosquitoes, and Human Travel in Globalizing the Zika Epidemic
Autor: Imperato Pascal James
Assunto: Zika virus; Zika virus infection; Zika virus and travel; Microcephaly; Guillain-Barré syndrome; Zika Forest and Pascal James Imperato; Kisubi Catholic Mission; Aedes aegypti
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - virus ; Aedes aegypti - Sexual ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Epidemic ; Aedes aegypti - Microcephaly ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Journal of Community Health, v. 41, n. 3, p. 674-679, 2016
ISSN: 1573-3610
Resumo: The Zika virus was first identified in 1947 in the Zika Forest of Uganda. It was discovered in a rhesus monkey that had been placed in a cage on a sentinel platform in the forest by the Virus Research Institute. When this writer visited the institute and the Zika Forest in 1961, work was underway to identify mosquito species at various levels of the tree canopy. This was done through the placement of traps at various levels of a 120-foot-high steel tower which this writer climbed. At that time, researchers isolated 12 strains of Zika virus from traps on the tower. Over the next six decades, the virus spread slowly to other parts of Africa, and eventually appeared in Southeast Asia, transmitted by Aedes aegypti and other Aedes mosquito species. By 1981, only 14 cases of illness had been reported as due to the Zika virus. Since most infections with this virus are either mild or asymptomatic, its true geographic spread was not fully appreciated. The current globalization of the Zika epidemic began on the Pacific island of Yap in the Federated States of Polynesia in 2007. This was the first known presence of the Zika virus outside of Africa and Southeast Asia. It was estimated that 73 % of the island's population had been infected. In 2013, the virus spread to French Polynesia where an estimated 28,000 cases occurred in a population of 270,000. During that year and afterwards, microcephaly and other congenital abnormalities were observed in the infants of women who were pregnant when they contracted the virus. It is currently not known if cases of microcephaly have resulted from infection of pregnant women or from infection plus some other co-factor. The epidemic rapidly spread to the Cook Islands and Easter Island. In 2015, Zika virus infection was diagnosed in Brazil where it was associated with microcephaly in the infants of some women who were pregnant when they contracted the disease. Cases of the Guillain-Barré syndrome were also found to be associated with Zika virus infection. How the disease entered Brazil is a matter of conjecture. However, the strain responsible for the epidemic in Brazil and elsewhere in South and Central America is phylogenetically identical to that which caused the epidemic in French Polynesia. The wide distribution of Aedes aegypti, a principal vector of the virus, and other Aedes species has greatly facilitated the spread of the disease. Aedes aegypti is an invasive species of mosquito in the Western Hemisphere that has adapted well to densely-populated urban environments. In addition, male-to-female human sexual transmission has increasingly been demonstrated in the US and elsewhere. In February 2016, the World Health Organization (WHO) declared the current Zika outbreak a Public Health Emergency of international concern. On the recommendation of its Emergency Committee on Zika Virus and Observed Increase in Neurological Disorders and Neonatal Malformations, WHO issued a group of recommendations to contain the epidemic. The globalization of the Zika virus was made possible by the widespread presence in various parts of the world of Aedes vectors and increased human travel that facilitated geographic spread. This globalization of Zika follows upon that of West Nile, Ebola, Dengue, and Chikungunya. Its ultimate spread is difficult to predict, but will hopefully be restricted through vigorous preventive measures.

243) Zika virus infection: global update on epidemiology and potentially associated clinical manifestations
Autor:
Assunto:
Descritores: Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Flaviviridae ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Pathogenesis ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Infectious diseases ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Viral infections ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Virus ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Epidemiology ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Microcephaly ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Public health
Fonte: Health Section of the Secretariat of the League of Nations, v. 91, n. 7, p. 73-81, 2016
ISSN: 0049-8114
Resumo:

244) Zika virus and microcephaly in Brazil: a scientific agenda.
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Barreto, Mauricio L., Barral-Netto, Manoel, Stabeli, Rodrigo, Almeida-Filho, Naomar, Vasconcelos, Pedro F. C., Teixeira, Mauro, Buss, Paulo, Gadelha, Paulo E.
Assunto: Zika Virus Epidemic, 2015-, Microcephaly, Strategic planning, Zika virus infections, Diagnosis, Viral vaccines, Public health, Brazil
Descritores: Zika virus - Biochemistry ; Zika virus - Immunology ; Zika virus - Serological diagnosis ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Microcephaly ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Lancet, v. 387, n. 10022, p. 919-921, 2016
ISSN: 995355
Resumo: The article discusses the components of a strategic plan for the Brazilian government's action regarding the spread of Zika virus infection and the rising incidence of microcephaly. Topics discussed include the development of a reliable and fast serological test for the diagnosis of the infection based on immunology, the development of a vaccine, and the reprogramming of the country's health care system.

245) Zika virus detection in urine from patients with Guillain-Barré syndrome on Martinique, January 2016
Autor: Rozé Benoît,Najioullah Fatiha,Fergé Jean-Louis,Apetse Kossivi,Brouste Yannick,Cesaire Raymond,Fagour Cédric,Fagour Laurence,Hochedez Patrick,Jeannin Séverine,Joux Julien,Mehdaoui Hossein,Valentino Ruddy,Signate Aïssatou,Cabié André,
Assunto: Martinique; Emerging or re-emerging diseases; Outbreaks; Vector-borne infections; Viral infections
Descritores: Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Infectious diseases ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Viral infections ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Virus
Fonte: Euro Surveillance : Bulletin Europe?en sur les Maladies Transmissibles = European Communicable Disease Bulletin, v. 21, n. 9, p. 1-4, 2016
ISSN: 1560-7917
Resumo: We report two cases of Guillain-Barré syndrome who had concomitant Zika virus viruria. This viruria persisted for longer than 15 days after symptom onset. The cases occurred on Martinique in January 2016, at the beginning of the Zika virus outbreak. Awareness of this possible neurological complication of ZikV infection is needed.

246) Zika fever and congenital zika syndrome: an unexpected emerging arboviral disease
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Chan, Jasper F W; Choi, Garnet K Y; Yip, Cyril C Y; Cheng, Vincent C C; Yuen, Kwok-Yung
Assunto: Zika; Virus; Flavivirus; Arbovirus; Microcephaly; Aedes; Mosquito
Descritores: Zika Virus - Arbovirus ; Zika Virus - Genome ; Zika Virus - Pathogenesis ; Zika Virus - RNA ; Zika Virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika Virus - Viral infections ; Zika Virus - RNA virus ; Zika Virus - Sexual ; Zika Virus - Transmission ; Zika Virus - Vaccine ; Zika Virus - Dengue ; Zika Virus - Epidemic ; Zika Virus - Epidemiology ; Zika Virus - Immunology ; Zika Virus - Microcephaly ; Zika Virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Journal of Infection, v. 72, n. 5, p. 507-524, 2016.
ISSN: 1532-2742
Resumo: Unlike its mosquito-borne relatives, such as dengue, West Nile, and Japanese encephalitis viruses, which can cause severe human diseases, Zika virus (ZIKV) has emerged from obscurity by its association with a suspected congenital Zika syndrome", while causing asymptomatic or mild exanthematous febrile infections which are dengue- or rubella-like in infected individuals. Despite having been discovered in Uganda for almost 60 years, <20 human cases were reported before 2007. The massive epidemics in the Pacific islands associated with the ZIKV Asian lineage in 2007 and 2013 were followed by explosive outbreaks in Latin America in 2015. Although increased mosquito breeding associated with the El Niño effect superimposed on global warming is suspected, genetic changes in its RNA virus genome may have led to better adaptation to mosquitoes, other animal reservoirs, and human. We reviewed the epidemiology, clinical manifestation, virology, pathogenesis, laboratory diagnosis, management, and prevention of this emerging infection. Laboratory diagnosis can be confounded by cross-reactivity with other circulating flaviviruses. Besides mosquito bite and transplacental transmission, the risk of other potential routes of transmission by transfusion, transplantation, sexual activity, breastfeeding, respiratory droplet, and animal bite is discussed. Epidemic control requires adequate clearance of mosquito breeding grounds, personal protection against mosquito bite, and hopefully a safe and effective vaccine."

247) Zika Virus: Medical Countermeasure Development Challenges
Autor: Malone Robert W,Homan Jane,Callahan Michael V,Glasspool-Malone Jill,Damodaran Lambodhar,Schneider Adriano De Bernardi,Zimler Rebecca,Talton James,Cobb Ronald R,Ruzic Ivan,Smith-Gagen Julie,Janies Daniel,Wilson James,
Assunto:
Descritores: Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Infectious diseases ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Viral infections ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Virus ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Vaccine ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Epidemiology ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Immunology ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Microcephaly ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Public health
Fonte: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, v. 10, n. 3, p. e0004530, 2016
ISSN: 1935-2735
Resumo: Reports of high rates of primary microcephaly and Guillain-Barré syndrome associated with Zika virus infection in French Polynesia and Brazil have raised concerns that the virus circulating in these regions is a rapidly developing neuropathic, teratogenic, emerging infectious public health threat. There are no licensed medical countermeasures (vaccines, therapies or preventive drugs) available for Zika virus infection and disease. The Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) predicts that Zika virus will continue to spread and eventually reach all countries and territories in the Americas with endemic Aedes mosquitoes. This paper reviews the status of the Zika virus outbreak, including medical countermeasure options, with a focus on how the epidemiology, insect vectors, neuropathology, virology and immunology inform options and strategies available for medical countermeasure development and deployment. Multiple information sources were employed to support the review. These included publically available literature, patents, official communications, English and Lusophone lay press. Online surveys were distributed to physicians in the US, Mexico and Argentina and responses analyzed. Computational epitope analysis as well as infectious disease outbreak modeling and forecasting were implemented. Field observations in Brazil were compiled and interviews conducted with public health officials.

248) A report on the outbreak of zika virus on Easter Island, South Pacific, 2014
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Tognarelli J; Ulloa S; Villagra E; Lagos J; Aguayo C; Fasce R; Parra B; Mora J; Becerra N; Lagos N; Vera L; Olivares B; Vilches M; Fernández J
Assunto: Easter Island; Outbreak; South Pacific; ZIKV; Zika virus
Descritores: Zika Virus - PCR detection ; Zika Virus - RT-PCR ; Zika Virus - RNA virus ; Zika Virus - Molecular screening ; Zika Virus - Transmission ; Zika Virus - Public health
Fonte: Archives of Virology, v. 161, n. 3, p. 665-668, 2016.
ISSN: 1432-8798
Resumo: Zika virus (ZIKV) is an emerging mosquito-borne flavivirus circulating in Asia and Africa. In 2013, a large outbreak was reported on the archipelago of French Polynesia. In this study, we report the detection and molecular characterization of Zika virus for the first time in Chile from an outbreak among the inhabitants of Easter Island. A total of 89 samples from patients suspected of having ZIKV infection were collected between the period from January to May, 2014. Molecular diagnosis of the virus was performed by RT-PCR followed by the sequencing of the region containing the NS5 gene. A comparison of the viral nucleic acid sequence with those of other strains of ZIKA virus was performed using the MEGA software. Fifty-one samples were found positive for ZIKV by RT-PCR analysis. Further analysis of the NS5 gene revealed that the ZIKV strains identified in Easter Island were most closely related to those found in French Polynesia (99.8 to 99.9 % nt and 100 % aa sequence identity). These results strongly suggest that the transmission pathway leading to the introduction of Zika virus on Easter Island has its origin in French Polynesia.

249) Locked-in-like fulminant infantile Guillain-Barré syndrome associated with herpes simplex virus 1 infection.
Autor: Dilena Robertino; Strazzer Sandra; Esposito Susanna; Paglialonga Fabio; Tadini Laura; Barbieri Sergio; Giannini Alberto
Assunto: EMG, Guillain-Barré syndrome, herpes simplex virus 1, locked-in syndrome, plasmapheresis
Descritores: Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Cell ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Clinical examination ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Virus
Fonte: Muscle & Nerve, v. 53, n. 1, p. 140-143, 2016
ISSN: 1097-4598
Resumo: Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) may rarely manifest as a peripheral locked-in syndrome. Clinical and instrumental features of a fulminant form of infantile GBS were assessed. After 2 days of rhinitis, a 6-month-old infant was intubated in the emergency room for sudden-onset respiratory failure. Neurological examination showed generalized areflexic flaccid paralysis with no detectable interaction, which resembled a coma. Brain MRI was normal. Lumbar puncture showed pleocytosis (43 cells/mm(3) ) and herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV1) PCR positivity. EEG showed normal sleep-wake cycles, and EMG demonstrated nerve inexcitability. Acyclovir and immunoglobulins provided no benefit. After 1 week, lumbar puncture showed albuminocytological dissociation (protein 217 mg/dl). Plasmapheresis was then started, and progressive improvement occurred. At age 1 year, the child had recovered well with residual distal lower limb hyporeflexic weakness. A fulminant infantile GBS variant presenting as peripheral locked-in syndrome can be associated with HSV1 infection likely due to autoimmune cross-reactivity. Muscle Nerve 53: 140-143, 2016.

250) Clinical attack rate of chikungunya in a cohort of nicaraguan children
Autor: Balmaseda Angel, Gordon Aubree, Gresh Lionel, Ojeda Sergio, Saborio Saira, Tellez Yolanda, Sanchez Nery, Kuan Guillermina, Harris Eva
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Infectious diseases ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Transmission ; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever ; Chikungunya virus - Dengue ; Chikungunya virus - Epidemiology ; Chikungunya virus - Public health
Fonte: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, v. 94, n. 2, p. 397-399, 2016
ISSN: 1476-1645
Resumo: Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) was recently introduced into the Americas. In Nicaragua, the first endogenous transmission of CHIKV was recognized in September 2014. We used an ongoing dengue cohort study of children aged 2-14 years in Managua, Nicaragua, to document the attack rate of symptomatic chikungunya in a presumably naive population. From September 2014 through March 2015, the overall clinical attack rate of laboratory-confirmed CHIKV infection was 2.9% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.3%, 3.4%). The attack rate was greater in children ? 8 years of age (4.1%; 95% CI: 3.2%, 5.1%) than in those < 8 years of age (1.5%; 95% CI: 0.9%, 2.1%). The mean age of CHIKV cases presenting with typical chikungunya symptoms was 9.8 years, compared with 7.8 years for cases presenting with undifferentiated fever (P = 0.04). Our data suggest that the clinical attack rate in children may underestimate the true burden of disease as some children, especially young children, may experience more atypical symptoms (e.g., undifferentiated fever).

251) The value of ultrasonography versus clinical examination in differentiating acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy from acute-onset chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy: The importance of timing
Autor: Rajabally Yusuf A,Hiew Fu Liong
Assunto:
Descritores: Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Clinical examination
Fonte: Muscle & Nerve, v. 51, n. 3, p. 459, 2015
ISSN: 1097-4598
Resumo:

252) Seroepidemiological Survey of Chikungunya in and Around the Regions of Bijapur (Vijayapura - North Karnataka)
Autor: Mudurangaplar Bharath,Peerapur Basavaraj V
Assunto: Arboviral; IgM ELISA; Viral fever
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Antibodies ; Aedes aegypti - virus ; Aedes aegypti - Chikungunya Fever
Fonte: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research : JCDR, v. 9, n. 5, p. DC01-DC02, 2015
ISSN: 2249-782X
Resumo: Chikungunya is a debilitating, non-fatal, mosquito borne viral fever caused by Chikungunya virus (CHIVA). The disease is transmitted to humans by the bite of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus mosquitoes. Severe outbreaks of Chikungunya have been reported in several countries of Africa and Asia. Chikungunya fever is characterized by fever with sudden onset, arthralgia, rash, headache and myalgia. However, arthralgia is painful and long-lasting, affecting primarily the peripheral joints. To find out the prevalence of Chikungunya fever in and around the regions of Bijapur district. The study was conducted from April 2011 to December 2014. Five hundred serum samples were collected from cases with pyrexia and arthralgia. Serum samples were tested for Chikungunya antibodies by Chikungunya IgM ELISA. Out of 500 samples 33 samples were confirmed positive for Chikungunya IgM antibodies. The prevalence rate of Chikungunya was 6.6% with maximum number of cases in the year 2013 (8.5%) and age group 15 to 40 (8.3%). Females (6.9%) were more affected than males. Thus, continuous sero-epidomological surveillance is needed for the control of Chikungunya fever.

253) Screening for mosquito larvicidal activity of thai mushroom extracts with special reference to Steccherinum sp. against Aedes aegypti (L.) (DIiptera: Culicidae)
Autor: Thongwat Damrongpan,Pimolsri Urat,Somboon Pradya
Assunto: Aedes aegypti; Steccherinum sp; Crude extract; Larvicide; Mushroom
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - virus ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: The Southeast Asian Journal of Tropical Medicine and Public Health, v. 46, n. 4, p. 586-595, 2015
ISSN: 0125-1562
Resumo: For over 50 years, biological control of mosquito larvae has depended mainly on plant extracts, fish, bacteria, protozoa, filamentous fungi, viruses or nematodes. In this study, we screened 143 mushroom samples from 44 confirmed species in Thailand for their mosquito larvicidal activity. One g% (w/v) aqueous extracts of dried powdered mushroom samples were tested against 3rd stage Aedes aegypti larvae. Four mushroom species, namely, Thaeogyroporus porentosus, Xylaria nigripes, Chlorophyllum sp and Steccherinum sp, and two unidentified species showed larvicidal mortality ranging from 10%-70% and 18%-90% for 24- and 48-hour exposure time, respectively. Steccherinum sp aqueous crude extract, after 48-hour exposure, did not show any larvicidal activity at 1,000 ppm, whereas that from ethanol, after 24-hour exposure, had 50% and 90% lethal concentration of 203 ppm and 412 ppm, respectively, with higher levels of mortality after 48- hour exposure. This is the first report of mosquito larvicidal properties of Thai mushroom extracts.

254) Chikungunya-associated uveitis and exudative retinal detachment: A case report
Autor: Scripsema Nicole K, Sharifi Emile, Samson C Michael, Kedhar Sanjay, Rosen Richard B
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Inflammation ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever ; Chikungunya virus - Epidemic
Fonte: Retinal Cases & Brief Reports, v. 9, n. 4, p. 352-356, 2015
ISSN: 1937-1578
Resumo: To report the first known case of bilateral granulomatous panuveitis secondary to chikungunya fever in the United States, acquired by a U.S. citizen traveling from an endemic region. Case report. A 47-year-old woman presented with 10 days of bilateral decreased vision - photophobia concurrent with a febrile illness contracted while visiting the Dominican Republic. She presented with bilateral granulomatous panuveitis - exudative retinal detachments. Extensive workup was negative with the exception of positive chikungunya virus immunoglobulin G - immunoglobulin M titers. Initially, she responded to corticosteroid treatment but developed recurrent inflammation 3 months after completing the initial treatment. Immunomodulatory therapy was initiated at the time of recurrence, - with immunomodulatory therapy alone her inflammation has been controlled for 6 months. The prevalence of chikungunya fever-related uveitis is increasing with the recent epidemics throughout the Americas. Inflammation can occur during the febrile illness or months later - can manifest in a variety of ways. Posterior segment inflammation is more commonly a delayed presentation. Previous reports suggest that chikungunya fever-related uveitis responds well to corticosteroid therapy. This is the first reported case of recurrent inflammation. Given the wide variety of presentations, chikungunya fever-related uveitis should be included in the differential diagnosis of all at-risk patients presenting with acute ocular inflammation, particularly those traveling from endemic regions.

255) Two Uncommon Causes of Guillain-Barré Syndrome: Hepatitis E and Japanese Encephalitis
Autor: Bandyopadhyay Dhrubajyoti,Ganesan Vijayan,Choudhury Cankatika,Kar Suvrendu Sankar,Karmakar Parthasarathi,Choudhary Vivek,Banerjee Prasun,Bhar Debarati,Hajra Adrija,Layek Manas,Mukhopadhyay Sabyasachi
Assunto:
Descritores: Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Viral infections ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Virus
Fonte: Case reports in Neurological Medicine, v. 2015, ID:759495, 2015
ISSN: 2090-6668
Resumo: We are presenting two cases of Guillain-Barré syndrome where it is preceded by hepatitis E virus (HEV) and Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) infection, respectively. Our first case is a forty-three-year-old nondiabetic, nonhypertensive female who was initially diagnosed with acute HEV induced viral hepatitis and subsequently developed acute onset ascending quadriparesis with lower motor neuron type of bilateral facial nerve palsies and respiratory failure. Second patient was a 14-year-old young male who presented with meningoencephalitis with acute onset symmetric flaccid paraparesis. After thorough investigations it was revealed as a case of Japanese encephalitis. Our idea of reporting these two cases is to make ourselves aware about this potential complication of these two common infections.

256) Chikungunya outbreak in Garo Hills, Meghalaya: An epidemiological perspective
Autor: Khan Siraj Ahmed, Dutta Prafulla, Topno Rashmee, Borah Jani, Chowdhury Purvita, Mahanta Jagadish
Assunto: Aedes albopictus; Antibodies; CHIK; Chikungunya; Genotype; IgM; Meghalaya
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Antibodies ; Chikungunya virus - Molecular methods ; Chikungunya virus - RT-PCR ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever
Fonte: The Indian Journal of Medical Research, v. 141, n. 5, p. 591-597, 2015
ISSN: 0971-5916
Resumo: Chikungunya (CHIK) fever is a mosquito-borne disease caused by chikungunya virus (CHIKV). Chikungunya infection was first reported from India in 1963 from Kolkata. We report the serological - molecular evidence of an outbreak of chikungunya in northeast India that occurred in Tura, a hilly - forested terrain in Garo Hills district of Meghalaya. Blood samples (3 ml) collected from hospitalized patients during the outbreak were tested for IgM antibodies against CHIKV - followed up four months later. A repeat survey was carried out in the same area after four months from where cases had been reported. Blood samples were also collected from people with history of fever - body ache in the last four months. Persons showing IgM positivity against CHIKV in the repeat survey were followed up one - a half years later. All samples were also processed by RT-PCR assay for CHIK Envelope (E) 1 gene. Immature mosquitoes were collected, link reared - identified with st-ard keys. Virus incrimination studies were done on Aedes aegypti - Ae. albopictus mosquitoes collected during the survey. Fever, headache - joint pain were the primary clinical presentations. Twenty three (35.93 %) of 64 samples reported during the outbreak were IgM positive for CHIK. Three samples showed PCR amplification. All these were IgM positive. The sequenced E1 gene revealed that the strains belonged to East Central South African (ECSA) genotype. Field survey done after four months revealed that some individuals still had joint pain associated with episodes of headache - fever. It could be inferred that these persons might have contracted infection during the CHIK outbreak four months ago or during the intervening period which caused persistence of sequelae. ECSA genotype was found to be involved in the outbreak. Aedes albopictus was the predominant mosquito species collected during the outbreak.

257) Pathophysiology and diagnosis of Guillain-Barré syndrome - challenges and needs.
Autor: Dash Sambit; Pai Aparna R.; Kamath Ullas; Rao Pragna
Assunto: Campylobacter jejuni, anti-ganglioside antibodies, autoimmunity, electrodiagnosis, molecular mimicry
Descritores: Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Biosynthesis ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Biochemistry ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Cytopathology ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Immune response ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Pathogenesis ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Antibodies ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Autoimmunity ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Molecular methods ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Molecular screening ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Epidemiology
Fonte: The International Journal of Neuroscience, v. 125, n. 4, p. 235-240, 2015
ISSN: 1563-5279
Resumo: Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) is an autoimmune polyneuropathy which presents with acute onset and rapid progression of flaccid, hyporeflexi quadriparesis. Both sensory and autonomic nerve involvement is seen. GBS has various subtypes that vary in their pathophysiology. The pathogenesis involves an immune response triggered by a preceding event which may be an infection, immunisation or surgical procedure. Clinical diagnosis has been largely the primary diagnosing criterion for GBS along with electrodiagnosis, which has several pitfalls and is supported by ancillary testing of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis and Nerve Conduction Studies. Measurement of anti-ganglioside antibodies is also an effective tool in its diagnosis. Further understanding of pathophysiology and better diagnostic methods are required for better management of GBS.

258) Citizens' actions in response to chikungunya outbreaks, Réunion Island, 2006
Autor: Gaüzère Bernard-Alex, Mausole Jean-Hugues, Simon Fabrice
Assunto: Réunion Island; Chikungunya; Chikungunya virus; Citizens' actions; Outbreaks; Responses; Viruses
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever ; Chikungunya virus - Epidemiology ; Chikungunya virus - Public health
Fonte: Emerging Infectious Diseases, v. 21, n. 5, p. 899, 2015
ISSN: 1080-6059
Resumo:

259) Increase in cases of Guillain-Barré syndrome during a Chikungunya outbreak, French Polynesia, 2014 to 2015.
Autor: Oehler Erwan; Fournier Emmanuel; Leparc-Goffart Isabelle; Larre Philippe; Cubizolle Stéphanie; Sookhareea Chantal; Lastère Stéphane; Ghawche Frédéric
Assunto: French Polynesia, chikungunya, chikungunya virus, clinic, outbreaks, vector-borne infections, viral infections
Descritores: Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Serology ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Viral infections ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - RT-PCR ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Virus ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Chikungunya Fever ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Dengue
Fonte: Euro Surveillance : Bulletin Europe?en Sur Les Maladies Transmissibles, v. 20, n. 48, 2015
ISSN: 1560-7917
Resumo: During the recent chikungunya fever outbreak in French Polynesia in October 2014 to March 2015, we observed an abnormally high number of patients with neurological deficit. Clinical presentation and complementary exams were suggestive of Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) for nine patients. All nine had a recent dengue-like syndrome and tested positive for chikungunya virus (CHIKV) in serology or RT-PCR. GBS incidence was increased four- to nine-fold during this period, suggesting a link to CHIKV infection.

260) Acute meningoencephalitis associated with echovirus 9 infection in Sri Lanka, 2009
Autor: Danthanarayana Nayomi, Williams David T, Williams Simon Hedley, Thevanesam Vasanthi, Speers David J, Fernando M S S
Assunto: Sri Lanka; Children; Echovirus 9; Enterovirus; Meningoencephalitis
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - PCR detection ; Chikungunya virus - RT-PCR ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever ; Chikungunya virus - Dengue
Fonte: Journal of Medical Virology, v. 87, n. 12, p. 2033-2039, 2015
ISSN: 1096-9071
Resumo: The aetiology of acute meningoencephalitis in Sri Lankan children - adults is poorly understood. This study was carried out to determine pathogens responsible for meningoencephalitis in Sri Lanka. A hospital-based cross-sectional study was performed using cerebrospinal fluid samples (22 adult - 17 pediatric) collected from August to December 2009 from patients clinically diagnosed with acute meningoencephalitis at two tertiary care hospitals in Sri Lanka. Routine microbiology for bacterial pathogens together with in-house RT-PCR - PCR assays for the detection of dengue viruses, Japanese encephalitis virus, West Nile virus, chikungunya virus, enteroviruses, mumps virus, measles virus, herpes simplex viruses types 1 - 2, - varicella zoster virus were performed. Bacterial pathogens were not isolated from any patient specimens. However, from nine of the paediatric patients aged 1 month to 10 years (mean age 5.2 years) echovirus 9 (E-9; family Picornaviridae, genus Enterovirus,species Enterovirus B ) was detected by RT-PCR. All nine patients presented with fever, six had headache, - seven had vomiting. Neck stiffness indicating meningitis was present in six of the patients. Phylogenetic analysis of partial VP1 - VP4-VP2 genes showed these E-9 strains to be most closely related to E-9 strains detected in CSF from Korea - France in 2005 - 2006. The remaining patients were negative for all other viruses tested. E-9 was the most common cause of acute meningoencephalitis in the tested paediatric population from Sri Lanka in 2009, which likely reflects circulation of this E-9 strain between Europe - Asia over several years.

261) Rapid selection against arbovirus-induced apoptosis during infection of a mosquito vector
Autor: O'Neill Katelyn, Olson Bradley J S C, Huang Ning, Unis Dave, Clem Rollie J
Assunto: Apoptosis; Arbovirus; Mosquito; Vector competence
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Arbovirus ; Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - Pathogenesis ; Aedes aegypti - virus ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, v. 112, n. 10, p. E1152-E1161, 2015
ISSN: 1091-6490
Resumo: Millions of people are infected each year by arboviruses (arthropod-borne viruses) such as chikungunya, dengue, and West Nile viruses, yet for reasons that are largely unknown, only a relatively small number of mosquito species are able to transmit arboviruses. Understanding the complex factors that determine vector competence could facilitate strategies for controlling arbovirus infections. Apoptosis is a potential antiviral defense response that has been shown to be important in other virus-host systems. However, apoptosis is rarely seen in arbovirus-infected mosquito cells, raising questions about its importance as an antiviral defense in mosquitoes. We tested the effect of stimulating apoptosis during arbovirus infection by infecting Aedes aegypti mosquitoes with a Sindbis virus (SINV) clone called MRE/Rpr, in which the MRE-16 strain of SINV was engineered to express the proapoptotic gene reaper from Drosophila. MRE/Rpr exhibited an impaired infection phenotype that included delayed midgut infection, delayed virus replication, and reduced virus accumulation in saliva. Nucleotide sequencing of the reaper insert in virus populations isolated from individual mosquitoes revealed evidence of rapid and strong selection against maintenance of Reaper expression in MRE/Rpr-infected mosquitoes. The impaired phenotype of MRE/Rpr, coupled with the observed negative selection against Reaper expression, indicates that apoptosis is a powerful defense against arbovirus infection in mosquitoes and suggests that arboviruses have evolved mechanisms to avoid stimulating apoptosis in mosquitoes that serve as vectors.

262) Alphavirus RNA synthesis and non-structural protein functions
Autor: Rupp Jonathan C, Sokoloski Kevin J, Gebhart Natasha N, Hardy Richard W
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Protein synthesis ; Chikungunya virus - Proteins ; Chikungunya virus - RNA ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Vaccine ; Chikungunya virus - Public health
Fonte: The Journal of General Virology, v. 96, n. 9, p. 2483-2500, 2015
ISSN: 1465-2099
Resumo: The members of the genus Alphavirus are positive-sense RNA viruses, which are predominantly transmitted to vertebrates by a mosquito vector. Alphavirus disease in humans can be severely debilitating, - depending on the particular viral species, infection may result in encephalitis - possibly death. In recent years, alphaviruses have received significant attention from public health authorities as a consequence of the dramatic emergence of chikungunya virus in the Indian Ocean isl-s - the Caribbean. Currently, no safe, approved or effective vaccine or antiviral intervention exists for human alphavirus infection. The molecular biology of alphavirus RNA synthesis has been well studied in a few species of the genus - represents a general target for antiviral drug development. This review describes what is currently understood about the regulation of alphavirus RNA synthesis, the roles of the viral non-structural proteins in this process - the functions of cis-acting RNA elements in replication, - points to open questions within the field.

263) Surveillance of adult Aedes mosquitoes in Selangor, Malaysia
Autor: Lau Sai-Ming,Vythilingam Indra,Doss Jonathan Inbaraj,Sekaran Shamala Devi,Chua Tock H,Wan Sulaiman Wan Yusof,Chinna Karuthan,Lim Yvonne Ai-Lian,Venugopalan Balan
Assunto: Aedes aegypti; Dengue; Sticky trap; NS1 antigen test kit; Surveillance; Malaysia
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Flaviviridae ; Aedes aegypti - RNA ; Aedes aegypti - Viral infections ; Aedes aegypti - Real Time PCR ; Aedes aegypti - RT-PCR ; Aedes aegypti - virus ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Epidemiology ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Tropical Medicine & International Health : TM & IH, v. 20, n. 10, p. 1271-1280, 2015
ISSN: 1365-3156
Resumo: To determine the effectiveness of using sticky traps and the NS1 dengue antigen kit for the surveillance of Aedes mosquitoes for dengue control. Apartments were selected in a dengue-endemic area, and sticky traps were set to capture adult Aedes mosquitoes. NS1 dengue antigen kit was used to detect dengue antigen in mosquitoes, and positive mosquitoes were serotyped using real-time RT-PCR. The sticky traps were effective in capturing Aedes aegypti, and a minimum of three traps per floor was sufficient. Multiple serotypes were found in individual mosquitoes. The sticky trap and the NS1 dengue antigen test kit can be used as surveillance tool in dengue control programmes. This proactive method will be better suited for control programmes than current reactive methods.

264) Sterol Carrier Protein 2, a Critical Host Factor for Dengue Virus Infection, Alters the Cholesterol Distribution in Mosquito Aag2 Cells
Autor: Fu Qiang,Inankur Bahar,Yin John,Striker Rob,Lan Que
Assunto: Aedes aegypti; Cholesterol; Dengue; SCP-2; Host factor
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - Flaviviridae ; Aedes aegypti - Pathogenesis ; Aedes aegypti - Proteins ; Aedes aegypti - RNA ; Aedes aegypti - Viral infections ; Aedes aegypti - virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Journal of Medical Entomology, v. 52, n. 5, p. 1124-1134, 2015
ISSN: 0022-2585
Resumo: Host factors that enable dengue virus (DENV) to propagate in the mosquito host cells are unclear. It is known that cellular cholesterol plays an important role in the life cycle of DENV in human host cells but unknown if the lipid requirements differ for mosquito versus mammalian. In mosquito Aedes aegypti, sterol carrier protein 2 (SCP-2) is critical for cellular cholesterol homeostasis. In this study, we identified SCP-2 as a critical host factor for DENV production in mosquito Aag2 cells. Treatment with a small molecule commonly referred to as SCPI-1, (N-(4-{[4-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,3-thiazol-2-yl]amino}phenyl)acetamide hydrobromide, a known inhibitor of SCP-2, or knockdown of SCP-2 dramatically repressed the virus production in mosquito but not mammalian cells. We showed that the intracellular cholesterol distribution in mosquito cells was altered by SCP-2 inhibitor treatment, suggesting that SCP-2-mediated cholesterol trafficking pathway is important for DENV viral production. A comparison of the effect of SCP-2 on mosquito and human cells suggests that SCPI-1 treatment decreases cholesterol in both cell lines, but this decrease in cholesterol only leads to a decline in viral titer in mosquito host cells, perhaps, owing to a more drastic effect on perinuclear cholesterol storages in mosquito cells that was absent in human cells. SCP-2 had no inhibitory effect on another enveloped RNA virus grown in mosquito cells, suggesting that SCP-2 does not have a generalized anti-cellular or antiviral effect. Our cell culture results imply that SCP-2 may play a limiting role in mosquito-dengue vector competence.

265) Spatial distribution & physicochemical characterization of the breeding habitats of Aedes aegypti in & around Kolkata, West Bengal, India
Autor: Chatterjee Soumendranath,Chakraborty Arunima,Sinha Shuvra Kanti
Assunto: Aedes aegypti; Breeding habitat; GIS application; Immature; Kolkata; Physicochemical parameters
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - virus ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue
Fonte: The Indian Journal of Medical Research, v. 142, n. Suppl, p. S79-S86, 2015
ISSN: 0971-5916
Resumo: Dengue infection is endemic in several areas and the dengue virus is transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes. Thus, it becomes important to understand the breeding ecology of dengue vector and characterize the physicochemical parameters of its breeding habitat. The objective of this study was to analyze the physicochemical parameters of the breeding habitat of the dengue vector and to find out the nutrient composition of the habitat in and around Kolkata, West Bengal. In addition, a geographic information system (GIS) was used to map the disease prone areas for its effective management and prevention. Water samples were collected from various breeding habitats of Aedes mosquitoes of Kolkata and adjoining areas and were analysed for various physicochemical properties like acidity, alkalinity, hardness, electrical conductivity, total dissolved solids, concentration of chloride (Cl - ), sodium (Na + ), potassium (K + ), fluoride (F - ) in relation to larval prevalence. Parameters like water pH, total dissolved solids, total hardness, electrical conductivity, concentration of chloride, sodium and potassium were seen to vary throughout the year. Certain parameters were found to be dependent on container type, like concentration of fluoride. Significant positive correlations were seen between per dip larval density and total dissolved solids (TDS) and electrical conductivity. Water pH, electrical conductivity, total dissolved solids were seen to play a major role in the ovipositional preferences. Container type did not seem to affect TDS. Tyres had the highest TDS in most of the cases. Nutrient composition like sodium concentration was mostly found in the coconut shells, potassium concentration also showed the same. Thus, container type and various parameters and nutrients play a major role in determining where a gravid female mosquito will lay its eggs. It was observed that by altering various chemical and physical properties of breeding habitats it was possible to control the larvae survivability.

266) Viral RNA intermediates as targets for detection and discovery of novel and emerging mosquito-borne viruses
Autor: O'Brien Caitlin A, Hobson-Peters Jody, Yam Alice Wei Yee, Colmant Agathe M G, McLean Breeanna J, Prow Natalie A, Watterson Daniel, Hall-Mendelin Sonja, Warrilow David, Ng Mah-Lee, Khromykh Alexander A, Hall Roy A
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Antigenic variation ; Chikungunya virus - Biosynthesis ; Chikungunya virus - Cell ; Chikungunya virus - Flaviviridae ; Chikungunya virus - Genome ; Chikungunya virus - Molecular structure ; Chikungunya virus - Pathogenesis ; Chikungunya virus - Proteins ; Chikungunya virus - RNA ; Chikungunya virus - Antibodies ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Molecular screening ; Chikungunya virus - Dengue ; Chikungunya virus - Immunology ; Chikungunya virus - Public health
Fonte: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, v. 9, n. 3, p. e0003629, 2015
ISSN: 1935-2735
Resumo: Mosquito-borne viruses encompass a range of virus families, comprising a number of significant human pathogens (e.g., dengue viruses, West Nile virus, Chikungunya virus). Virulent strains of these viruses are continually evolving - exp-ing their geographic range, thus rapid - sensitive screening assays are required to detect emerging viruses - monitor their prevalence - spread in mosquito populations. Double-str-ed RNA (dsRNA) is produced during the replication of many of these viruses as either an intermediate in RNA replication (e.g., flaviviruses, togaviruses) or the double-str-ed RNA genome (e.g., reoviruses). Detection - discovery of novel viruses from field - clinical samples usually relies on recognition of antigens or nucleotide sequences conserved within a virus genus or family. However, due to the wide antigenic - genetic variation within - between viral families, many novel or divergent species can be overlooked by these approaches. We have developed two monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) which show co-localised staining with proteins involved in viral RNA replication in immunofluorescence assay (IFA), suggesting specific reactivity to viral dsRNA. By assessing binding against a panel of synthetic dsRNA molecules, we have shown that these mAbs recognise dsRNA greater than 30 base pairs in length in a sequence-independent manner. IFA - enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) were employed to demonstrate detection of a panel of RNA viruses from several families, in a range of cell types. These mAbs, termed monoclonal antibodies to viral RNA intermediates in cells (MAVRIC), have now been incorporated into a high-throughput, economical ELISA-based screening system for the detection - discovery of viruses from mosquito populations. Our results have demonstrated that this simple system enables the efficient detection - isolation of a range of known - novel viruses in cells inoculated with field-caught mosquito samples, - represents a rapid, sequence-independent, - cost-effective approach to virus discovery.

267) The safety of human papilloma virus-blockers and the risk of triggering autoimmune diseases
Autor: Baker Britain,Eça Guimarães Luísa,Tomljenovic Lucija,Agmon-Levin Nancy,Shoenfeld Yehuda
Assunto: Adjuvant; Aluminum; Autoimmune/inflammatory syndrome induced by adjuvants; Autoimmunity; Guillain Barré syndrome; Human papilloma virus; Postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome; Premature ovarian failure; Vaccines
Descritores: Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Immune response ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Autoimmunity ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Immune response ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Viral infections ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Virus ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Vaccine
Fonte: Expert Opinion on Drug Safety, v. 14, n. 9, p. 1387-1394, 2015
ISSN: 1744-764X
Resumo: With the safety of human papilloma virus vaccine (HPVv) being questioned, this article aims to assess the risks and benefits of the commercially available HPVv. Within the last decade, two vaccines (Gardasil and Cervarix) have been put on the market to prevent infection with the most oncogenic HPV subtypes. Both vaccines contain aluminum adjuvants that are meant to cause a hyper stimulated immune response to prevent HPV infection. The purpose of this paper is to consider the safety of these two vaccines based on the data from the U.S. Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS) and case reports. The current HPVv are both effective and generally safe. However, it should be noted that autoimmune side effects have been reported in several studies. Further research should be done to understand the relationship between HPVv and autoimmunity.

268) Chemical Composition and Larvicidal Activity of Essential Oils Extracted from Brazilian Legal Amazon Plants against Aedes aegypti L. (Diptera: Culicidae)
Autor: Dias Clarice Noleto, Alves Luciana Patrícia Lima, Rodrigues Klinger Antonio da Franca, Brito Maria Cristiane Aranha, Rosa Carliane Dos Santos, do Amaral Flavia Maria Mendonça, Monteiro Odair Dos Santos, Andrade Eloisa Helena de Aguiar, Maia José Guilherme Soares, Moraes Denise Fernandes Coutinho
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Vaccine ; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever ; Chikungunya virus - Dengue
Fonte: Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, v. 2015, p. 490765, 2015
ISSN: 1741-427X
Resumo: The mosquito Aedes aegypti L. (Diptera: Culicidae) is the major vector of dengue - chikungunya fever. The lack of effective therapies - vaccines for these diseases highlights the need for alternative strategies to control the spread of virus. Therefore, this study investigated the larvicidal potential of essential oils from common plant species obtained from the Chapada das Mesas National Park, Brazil, against third instar A. aegypti larvae. The chemical composition of these oils was determined by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. The essential oils of Eugenia piauhiensis Vellaff., Myrcia erythroxylon O. Berg, Psidium myrsinites DC., - Siparuna camporum (Tul.) A. DC. were observed to be mainly composed of sesquiterpene hydrocarbons. The essential oil of Lippia gracilis Schauer was composed of oxygenated monoterpenes. Four of the five tested oils were effective against the A. aegypti larvae, with the lethal concentration (LC50) ranging from 230 to 292 mg/L after 24 h of exposure. Overall, this work demonstrated the possibility of developing larvicidal products against A. aegypti by using essential oils from the flora of the Brazilian Legal Amazon. This in turn demonstrates the potential of using natural resources for the control of disease vectors.

269) Miller-Fisher syndrome associated with unilateral cerebral white matter lesions.
Autor: Xu Yongfeng; Liu Lan
Assunto: Central nervous system, Miller-Fisher syndrome, Pleocytosis
Descritores: Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Cytopathology ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Pathogenesis ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Proteins ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Clinical examination
Fonte: Neurologia i Neurochirurgia Polska, v. 49, n. 5, p. 344-347, 2015
ISSN: 0028-3843
Resumo: Miller-Fisher syndrome (MFS) is characterized by classical triad of ophthalmoplegia, ataxia and areflexia. The involvement of cerebral white matter in MFS is very rare. We report a typical MFS patient whose brain MRI showed unilateral and extensive involvement in cerebral white matter. We also found mild pleocytosis and raised protein concentration in cerebrospinal fluid. Deficits resolved completely after treatment with intravenous immunoglobulins. Subsequent brain MRI shows cavity formation in involved white matter.

270) Lessons learned in the control of Aedes aegypti to address dengue and the emergency of chikungunya in Iquitos, Peru
Autor: Vilcarromero Stalin, Casanova Wilma, Ampuero Julia S, Ramal-Asayag Cesar, Siles Crystyan, Díaz Gloria, Dur- Salomón, Celis-Salinas Juan C, Astete Helvio, Rojas Percy, Vásquez-La Torre Gabriela, Marín Johan, Bazán Isabel, Alegre Yuri, Morrison Amy C, Rodriguez-Ferrucci Hugo
Assunto: Dengue; Dengue/prevention & control; Chikungunya virus; Virus release
Descritores: Chikungunya Virus - Virus; Chikungunya virus - Dengue; Chikungunya virus - Public health
Fonte: Revista Peruana de Medicina Experimental y Salud Pu?blica, v. 32, n. 1, p. 172-178, 2015
ISSN: 1726-4642
Resumo: Dengue has affected Iquitos since 1990 causing outbreaks of major impact on public health - for this reason great efforts have been made for its temporal control. Currently, with the expansion of the chikungunya virus in the Americas - the threat of the emergence of the virus in Iquitos, we reflect on lessons learned by way of the activities undertaken in the area of vector control; epidemiological surveillance, diagnosis - clinical management during periods of outbreaks of dengue, in a way that will allow us to better face the threat of an outbreak of chikungunya virus in the largest city in the Peruvian Amazon.

271) Zika virus in Brazil and the danger of infestation by Aedes (Stegomyia) mosquitoes
Autor: Marcondes Carlos Brisola, Ximenes Maria de Fátima Freire de Melo
Assunto: Aedes aegypti; Aedes albopictus; Arbovirus; Stegomyia; Culicidae
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Arbovirus ; Aedes aegypti - Cytopathology ; Aedes aegypti - virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Chikungunya Fever ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Epidemiology ; Aedes aegypti - Zika fever
Fonte: Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical, v. 49, n. 1, p. 4-10, 2015
ISSN: 1678-9849
Resumo: Zika virus, already widely distributed in Africa and Asia, was recently reported in two Northeastern Brazilian: State of Bahia and State of Rio Grande do Norte, and one Southeastern: State of São Paulo. This finding adds a potentially noxious virus to a list of several other viruses that are widely transmitted by Aedes (Stegomyia) aegypti and Aedes (Stegomyia) albopictus in Brazil. The pathology and epidemiology, including the distribution and vectors associated with Zika virus, are reviewed. This review is focused on viruses transmitted by Aedes (Stegomyia) mosquitoes, including dengue, Chikungunya, Zika, Mayaro, and yellow fever virus, to emphasize the risks of occurrence for these arboviruses in Brazil and neighboring countries. Other species of Aedes (Stegomyia) are discussed, emphasizing their involvement in arbovirus transmission and the possibility of adaptation to environments modified by human activities and introduction in Brazil.

272) Viral polymerase-helicase complexes regulate replication fidelity to overcome intracellular nucleotide depletion
Autor: Stapleford Kenneth A, Rozen-Gagnon Kathryn, Das Pratyush Kumar, Saul Sirle, Poirier Enzo Z, Blanc Hervé, Vidalain Pierre-Olivier, Merits Andres, Vignuzzi Marco
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Biosynthesis ; Chikungunya virus - Cell ; Chikungunya virus - DNA ; Chikungunya virus - Molecular structure ; Chikungunya virus - Pathogenesis ; Chikungunya virus - Protein synthesis ; Chikungunya virus - Proteins ; Chikungunya virus - RNA ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus
Fonte: Journal of Virology, v. 89, n. 22, p. 11233-11244, 2015
ISSN: 1098-5514
Resumo: To date, the majority of work on RNA virus replication fidelity has focused on the viral RNA polymerase, while the potential role of other viral replicase proteins in this process is poorly understood. Previous studies used resistance to broad-spectrum RNA mutagens, such as ribavirin, to identify polymerases with increased fidelity that avoid misincorporation of such base analogues. We identified a novel variant in the alphavirus viral helicase/protease, nonstructural protein 2 (nsP2) that operates in concert with the viral polymerase nsP4 to further alter replication complex fidelity, a functional linkage that was conserved among the alphavirus genus. Purified chikungunya virus nsP2 presented delayed helicase activity of the high-fidelity enzyme, - yet purified replication complexes manifested stronger RNA polymerization kinetics. Because mutagenic nucleoside analogs such as ribavirin also affect intracellular nucleotide pools, we addressed the link between nucleotide depletion - replication fidelity by using purine - pyrimidine biosynthesis inhibitors. High-fidelity viruses were more resistant to these conditions, - viral growth could be rescued by the addition of exogenous nucleosides, suggesting that mutagenesis by base analogues requires nucleotide pool depletion. This study describes a novel function for nsP2, highlighting the role of other components of the replication complex in regulating viral replication fidelity, - suggests that viruses can alter their replication complex fidelity to overcome intracellular nucleotide-depleting conditions. Previous studies using the RNA mutagen ribavirin to select for drug-resistant variants have highlighted the essential role of the viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase in regulating replication fidelity. However, the role of other viral replicase components in replication fidelity has not been studied in detail. We identified here an RNA mutagen-resistant variant of the nsP2 helicase/protease that conferred increased fidelity - yet could not operate in the same manner as high-fidelity polymerases. We show that the alphavirus helicase is a key component of the fidelity-regulating machinery. Our data show that the RNA mutagenic activity of compounds such as ribavirin is coupled to - potentiated by nucleotide depletion - that RNA viruses can fine-tune their replication fidelity when faced with an intracellular environment depleted of nucleotides.

273) Public Health Responses to Reemergence of Animal Rabies, Taiwan, July 16-December 28, 2013.
Autor: Huang Angela Song-En,Chen Wan-Chin,Huang Wan-Ting,Huang Shih-Tse,Lo Yi-Chun,Wei Sung-Hsi,Kuo Hung-Wei,Chan Pei-Chun,Hung Min-Nan,Liu Yu-Lun,Mu Jung-Jung,Yang Jyh-Yuan,Liu Ding-Ping,Chou Jih-Haw,Chuang Jen-Hsiang,Chang Feng-Yee
Assunto:
Descritores: Guillain-Barre Syndrome - RT-PCR ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Vaccine ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Epidemic ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Public health
Fonte: PloS One, v. 10, n. 7, 2015
ISSN: 1932-6203
Resumo: Taiwan had been free of indigenous human and animal rabies case since canine rabies was eliminated in 1961. In July 2013, rabies was confirmed among three wild ferret-badgers, prompting public health response to prevent human rabies cases. This descriptive study reports the immediate response to the reemergence of rabies in Taiwan. Response included enhanced surveillance for human rabies cases by testing stored cerebrospinal fluids (CSF) from patients with encephalitides of unknown cause by RT-PCR, prioritizing vaccine use for postexposure prophylaxis (PEP) during periods of vaccine shortage and subsequent expansion of PEP, surveillance of animal bites using information obtained from vaccine application, roll out of preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) with vaccine stock restoration, surveillance for adverse events following immunization (AEFI), and ensuring surge capacity to respond to general public inquiries by phone and training for healthcare professionals. Enhanced surveillance for human rabies found no cases after testing 205 stored CSF specimens collected during January 2010-July 2013. During July 16 to December 28, 2013, we received 8,241 rabies PEP application; 6,634 (80.5%) were consistent with recommendations. Among the 6,501 persons who received at least one dose of rabies vaccine postexposure, 4,953 (76.2%) persons who were bitten by dogs; only 59 (0.9%) persons were bitten by ferret-badgers. During the study period, 6,247 persons received preexposure prophylaxis. There were 23 reports of AEFI; but no anaphylaxis, Guillain-Barré syndrome, or acute disseminated encephalomyelitis were found. During the study period, there were 40,312 calls to the Taiwan Centers for Disease Control hotline, of which, 8,692 (22%) were related to rabies. Recent identification of rabies among ferret-badgers in a previously rabies-free country prompted rapid response. To date, no human rabies has been identified. Continued multifaceted surveillance and interministerial collaboration are crucial to achieve the goal of rabies-free status in Taiwan.

274) Dengue hemorrhagic fever at 60 years: Early evolution of concepts of causation and treatment
Autor: Halstead Scott B, Cohen Sanford N
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Flaviviridae ; Chikungunya virus - Pathogenesis ; Chikungunya virus - Antibodies ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever ; Chikungunya virus - Dengue ; Chikungunya virus - Epidemic ; Chikungunya virus - Epidemiology ; Chikungunya virus - Public health
Fonte: Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews, v. 79, n. 3, p. 281-291, 2015
ISSN: 1098-5557
Resumo: During the decade of the 1960s, the epidemiology of a new dengue disease, dengue hemorrhagic fever - dengue shock syndrome (DHF/DSS), was described by collaborative research performed by Thai scientists from many institutions - by workers at the U.S. Army's SEATO Medical Research Laboratory in Bangkok, Thail-. Careful clinical - physiological studies provided the initial description of DSS. DSS cases were caused by each of the four dengue viruses (DENV) - not chikungunya (CHIK) virus or DENV 5 - 6, were associated with a secondary-type dengue antibody response in children over the age of 1 year, were associated with a primary antibody response in infants less than 1 year old whose mothers had neutralizing antibodies to all four DENV, were associated more frequently with secondary DENV 2 infections than those due to DENV 1 - 3, - were more common in females than males over the age of 3 years. Robust laboratory methods for growth - recovery of DENV in tissue cultures were introduced. In addition, life-saving principles of fluid - plasma protein resuscitation of hypovolemia were described. Most epidemiological observations made during the decade of the 1960s have been confirmed in the succeeding 45 years. Much contemporary research on pathogenesis fails to address the two distinct immunological antecedents of DHF/DSS.

275) Silencing of end-joining repair for efficient site-specific gene insertion after TALEN/CRISPR mutagenesis in Aedes aegypti
Autor: Basu Sanjay,Aryan Azadeh,Overcash Justin M,Samuel Glady Hazitha,Anderson Michelle A E,Dahlem Timothy J,Myles Kevin M,Adelman Zach N
Assunto: Aedes; CRISPR; TALEN; Recombination; Transgenic
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - DNA ; Aedes aegypti - Genome ; Aedes aegypti - Molecular Structure ; Aedes aegypti - Pathogenesis ; Aedes aegypti - RNA ; Aedes aegypti - Molecular methods ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue
Fonte: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, v. 112, n. 13, p. 4038-4043, 2015
ISSN: 1091-6490
Resumo: Conventional control strategies for mosquito-borne pathogens such as malaria and dengue are now being complemented by the development of transgenic mosquito strains reprogrammed to generate beneficial phenotypes such as conditional sterility or pathogen resistance. The widespread success of site-specific nucleases such as transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs) and clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/Cas9 in model organisms also suggests that reprogrammable gene drive systems based on these nucleases may be capable of spreading such beneficial phenotypes in wild mosquito populations. Using the mosquito Aedes aegypti, we determined that mutations in the FokI domain used in TALENs to generate obligate heterodimeric complexes substantially and significantly reduce gene editing rates. We found that CRISPR/Cas9-based editing in the mosquito Ae. aegypti is also highly variable, with the majority of guide RNAs unable to generate detectable editing. By first evaluating candidate guide RNAs using a transient embryo assay, we were able to rapidly identify highly effective guide RNAs; focusing germ line-based experiments only on this cohort resulted in consistently high editing rates of 24-90%. Microinjection of double-stranded RNAs targeting ku70 or lig4, both essential components of the end-joining response, increased recombination-based repair in early embryos as determined by plasmid-based reporters. RNAi-based suppression of Ku70 concurrent with embryonic microinjection of site-specific nucleases yielded consistent gene insertion frequencies of 2-3%, similar to traditional transposon- or ?C31-based integration methods but without the requirement for an initial docking step. These studies should greatly accelerate investigations into mosquito biology, streamline development of transgenic strains for field releases, and simplify the evaluation of novel Cas9-based gene drive systems.

276) Assessment of arbovirus surveillance 13 Years after Introduction of West Nile Virus, United States
Autor: Hadler James L, Patel Dhara, Nasci Roger S, Petersen Lyle R, Hughes James M, Bradley Kristy, Etkind Paul, Kan Lilly, Engel Jeffrey
Assunto: United States; West Nile virus; Arboviruses; Capacity building; Health departments; Mosquito-borne encephalitis; Surveillance; Vector-borne infections; Viruses
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Arbovirus ; Chikungunya virus - Flaviviridae ; Chikungunya virus - Pathogenesis ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Dengue ; Chikungunya virus - Epidemiology ; Chikungunya virus - Public health
Fonte: Emerging Infectious Diseases, v. 21, n. 7, p. 1159-1166, 2015
ISSN: 1080-6059
Resumo: Before 1999, the United States had no appropriated funding for arboviral surveillance, - many states conducted no such surveillance. After emergence of West Nile virus (WNV), federal funding was distributed to state - selected local health departments to build WNV surveillance systems. The Council of State - Territorial Epidemiologists conducted assessments of surveillance capacity of resulting systems in 2004 - in 2012; the assessment in 2012 was conducted after a 61% decrease in federal funding. In 2004, nearly all states - assessed local health departments had well-developed animal, mosquito, - human surveillance systems to monitor WNV activity - anticipate outbreaks. In 2012, many health departments had decreased mosquito surveillance - laboratory testing capacity - had no systematic disease-based surveillance for other arboviruses. Arboviral surveillance in many states might no longer be sufficient to rapidly detect - provide information needed to fully respond to WNV outbreaks - other arboviral threats (e.g., dengue, chikungunya).

277) The global compendium of Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus occurrence
Autor: Kraemer Moritz U G,Sinka Marianne E,Duda Kirsten A,Mylne Adrian,Shearer Freya M,Brady Oliver J,Messina Jane P,Barker Christopher M,Moore Chester G,Carvalho Roberta G,Coelho Giovanini E,Van Bortel Wim,Hendrickx Guy,Schaffner Francis,Wint G R William,Elyazar Iqbal R F,Teng Hwa-Jen,Hay Simon I
Assunto:
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Cytopathology ; Aedes aegypti - Flaviviridae ; Aedes aegypti - Pathogenesis ; Aedes aegypti - Viral infections ; Aedes aegypti - virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Vaccine ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Epidemiology ; Aedes aegypti - Immunology ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Scientific Data, v. 2, p. 150035, 2015
ISSN: 2052-4463
Resumo: Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus are the main vectors transmitting dengue and chikungunya viruses. Despite being pathogens of global public health importance, knowledge of their vectors' global distribution remains patchy and sparse. A global geographic database of known occurrences of Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus between 1960 and 2014 was compiled. Herein we present the database, which comprises occurrence data linked to point or polygon locations, derived from peer-reviewed literature and unpublished studies including national entomological surveys and expert networks. We describe all data collection processes, as well as geo-positioning methods, database management and quality-control procedures. This is the first comprehensive global database of Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus occurrence, consisting of 19,930 and 22,137 geo-positioned occurrence records respectively. Both datasets can be used for a variety of mapping and spatial analyses of the vectors and, by inference, the diseases they transmit.

278) Potential of selected Senegalese Aedes spp. mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) to transmit Zika virus
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Diagne C.T., Diallo D., Faye O., Ba Y., Faye O., Gaye A., Dia I., Faye O., Weaver S.C., Sall A.A., Diallo M.
Assunto: Aedes, Flavivirus, Senegalese, virus transmission, Zika virus
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Genome ; Zika virus - Pathogenesis ; Zika virus - Immunology ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Serology ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - PCR detection ; Zika virus - Real Time PCR ; Zika virus - RT-PCR ; Zika virus - Serology ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Epidemiology
Fonte: BMC Infectious Diseases, v. 15, n. 1, p. 492, nov. 2015
ISSN: 1471-2334 (electronic)
Resumo: Background: Zika virus (ZIKV; genus Flavivirus, family Flaviviridae) is an emerging virus of medical importance maintained in a zoonotic cycle between arboreal Aedes spp. mosquitoes and nonhuman primates in African and Asian forests. Serological evidence and virus isolations have demonstrated widespread distribution of the virus in Senegal. Several mosquito species have been found naturally infected by ZIKV but little is known about their vector competence. Methods: We assessed the vector competence of Ae. aegypti from Kedougou and Dakar, Ae. unilineatus, Ae. vittatus and Ae. luteocephalus from Kedougou in Senegal for 6 ZIKV strains using experimental oral infection. Fully engorged female mosquitoes were maintained in an environmental chamber set at 27 ± 1 °C and 80 ± 5 % Relative humidity. At day 5, 10 and 15 days post infection (dpi), individual mosquito saliva, legs/wings and bodies were tested for the presence of ZIKV genome using real time RT-PCR to estimate the infection, dissemination, and transmission rates. Results: All the species tested were infected by all viral strains but only Ae. vittatus and Ae. luteocephalus were potentially capable of transmitting ZIKV after 15 dpi with 20 and 50 % of mosquitoes, respectively, delivering epidemic (HD 78788) and prototype (MR 766) ZIKV strains in saliva. Conclusion: All the species tested here were susceptible to oral infection of ZIKV but only a low proportion of Ae. vittatus and Ae. luteocephalus had the viral genome in their saliva and thus the potential to transmit the virus. Further investigations are needed on the vector competence of other species associated with ZIKV for better understanding of the ecology and epidemiology of this virus in Senegal.

279) Sex Determination. A male-determining factor in the mosquito Aedes aegypti
Autor: Hall Andrew Brantley,Basu Sanjay,Jiang Xiaofang,Qi Yumin,Timoshevskiy Vladimir A,Biedler James K,Sharakhova Maria V,Elahi Rubayet,Anderson Michelle A E,Chen Xiao-Guang,Sharakhov Igor V,Adelman Zach N,Tu Zhijian
Assunto:
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Biochemistry ; Aedes aegypti - Genome ; Aedes aegypti - Molecular Structure ; Aedes aegypti - Pathogenesis ; Aedes aegypti - Proteins ; Aedes aegypti - Molecular methods ; Aedes aegypti - Sexual ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Science (New York, N.Y.), v. 348, n. 6240, p. 1268-1270, 2015
ISSN: 1095-9203
Resumo: Sex determination in the mosquito Aedes aegypti is governed by a dominant male-determining factor (M factor) located within a Y chromosome-like region called the M locus. Here, we show that an M-locus gene, Nix, functions as an M factor in A. aegypti. Nix exhibits persistent M linkage and early embryonic expression, two characteristics required of an M factor. Nix knockout with clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-Cas9 resulted in largely feminized genetic males and the production of female isoforms of two key regulators of sexual differentiation: doublesex and fruitless. Ectopic expression of Nix resulted in genetic females with nearly complete male genitalia. Thus, Nix is both required and sufficient to initiate male development. This study provides a foundation for mosquito control strategies that convert female mosquitoes into harmless males.

280) Chikungunya nsP2 protease is not a papain-like cysteine protease and the catalytic dyad cysteine is interchangeable with a proximal serine
Autor: Saisawang Chonticha, Saitornuang Sawanan, Sillapee Pornpan, Ubol Sukathida, Smith Duncan R, Ketterman Albert J
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Molecular structure ; Chikungunya virus - Infectious diseases ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever
Fonte: Scientific Reports, v. 5, p. 17125, 2015
ISSN: 2045-2322
Resumo: Chikungunya virus is the pathogenic alphavirus that causes chikungunya fever in humans. In the last decade millions of cases have been reported around the world from Africa to Asia to the Americas. The alphavirus nsP2 protein is multifunctional - is considered to be pivotal to viral replication, as the nsP2 protease activity is critical for proteolytic processing of the viral polyprotein during replication. Classically the alphavirus nsP2 protease is thought to be papain-like with the enzyme reaction proceeding through a cysteine/histidine catalytic dyad. We performed structure-function studies on the chikungunya nsP2 protease - show that the enzyme is not papain-like. Characterization of the catalytic dyad cysteine residue enabled us to identify a nearby serine that is catalytically interchangeable with the dyad cysteine residue. The enzyme retains activity upon alanine replacement of either residue but a replacement of both cysteine - serine residues results in no detectable activity. Protein dynamics appears to allow the use of either the cysteine or the serine residue in catalysis. This switchable dyad residue has not been previously reported for alphavirus nsP2 proteases - would have a major impact on the nsP2 protease as an anti-viral target.

281) T Cell Epitope Redundancy: Cross-conservation of the TCR face between Pathogens and Self and its Implications for Vaccines and Auto-immunity
Autor: Moise Leonard,Beseme Sarah,Tassone Ryan,Liu Rui,Kibria Farzana,Terry Frances,Martin William,De Groot Anne S
Assunto: Autoimmune disease; Bacteria; Cancer Vaccine; Cross-conservation; Guillain Barre Syndrome; H7N9; HCV; HIV; Immunoinformatics; Influenza Vaccine; Molecular mimicry; Multiple Sclerosis; Narcolepsy; Off Target Effects; Parasite; Regulatory T cell; T cell epitope; T cell receptor; TCR; TCR Degeneracy; Vaccine; Virus
Descritores: Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Cell ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Genome ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Immune response ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Proteins ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Virus ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Vaccine ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Immunology
Fonte: Expert Review of Vaccines, v. 15, n. 5, p. 607-617, 2015
ISSN: 1744-8395
Resumo: T cells are extensively trained on 'self' in the thymus and then move to the periphery, where they seek out and destroy infections and regulate immune response to self-antigens. T cell receptors (TCR) on T cells' surface recognize T cell epitopes, short linear strings of amino acids presented by antigen-presenting cells. Some of these epitopes activate T effectors, while others activate regulatory T cells. It was recently discovered that T cell epitopes that are highly conserved on their TCR face with human genome sequences are often associated with T cells that regulate immune response. These TCR-cross-conserved or 'redundant epitopes' are more common in proteins found in pathogens that have co-evolved with humans than in other non-commensal pathogens. Epitope redundancy might be the link between pathogens and autoimmune disease. This article reviews recently published data and addresses epitope redundancy, the elephant in the room" for vaccine developers and T cell immunologists."

282) Chikungunya: here today, where tomorrow?
Autor: Higgs Stephen, Vanlandingham Dana L
Assunto: Aedes aegypti; Aedes albopictus; Chikungunya virus
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Pathogenesis ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Transmission ; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever ; Chikungunya virus - Epidemiology ; Chikungunya virus - Public health
Fonte: International Health, v. 7, n. 1, p. 1-3, 2015
ISSN: 1876-3405
Resumo:

283) Pharmacological treatment for pain in Guillain-Barré syndrome.
Autor: Liu Jia,Wang Lu-Ning; McNicol Ewan D.
Assunto:
Descritores: Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Pathogenesis ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Proteins ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Antibodies ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Clinical examination ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Public health
Fonte: The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, v. 4, 2015
ISSN: 1469-493X
Resumo: Pain in Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) is common, yet it is often under recognised and poorly managed. In recent years, a variety of pharmacological treatment options have been investigated in clinical trials for people with GBS-associated pain. This is an updated version of the original Cochrane review published in Issue 10, 2013. To assess the efficacy and safety of pharmacological treatments for various pain symptoms associated with GBS, during both the acute and convalescent (three months or more after onset) phases of GBS. On 3 November 2014, we searched the Cochrane Neuromuscular Disease Group Specialized Register, CENTRAL, MEDLINE and EMBASE. In addition, we searched ClinicalTrials.gov and the World Health Organization (WHO) International Clinical Trials Registry Platform. We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and quasi-RCTs in participants with confirmed GBS, with pain assessment as either the primary or secondary outcome. For cross-over trials, an adequate washout period between phases was required for inclusion. Two review authors independently screened the titles and abstracts of identified records, selected studies for inclusion, extracted eligible data, cross-checked the data for accuracy and assessed the risk of bias of each study. Three short-term RCTs, which enrolled 277 randomised participants with acute phase GBS, were included. Risk of bias in the included studies was generally unclear due to insufficient information. None of the included studies reported the primary outcome selected for this review, which was number of patients with self reported pain relief of 50% or greater. One small study investigated seven-day regimens of gabapentin versus placebo. Pain was rated on a scale from 0 (no pain) to 10 (maximum pain). Amongst the 18 participants, significantly lower mean pain scores were found at the endpoint (day 7) in the gabapentin phase compared to the endpoint of the placebo phase (mean difference -3.61, 95% CI -4.12 to -3.10) (very low quality evidence). For adverse events, no significant differences were found in the incidence of nausea (risk ratio (RR) 0.50, 95% CI 0.05 to 5.04) or constipation (RR 0.14, 95% CI 0.01 to 2.54). A second study enrolling 36 participants compared gabapentin, carbamazepine and placebo, all administered over seven days. Participants in the gabapentin group had significantly lower median pain scores on all treatment days in comparison to the placebo and carbamazepine groups (P < 0.05). There were no statistically significant differences in the median pain scores between the carbamazepine and placebo groups from day 1 to day 3, but from day 4 until the end of the study significantly lower median pain scores were noted in the carbamazepine group (P < 0.05) (very low quality evidence). There were no adverse effects of gabapentin or carbamazepine reported, other than sedation. One large RCT (223 participants, all also treated with intravenous immunoglobulin), compared a five-day course of methylprednisolone with placebo and found no statistically significant differences in number of participants developing pain (RR 0.89, 95% CI 0.68 to 1.16), number of participants with decreased pain (RR 0.95, 95% CI 0.63 to 1.42) or number of participants with increased pain (RR 0.85, 95% CI 0.52 to 1.41) (low quality evidence). The study did not report whether there were any adverse events. Since the last version of this review we found no new studies. While management of pain in GBS is essential and pharmacotherapy is widely accepted as being an important component of treatment, this review does not provide sufficient evidence to support the use of any pharmacological intervention in people with pain in GBS. Although reductions in pain severity were found when comparing gabapentin and carbamazepine with placebo, the evidence was limited and its quality very low. Larger, well-designed RCTs are required to further investigate the efficacy and safety of potential interventions for patients with pain in GBS. Additionally, interventions for pain in the convalescent phase of GBS should be investigated.

284) Assessing Carbon Dioxide and Synthetic Lure-Baited Traps for Dengue and Chikungunya Vector Surveillance
Autor: Harwood James F, Arimoto Hanayo, Nunn Peter, Richardson Alec G, Obenauer Peter J
Assunto: Aedes aegypti; Aedes albopictus; BG-Mosquitito Trap; BG-Sentinel 2; Centers for Disease Control and Prevention light trap; Zumba Trap
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Flaviviridae ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Dengue ; Chikungunya virus - Public health
Fonte: Journal of the American Mosquito Control Association, v. 31, n. 3, p. 242-247, 2015
ISSN: 8756-971X
Resumo: The Aedes mosquito vectors of dengue virus (DENV) - chikungunya virus (CHIKV) are attracted to specific host cues that are not generated by traditional light traps. For this reason multiple companies have designed traps to specifically target those species. Recently the st-ard trap for DENV - CHIKV vectors, the BG-Sentinel (BGS) trap, has been remodeled to be more durable - better suited for use in harsh field conditions, common during military operations, - relabeled the BG-Sentinel 2 (BGS2). This new trap was evaluated against the st-ard Centers for Disease Control - Prevention (CDC) light trap, Zumba Trap, - BG-Mosquitito Trap to determine relative effectiveness in collecting adult Aedes aegypti - Ae. albopictus. Evaluations were conducted under semifield - field conditions in suburban areas in northeastern Florida from May to August 2014. The BGS2 trap collected more DENV - CHIKV vectors than the st-ard CDC light trap, Zumba Trap, - BG-Mosquitito Trap, but attracted fewer species, while the BG-Mosquitito Trap attracted the greatest number of mosquito species.

285) Hepatitis E and neuralgic amyotrophy: Five cases and review of literature.
Autor: Dartevel Anaïs; Colombe Barbara; Bosseray Annick; Larrat Sylvie; Sarrot-Reynauld Françoise; Belbezier Aude; Lagrange Emmeline; Bouillet Laurence
Assunto: Nervous system diseases, Neuralgic amyotrophy, Parsonage turner syndrome, Strong hepatitis E
Descritores: Guillain-Barre Syndrome - RNA ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Viral infections ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Virus
Fonte: Journal of Clinical Virology, v. 69, p. 156-164.
ISSN: 1873-5967
Resumo: Hepatitis E virus infection - mainly genotype 3 - is increasingly common in industrialized countries. Infection is usually asymptomatic, but cases of central or peripheral neurological symptoms with hepatitis E have been described. The most frequent is Guillain-Barre but somes cases of neuralgic amyotrophy have been described. In our center, since 2010, we have identified five cases of neuralgic amyotrophy associated with acute hepatitis E in immunocompetent patients. For all these patients, neuralgic amyotrophy was diagnosed with electromyogram and positive IgM for hepatitis E, and detectable HEV RNA in 4 of the cases. Including our patients, we count 26 cases in literature. The mean age of the patients was 44 years old, with a large predominance of males (88%). The disorder is bilateral and asymmetric in 69% of cases. Peripheral nerves other than the brachial plexus were affected in 6 patients (23%). In industrialized countries, any neuralgic amyotrophy, particularly if there is bilateral, asymmetric associated with involvement of nerves outside the brachial plexus, should lead physicians to consider a diagnosis of acute hepatitis E.

286) Chikungunya: evolutionary history and recent epidemic spread
Autor: Weaver Scott C, Forrester Naomi L
Assunto: Alphavirus; Arbovirus; Arthralgia; Chikungunya; Mosquito; Urbanization
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Arbovirus ; Chikungunya virus - Biochemistry ; Chikungunya virus - Cytopathology ; Chikungunya virus - Pathogenesis ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Transmission ; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever ; Chikungunya virus - Epidemic ; Chikungunya virus - Epidemiology ; Chikungunya virus - Immunology ; Chikungunya virus - Public health
Fonte: Antiviral Research, v. 120, p. 32-39, 2015
ISSN: 1872-9096
Resumo: Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) has a long history of emergence into urban transmission cycles from its ancestral, enzootic, sylvatic foci in Sub-Saharan Africa, most recently spreading to the Americas beginning in 2013. Since 2004, reemergence has resulted in millions of cases of severe, debilitating - often chronic arthralgia on five continents. Here, we review this history based on phylogenetic studies, - discuss probable future spread - disease in the Americas. We also discuss a series of mutations in the recently emerged Indian Ocean Lineage that has adapted the virus for transmission for the first time by the Aedes albopictus urban mosquito vector, - compare CHIKV to other arboviruses with - without similar histories of urbanization. This article forms part of a symposium in Antiviral Research on Chikungunya discovers the New World.""

287) When is facial diplegia regarded as a variant of Guillain-Barré syndrome?
Autor: Kim J K,Oh S Y,Sohn E H,Hong Y H,Jun S M,Bae J S
Assunto: Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS); Bilateral; Facial paralysis; Variant
Descritores: Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Pathogenesis ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Proteins ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Antibodies ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Serological diagnosis ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Immunology ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Public health
Fonte: Journal of the Peripheral Nervous System : JPNS, v. 20, n. 1, p. 32-36, 2015
ISSN: 1529-8027
Resumo: A variant of Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) with predominant manifestation of facial diplegia (FD) has been described recently. This study aimed to characterize and determine the incidence of this FD-predominant GBS variant. The clinical and serological information of 900 consecutive patients were reviewed. In total, eight patients were identified between January 2007 and December 2010 as having FD accompanied by some features of GBS. These features were subjective sensory symptoms such as distal paresthesia (7/8, 88%), albumin-cytological (A/C) dissociation (7/8, 88%), antecedent infection (6/8, 75%), and minor nerve conduction study (NCS) abnormalities (5/7, 71%). One patient presented with the typical NCS feature of demyelinating neuropathy. Only two patients exhibited areflexia (2/8, 25%). None of the patients possessed any anti-ganglioside antibodies; however, the serum of two patients was positive for anti-mycoplasma antibody (2/6, 33%). FD variant of GBS occurred in less than 1% of our dataset. FD can be a regional variant of GBS when it is accompanied by supporting features, such as subjective tingling, A/C dissociation, and minor NCS abnormalities.

288) Use of insecticide-treated house screens to reduce infestations of dengue virus vectors, Mexico
Autor: Manrique-Saide Pablo,Che-Mendoza Azael,Barrera-Perez Mario,Guillermo-May Guillermo,Herrera-Bojorquez Josue,Dzul-Manzanilla Felipe,Gutierrez-Castro Cipriano,Lenhart Audrey,Vazquez-Prokopec Gonzalo,Sommerfeld Johannes,McCall Philip J,Kroeger Axel,Arredondo-Jimenez Juan I
Assunto: Viruses; Dengue; Arbovirus; Mosquitoes; Aedes aegypti; Vector; Control; Prevention; Outbreak; Epidemic; Net; LLIS; Vector-borne infections; Mexico; Screens; Insecticide
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Flaviviridae ; Aedes aegypti - Pathogenesis ; Aedes aegypti - Viral infections ; Aedes aegypti - virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Emerging Infectious Diseases, v. 21, n. 2, p. 308-311, 2015
ISSN: 1080-6059
Resumo: Dengue prevention efforts rely on control of virus vectors. We investigated use of insecticide-treated screens permanently affixed to windows and doors in Mexico and found that the screens significantly reduced infestations of Aedes aegypti mosquitoes in treated houses. Our findings demonstrate the value of this method for dengue virus vector control.

289) Wolbachia Do Not Induce Reactive Oxygen Species-Dependent Immune Pathway Activation in Aedes albopictus
Autor: Molloy Jennifer C, Sinkins Steven P
Assunto: Mosquito; Aedes; Arbovirus; Dengue; Chikungunya; ROS
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Arbovirus ; Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - Viral infections ; Aedes aegypti - virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue
Fonte: Viruses, v. 7, n. 8, p. 4624-4639, 2015
ISSN: 1999-4915
Resumo: Aedes albopictus is a major vector of dengue (DENV) and chikungunya (CHIKV) viruses, causing millions of infections annually. It naturally carries, at high frequency, the intracellular inherited bacterial endosymbiont Wolbachia strains wAlbA and wAlbB; transinfection with the higher-density Wolbachia strain wMel from Drosophila melanogaster led to transmission blocking of both arboviruses. The hypothesis that reactive oxygen species (ROS)-induced immune activation plays a role in arbovirus inhibition in this species was examined. In contrast to previous observations in Ae. aegypti, elevation of ROS levels was not observed in either cell lines or mosquito lines carrying the wild-type Wolbachia or higher-density Drosophila Wolbachia strains. There was also no upregulation of genes controlling innate immune pathways or with antioxidant/ROS-producing functions. These data suggest that ROS-mediated immune activation is not an important component of the viral transmission-blocking phenotype in this species.

290) A Mosquito Survey of the Twin-Island Caribbean Nation of Saint Kitts and Nevis, 2010
Autor: Mohammed Hamish, Evanson Jessica, Revan Floyd, Lee Elise, Krecek Rosina C, Smith Joshua
Assunto: Aedes tortilis; Anopheles albimanus; Biogents Sentinel Trap; Culex nigripalpus; Saint Kitts and Nevis; Mosquito survey
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Flaviviridae ; Chikungunya virus - Pathogenesis ; Chikungunya virus - RT-PCR ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Dengue
Fonte: Journal of the American Mosquito Control Association, v. 31, n. 4, p. 360-363, 2015
ISSN: 8756-971X
Resumo: Adult mosquito surveys of Saint Kitts - Nevis (SKN) were performed in the dry season (March 16-23, 2010) in Saint Kitts, - the rainy season (October 18-25, 2010) in SKN. Biogents (BG) Sentinel Traps were set with CO?- BG Lure in urban, rural, mangrove, - dry forest habitats. Mosquitoes were identified to species, - reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction was performed on potential vector species for dengue virus (DENV), chikungunya virus (CHIKV), - West Nile virus (WNV). The most abundant species during both seasons in St. Kitts were Culex quinquefasciatus, Aedes taeniorhynchus, - Aedes aegypti. There were 3 new records for Saint Kitts: Aedes tortilis, Anopheles albimanus, - Culex nigripalpus. Traps were also set in Nevis. No mosquito pool tested positive for DENV, CHIKV, or WNV.

291) The almost-invisible perineurioma
Autor: Restrepo Carlos E,Amrami Kimberly K,Howe Benjamin M,Dyck P James B,Mauermann Michelle L,Spinner Robert J
Assunto: 3 Tesla; CIDP = chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy; CMT = Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease; EMA = endothelial membrane antigen; EPS = electrophysiological studies; GBS = Guillain-Barré syndrome; PNST = peripheral nerve sheath tumor; SPGR = spoiled gradient; Intraneural perineurioma; Magnetic resonance imaging; Targeted biopsy
Descritores: Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Cell ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Clinical examination
Fonte: Neurosurgical Focus, v. 39, n. 3, p. E13, 2015
ISSN: 1092-0684
Resumo: Intraneural perineurioma is a rare, benign slow-growing lesion arising from the perineurial cells that surrounds the peripheral nerve fibers. Typically it presents during childhood and young adulthood as a motor mononeuropathy. MRI plays an essential role in the diagnosis and localization of the lesion, which appears as a fusiform enlargement of the nerve fascicles that enhances intensely with gadolinium. Despite the typical clinical and radiological features, intraneural perineurioma remains largely underdiagnosed because of the lack of familiarity with this entity, but also as a result of technical limitations with conventional MRI that is typically performed as a screening test over a large field of view and without contrast sequences. The purpose of this article is to present the pitfalls and pearls learned from years of experience in the diagnosis and management of this relatively rare condition. Clinical suspicion and detailed neurological examination followed by high-quality electrophysiological studies (EPS) must lead to an adequate preimaging localization of the lesion and narrowing of the imaging area. The use of high-resolution (3-T) MRI combined with gadolinium administration will allow adequate visualization of the internal anatomy of the nerve and help in differentiating other causes of neuropathy. In cases where the lesion is not recognized but clinical suspicion is high, possible errors must be assessed, including the EPS localization, area of imaging, MRI resolution, and slice thickness.

292) Chikungunya outbreak in Montpellier, France, September to October 2014
Autor: Delisle E, Rousseau C, Broche B, Leparc-Goffart I, L'Ambert G, Cochet A, Prat C, Foulongne V, Ferre J B, Catelinois O, Flusin O, Tchernonog E, Moussion I E, Wieg-t A, Septfons A, Mendy A,Moyano M B,Laporte L,Maurel J,Jourdain F,Reynes J,Paty M C,Golliot F
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Pathogenesis ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya virus - Real Time PCR ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever ; Chikungunya virus - Dengue ; Chikungunya virus - Epidemic ; Chikungunya virus - Epidemiology ; Chikungunya virus - Public health
Fonte: Euro Surveillance, v. 20, n. 17, 2015
ISSN: 1560-7917
Resumo: In October 2014, an outbreak of 12 autochthonous chikungunya cases, 11 confirmed - 1 probable, was detected in a district of Montpellier, a town in the south of France colonised by the vector Aedes albopictus since 2010. A case returning from Cameroon living in the affected district was identified as the primary case. The epidemiological investigations - the repeated vector control treatments performed in the area - around places frequented by cases helped to contain the outbreak. In 2014, the chikungunya - dengue surveillance system in mainl- France was challenged by numerous imported cases due to the chikungunya epidemic ongoing in the Caribbean Isl-s. This first significant outbreak of chikungunya in Europe since the 2007 Italian epidemic, however, was due to an East Central South African (ECSA) strain, imported by a traveller returning from West Africa. Important lessons were learned from this episode, which reminds us that the threat of a chikungunya epidemic in southern Europe is real.

293) Progressive bilateral facial weakness.
Autor: Carswell Christopher; Northey Luke C.; Davies Leo; Yuki Nobuhiro; Kiernan Matthew C.
Assunto: GANGLIOSIDE, GUILLAIN-BARRE SYNDROME
Descritores: Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Pathogenesis ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Proteins ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Antibodies ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Clinical examination
Fonte: Practical Neurology, v. 15, n. 1, p. 76-79, 2015
ISSN: 1474-7766
Resumo:

294) A combination of doxycycline and ribavirin alleviated chikungunya infection
Autor: Rothan Hussin A, Bahrani Hirbod, Mohamed Zulqarnain, Teoh Teow Chong, Shankar Esaki M, Rahman Noorsaadah A, Yusof Rohana
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Cell ; Chikungunya virus - Pathogenesis ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Vaccine ; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever
Fonte: PloS One, v. 10, n. 5 , p. e0126360, 2015
ISSN: 1932-6203
Resumo: Lack of vaccine - effective antiviral drugs against chikungunya virus (CHIKV) outbreaks have led to significant impact on health care in the developing world. Here, we evaluated the antiviral effects of tetracycline (TETRA) derivatives - other common antiviral agents against CHIKV. Our results showed that within the TETRA derivatives group, Doxycycline (DOXY) exhibited the highest inhibitory effect against CHIKV replication in Vero cells. On the other h-, in the antiviral group Ribavirin (RIBA) showed higher inhibitory effects against CHIKV replication compared to Aciclovir (ACIC). Interestingly, RIBA inhibitory effects were also higher than all but DOXY within the TETRA derivatives group. Docking studies of DOXY to viral cysteine protease - E2 envelope protein showed non-competitive interaction with docking energy of -6.6±0.1 - -6.4±0.1 kcal/mol respectively. The 50% effective concentration (EC50) of DOXY - RIBA was determined to be 10.95±2.12 ?M - 15.51±1.62 ?M respectively, while DOXY+RIBA (1:1 combination) showed an EC50 of 4.52±1.42 ?M. When compared, DOXY showed higher inhibition of viral infectivity - entry than RIBA. In contrast however, RIBA showed higher inhibition against viral replication in target cells compared to DOXY. Assays using mice as animal models revealed that DOXY+RIBA effectively inhibited CHIKV replication - attenuated its infectivity in vivo. Further experimental - clinical studies are warranted to investigate their potential application for clinical intervention of CHIKV disease.

295) Neurologic Disorders in Immunocompetent Patients with Autochthonous Acute Hepatitis E.
Autor: Perrin H. Blasco; Cintas P.; Abravanel F.; Gérolami R.; d'Alteroche L.; Raynal J-N.; Alric L.; Dupuis E.; Prudhomme L.; Vaucher E.; Couzigou P.; Liversain J-M.; Bureau C.; Vinel J-P.; Kamar N,Izopet J.; Peron J-M.
Assunto: Guillain-Barré syndrome; HEV; Parsonage-Turner syndrome; Demyelinating neuropathy; Hepatitis E.; Hepatitis E virus; Immunocompetent; Meningoradiculitis; Mononeuritis multiplex; Neurologic disorders; Neurological manifestations; Viruses
Descritores: Guillain-Barre Syndrome - virus
Fonte: Emerging Infectious Diseases, v. 21, n. 11, p. 1928-1934, 2015
ISSN: 1080-6059
Resumo: Neurologic disorders, mainly Guillain-Barré syndrome and Parsonage-Turner syndrome (PTS), have been described in patients with hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection in industrialized and developing countries. We report a wider range of neurologic disorders in nonimmunocompromised patients with acute HEV infection. Data from 15 French immunocompetent patients with acute HEV infection and neurologic disorders were retrospectively recorded from January 2006 through June 2013. The disorders could be divided into 4 main entities: mononeuritis multiplex, PTS, meningoradiculitis, and acute demyelinating neuropathy. HEV infection was treated with ribavirin in 3 patients (for PTS or mononeuritis multiplex). One patient was treated with corticosteroids (for mononeuropathy multiplex), and 5 others received intravenous immunoglobulin (for PTS, meningoradiculitis, Guillain-Barré syndrome, or Miller Fisher syndrome). We conclude that pleiotropic neurologic disorders are seen in HEV-infected immunocompetent patients. Patients with acute neurologic manifestations and aminotransferase abnormalities should be screened for HEV infection.

296) Neuroborreliosis: the Guillain-Barré mimicker.
Autor: Tyagi Niharika; Maheswaran Tim; Wimalaratna Sunil
Assunto:
Descritores: Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Cytopathology ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Antibodies ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Serology
Fonte: BMJ Case Reports, 2015
ISSN: 1757-790X
Resumo: A 34-year-old woman presented to the medical admissions unit with progressive ascending weakness of her limbs and areflexia. Diagnosis of Guillain-Barré syndrome was suspected and she was started on intravenous immunoglobulins. Owing to a poor initial response, further exploratory history revealed travel to the New Forest and a possible tick bite; subsequent investigations confirmed positive serology for antibodies against Borrelia. The patient's weakness improved with intravenous ceftriaxone for neuroborreliosis, a manifestation of Lyme disease. With inpatient neurorehabilitation, she made good recovery and was able to mobilise with a stick from being completely bed bound 6 weeks after completion of her antibiotics.

297) The Influence of Diet on the Use of Near-Infrared Spectroscopy to Determine the Age of Female Aedes aegypti Mosquitoes
Autor: Liebman Kelly,Swamidoss Isabel,Vizcaino Lucrecia,Lenhart Audrey,Dowell Floyd,Wirtz Robert
Assunto:
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Flaviviridae ; Aedes aegypti - Pathogenesis ; Aedes aegypti - Viral infections ; Aedes aegypti - virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Vaccine ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, v. 92, n. 5, p. 1070-1075, 2015
ISSN: 1476-1645
Resumo: Interventions targeting adult mosquitoes are used to combat transmission of vector-borne diseases, including dengue. Without available vaccines, targeting the primary vector, Aedes aegypti, is essential to prevent transmission. Older mosquitoes (� 7 days) are of greatest epidemiological significance due to the 7-day extrinsic incubation period of the virus. Age-grading of female mosquitoes is necessary to identify post-intervention changes in mosquito population age structure. We developed models using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) to age-grade adult female Ae. aegypti. To determine if diet affects the ability of NIRS models to predict age, two identical larval groups were fed either fish food or infant cereal. Adult females were separated and fed sugar water ± blood, resulting in four experimental groups. Females were killed 1, 4, 7, 10, 13, or 16 days postemergence. The head/thorax of each mosquito was scanned using a near-infrared spectrometer. Scans from each group were analyzed, and multiple models were developed using partial least squares regression. The best model included all experimental groups, and positively predicted the age group (< or � 7 days) of 90.2% mosquitoes. These results suggest both larval and adult diets can affect the ability of NIRS models to accurately assign age categories to female Ae. aegypti.

298) Pandemic influenza A vaccination and incidence of Guillain-Barré syndrome in Korea.
Autor: Kim Changsoo,Rhie Seonkyeong,Suh Mina,Kang Dae Ryong,Choi Yoon Jung,Bae Geun-Ryang,Choi Young-Chul,Jun Byung Yool,Lee Joon Soo
Assunto: Guillain-Barré syndrome, Incidence rate, Influenza, Vaccination
Descritores: Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Pathogenesis ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Viral infections ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Virus ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Vaccine ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Epidemic ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Epidemiology ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Immunology ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Public health
Fonte: Vaccine, v. 33, n. 15, p. 1815-1823, 2015
ISSN: 1873-2518
Resumo: Many studies have investigated the association between Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) and vaccinations during the influenza A H1N1 pandemic of 2009 (pH1N1). Based on a nationally representative sample, we estimated the incidence of GBS during the pandemic period in Korea. All medical records of GBS cases were reviewed in 28 randomly selected hospitals during 2008-2010, and the number of GBS cases at the national level was extrapolated using emergency care utilization data. The GBS rate per 100,000 person-years was estimated in the reference and pandemic periods. The incidence of GBS was 0.63 (95% CI: 0.37-0.89) per 100,000 person-years in the reference period and 0.87 (0.49-1.26) in the pandemic period. During the vaccination season, the pandemic period GBS incidence rate was not significantly higher than the reference period incidence rate (rate ratio: 1.52; 0.99-2.32), but difference was observed among persons aged 20-34 years. Rate of GBS increased after pH1N1 vaccination compared to the reference period (1.46, 1.26-1.68). The incidence of GBS increased slightly but not significantly during the pandemic period, although pH1N1 vaccination increased the GBS rate. Therefore, mass influenza vaccination programs should not be precluded on the basis of GBS.

299) Antecedent Infections in Guillain-Barré Syndrome: Knowledge in Clinical Practice
Autor: Koga Michiaki
Assunto: Antecedent infection; Diagnostic criteria; Post-infectious autoimmune diseases; Molecular mimicry; Anti-ganglioside antibodies
Descritores: Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Pathogenesis ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Proteins ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Antibodies ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Infectious diseases ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Viral infections ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Virus ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Immunology
Fonte: Brain and Nerve = Shinkei kenkyu? no shinpo, v. 67, n. 7, p. 871-880, 2015
ISSN: 1881-6096
Resumo: Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) is a post-infectious disease in which a diversity of pathogenetic factors and clinical features is surely determined by the type of preceding infections. It is necessary in clinical practice and research to identify the antecedent infectious agent in each case. Several lines of evidence indicate that the ganglioside-like epitopes on the infectious agents induce the production of anti-ganglioside autoantibodies and thereby cause GBS. This makes it possible to evaluate the causal significance of the pathogen by examining the cross-reactivity of the detected autoantibodies with outer antigens of the pathogens, although such an investigation is practical only when the pathogen is successfully isolated from the patients. The term antecedent infection" should be strictly used in the situation in which the infection is thought to be closely related to the development of GBS but not for the situation without findings that suggest such a relationship. Simple but non-validated criteria for the judgment of antecedent infection in each GBS case are proposed in this review in order to prevent numerous and unreliable suspicions of "new" and "unknown" prior infectious agents of GBS, which are only built on the precedence in the disease."

300) Chikungunya infection: self-reported rheumatic morbidity and impaired quality of life persist 6 years later
Autor: Marimoutou C, Ferraro J, Javelle E, Deparis X, Simon F
Assunto: Chikungunya; Cohort study; Health care consumption post-chikungunya rheumatic disorders; Quality of life
Descritores: Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Epidemic ; Chikungunya virus - Public health
Fonte: Clinical Microbiology and Infection, v. 21, n. 7, p. 688-693, 2015
ISSN: 1469-0691
Resumo: This study presents the 6-year follow-up of French gendarmes exposed to the chikungunya (CHIK) infection in 2006 on Reunion Isl-. The aim was to see to what extent the subjective health differences observed in 2008 (30 months after infection) between CHIK infected (CHIK+) - noninfected (CHIK-) gendarmes still persisted in 2012, - to investigate a possible return to a pre-CHIK health status for CHIK+ subjects. Gendarmes were contacted by mail in 2012 - asked to complete a self-questionnaire asking for morbidity, health care - medicines consumption since the last follow-up in 2008. Quality of life (QoL) after 6 years was evaluated using the SF-36 scale. In comparison with CHIK- subjects (n = 171), CHIK+ (n = 81) presented with higher rheumatic but also nonspecific morbidity such as headaches - fatigue associated with a large psychological impact, frequent depressive moods - social disabilities, leading to a significant impairment of the QoL - higher health care consumption. When restricted to CHIK+ subjects, comparing the data with that of 2008 showed persistent but decreasing self-reported rheumatic morbidity, - an increase over time of chronic discomfort (headache, fatigue) - depressive moods, resulting in no overall improvement in QoL. Despite possible cohort attrition bias, the comparability of CHIK+/CHIK- subjects allows the assumption of a long-term impact of CHIK infection with less chance of returning to a previous health status. Although these results may be specific to the 2006 virus strain, we recommend that public health strategies in the epidemic-prone countries include a response to the consequences of chronic post-CHIK disorders.

301) The Importance of Rare Subtypes in Diagnosis and Treatment of Peripheral Neuropathy: A Review
Autor: Callaghan Brian C,Price Raymond S,Chen Kevin S,Feldman Eva L
Assunto:
Descritores: Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Clinical examination ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Epidemiology
Fonte: JAMA Neurology, v. 72, n. 12, p. 1510-1518, 2015
ISSN: 2168-6157
Resumo: Peripheral neuropathy is a prevalent condition that usually warrants a thorough history and examination but has limited diagnostic evaluation. However, rare localizations of peripheral neuropathy often require more extensive diagnostic testing and different treatments. To describe rare localizations of peripheral neuropathy, including the appropriate diagnostic evaluation and available treatments. References were identified from PubMed searches conducted on May 29, 2015, with an emphasis on systematic reviews and randomized clinical trials. Articles were also identified through the use of the authors' own files. Search terms included common rare neuropathy localizations and their causes, as well as epidemiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis, and treatment. Diffuse, nonlength-dependent neuropathies, multiple mononeuropathies, polyradiculopathies, plexopathies, and radiculoplexus neuropathies are rare peripheral neuropathy localizations that often require extensive diagnostic testing. Atypical neuropathy features, such as acute/subacute onset, asymmetry, and/or motor predominant signs, are frequently present. The most common diffuse, nonlength-dependent neuropathies are Guillain-Barré syndrome, chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy, multifocal motor neuropathy, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Effective disease-modifying therapies exist for many diffuse, nonlength-dependent neuropathies including Guillain-Barré syndrome, chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy, multifocal motor neuropathy, and some paraprotein-associated demyelinating neuropathies. Vasculitic neuropathy (multiple mononeuropathy) also has efficacious treatment options, but definitive evidence of a treatment effect for IgM anti-MAG neuropathy and diabetic amyotrophy (radiculoplexus neuropathy) is lacking. Recognition of rare localizations of peripheral neuropathy is essential given the implications for diagnostic testing and treatment. Electrodiagnostic studies are an important early step in the diagnostic evaluation and provide information on the localization and pathophysiology of nerve injury.

302) Chikungunya from the Caribbean: the importance of appropriate laboratory tests to confirm the diagnosis
Autor: Magurano Fabio, Zammarchi Lorenzo, Baggieri Melissa, Fortuna Claudia, Farese Alberto, Benedetti Eleonora, Fiorentini Cristiano, Rezza Giovanni, Nicoletti Loredana, Bartoloni Alessandro
Assunto: Chikungunya; Dominican Republic; Immunochromatographic IgM test; Italy; Rapid diagnostic test
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Infectious diseases ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Transmission
Fonte: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases, v. 15, n. 4, p. 258-260, 2015
ISSN: 1557-7759
Resumo: Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) appeared for the first time in the Western Hemisphere--the French West Indies--in December of 2013. From there, the virus has spread to other Caribbean isl-s. Following the diagnosis of first autochthonous CHIKV cases in the Caribbean isl- of Saint Martin, a large outbreak is ongoing in the Americas. As of September 12, 2014, a total of 706,093 suspected - 9803 confirmed CHIKV cases have been reported in the Americas. This case study highlights the possibility of false-negative immunochromatographic CHIKV immunoglobulin M (IgM) tests - the need of confirmatory tests for suspected cases. Moreover, a greater spread of virus together with the presence of a mosquito vector (Aedes albopictus) enhances the risk of autochthonous transmission in Europe.

303) Surveillance for dengue and dengue-associated neurologic syndromes in the United States
Autor: Waterman Stephen H,Margolis Harold S,Sejvar James J
Assunto:
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Cytopathology ; Aedes aegypti - Flaviviridae ; Aedes aegypti - Pathogenesis ; Aedes aegypti - Viral infections ; Aedes aegypti - virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Epidemiology ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, v. 92, n. 5, p. 996-998, 2015
ISSN: 1476-1645
Resumo: Autochthonous dengue virus transmission has occurred in the continental United States with increased frequency during the last decade; the principal vector, Aedes aegypti, has expanded its geographic distribution in the southern United States. Dengue, a potentially fatal arboviral disease, is underreported, and US clinicians encountering patients with acute febrile illness consistent with dengue are likely to not be fully familiar with dengue diagnosis and management. Recently, investigators suggested that an outbreak of dengue likely occurred in Houston during 2003 based on retrospective laboratory testing of hospitalized cases with encephalitis and aseptic meningitis. Although certain aspects of the Houston testing results and argument for local transmission are doubtful, the report highlights the importance of prospective surveillance for dengue in Aedes-infested areas of the United States, the need for clinical training on dengue and its severe manifestations, and the need for laboratory testing in domestic patients presenting with febrile neurologic illness in these regions to include dengue.

304) Arbovirus surveillance and first report of Chikungunya virus in wild populations of Aedes aegypti from Guerrero, Mexico
Autor: Dzul-Manzanilla Felipe, Martínez Norma E, Cruz-Nolasco Maximina, Gutiérrez-Castro Cipriano, López-Damián Leonardo, Ibarra-López Jesús, Martini Andres, Torres-Leyva Joel, Bibiano-Marín Wilbert, Tornez-Benitez Citlalli, Ayora-Talavera Guadalupe, Manrique-Saide Pablo
Assunto: Aedes aegypti; Guerrero; Mexico; Chikungunya; Dengue; Surveillance
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Arbovirus ; Chikungunya virus - Flaviviridae ; Chikungunya virus - Pathogenesis ; Chikungunya virus - Real Time PCR ; Chikungunya virus - RT-PCR ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Dengue
Fonte: Journal of the American Mosquito Control Association, v. 31, n. 3, p. 275-277, 2015
ISSN: 8756-971X
Resumo: We carried out dengue (DENV) - chikungunya virus (CHIKV) surveillance in wild populations of Aedes aegypti from Guerrero, Mexico, from 2012 to 2014 following a st-ard national protocol of the Mexican Dengue Control Program. A total of 284 pools (15-30 specimens/pool) of female mosquitoes were tested with real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction to detect DENV - CHIKV. We report for the 1st time the detection of CHIKV from field-collected mosquitoes at Acapulco - Juchitán in 2014. Results from DENV are also reported.

305) Immune-mediated neuropathy with Epstein-Barr virus-positive T-cell lymphoproliferative disease.
Autor: Hattori Takaaki; Arai Ayako; Yokota Takanori; Imadome Ken-Ichi; Tomimitsu Hiroyuki; Miura Osamu; Mizusawa Hidehiro
Assunto:
Descritores: Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Cell ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Pathogenesis ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Proteins ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Viral infections ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Virus
Fonte: Internal Medicine, v. 54, n. 1, p. 69-73, 2015
ISSN: 1349-7235
Resumo: A 47-year-old man with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-positive T/NK- cell lymphoproliferative disease (EBV-T/NK-LPD) developed acute-onset weakness. A nerve conduction study showed a conduction block in both the proximal and most distal segments. Although the patient's neuropathy transiently responded to intravenous immunoglobulin, it was progressive for at least 25 days until the start of prednisolone (PSL) administration, after which it remarkably improved. The neuropathy further improved after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (BMT). The present patient's clinical course is not consistent with that of typical Guillain-Barré syndrome. This case suggests that EBV-T/NK-LPD can cause progressive immune-mediated neuropathy as a result of chronic EBV antigen presentation and can be treated with PSL and BMT.

306) Chikungunya Disease: gaps and opportunities in public health and research in the Americas
Autor:
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Pathogenesis ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Transmission ; Chikungunya virus - Vaccine ; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever ; Chikungunya virus - Epidemiology ; Chikungunya virus - Immunology ; Chikungunya virus - Public health
Fonte: Releve? É?pide?miologique Hebdomadaire, v. 90, n. 42, p. 571-576, 2015
ISSN: 0049-8114
Resumo:

307) Mechanisms of distal axonal degeneration in peripheral neuropathies.
Autor: Cashman Christopher R.; Höke Ahmet
Assunto: Campylobacter jejuni, Chemotherapy induced peripheral neuropathy, Diabetes, Guillain-Barré syndrome, HIV neuropathy, Mechanisms of neuropathy, Mitochondrial aging, Peripheral neuropathy, Post-infectious neuropathy, Wld(S)
Descritores: Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Biosynthesis ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Cell ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Flaviviridae ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Pathogenesis ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Proteins ; Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Infectious diseases Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Inflammation Guillain-Barre Syndrome - Virus
Fonte: Neuroscience Letters, v. 596, p. 33-50, 2015
ISSN: 1872-7972
Resumo: Peripheral neuropathy is a common complication of a variety of diseases and treatments, including diabetes, cancer chemotherapy, and infectious causes (HIV, hepatitis C, and Campylobacter jejuni). Despite the fundamental difference between these insults, peripheral neuropathy develops as a combination of just six primary mechanisms: altered metabolism, covalent modification, altered organelle function and reactive oxygen species formation, altered intracellular and inflammatory signaling, slowed axonal transport, and altered ion channel dynamics and expression. All of these pathways converge to lead to axon dysfunction and symptoms of neuropathy. The detailed mechanisms of axon degeneration itself have begun to be elucidated with studies of animal models with altered degeneration kinetics, including the slowed Wallerian degeneration (Wld(S)) and Sarm knockout animal models. These studies have shown axonal degeneration to occur through a programmed pathway of injury signaling and cytoskeletal degradation. Insights into the common disease insults that converge on the axonal degeneration pathway promise to facilitate the development of therapeutics that may be effective against other mechanisms of neurodegeneration.

308) VI Symposium: Some global health problems with local impact: Great challenges for Public Health
Autor:
Assunto: Challenges; Public health; Dementia; Antibiotics; Health regulation; Emerging disease; Reemerging disease
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Viral infections; Chikungunya Virus - Virus; Chikungunya virus - Epidemic; Chikungunya virus - Public health
Fonte: Gaceta Me?dica de Me?xico, v. 151, n. 5, p. 666, 2015
ISSN: 0016-3813
Resumo: The objective of the symposium was to emphasize the great public health challenges that we are facing today; such is the case of dementia, which is one of the main causes of disability - dependence among older adults. Another important issue is antibiotic resistance; even though it has played a key role in the health of humanity, its indiscriminate use has resulted in increased bacterial resistance. Therefore, health regulations in the rational use of prescribed drugs in our country are part of the actions taken in order to not only control the use of such drugs, but also regulate different areas related to health in order to avoid health risks. Finally, a current challenge is emerging - reemerging diseases that have caused various epidemics such as influenza, Ebola virus disease, binomial tuberculosis - HIV, - Chikungunya that is currently affecting the Region of the Americas.

309) Updates on chikungunya epidemiology, clinical disease, and diagnostics
Autor: Sam I-Ching, Kümmerer Beate M, Chan Yoke-Fun, Roques Pierre, Drosten Christian, AbuBakar Sazaly
Assunto: Arthralgia; Chikungunya; Epidemiology; Genotype; Molecular diagnostics; Serologic tests; Signs and symptoms
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Serology ; Chikungunya virus - Serology ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Transmission ; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever ; Chikungunya virus - Epidemic ; Chikungunya virus - Epidemiology
Fonte: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases, v. 15, n. 4, p. 223-230, 2015
ISSN: 1557-7759
Resumo: Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is an Aedes-borne alphavirus, historically found in Africa - Asia, where it caused sporadic outbreaks. In 2004, CHIKV reemerged in East Africa - spread globally to cause epidemics, including, for the first time, autochthonous transmission in Europe, the Middle East, - Oceania. The epidemic strains were of the East/Central/South African genotype. Strains of the Asian genotype of CHIKV continued to cause outbreaks in Asia - spread to Oceania -, in 2013, to the Americas. Acute disease, mainly comprising fever, rash, - arthralgia, was previously regarded as self-limiting; however, there is growing evidence of severe but rare manifestations, such as neurological disease. Furthermore, CHIKV appears to cause a significant burden of long-term morbidity due to persistent arthralgia. Diagnostic assays have advanced greatly in recent years, although there remains a need for simple, accurate, - affordable tests for the developing countries where CHIKV is most prevalent. This review focuses on recent important work on the epidemiology, clinical disease - diagnostics of CHIKV.

310) Entomological factors of arboviruses emergences
Autor: Jourdain F, Roiz D, Perrin Y, Grucker K, Simard F, Paupy C
Assunto: Aedes albopictus; Arbovirus; Chikungunya; Dengue; Emergence; Gestion du risque; Monitoring; Risk management; Surveillance; Émergence
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Arbovirus; Chikungunya Virus - Virus; Chikungunya virus - Transmission; Chikungunya virus - Dengue; Chikungunya virus - Epidemic; Chikungunya virus - Epidemiology
Fonte: Transfusion Clinique et Biologique, v. 22, n. 3, p. 101-106, 2015
ISSN: 1953-8022
Resumo: Arboviruses - viruses transmitted by haematophagous arthropods - are responsible for febrile syndromes, which sometimes include haemorrhagic or neurological symptoms. Human activities have facilitated the emergence of these originally zoonotic viruses - the domestication - spread throughout the world of their major vectors. The last decade has seen significant changes in the epidemiology of arboviruses transmitted by mosquitoes of the genus Aedes, particularly in relation to the intercontinental spread of Aedes albopictus. Here, we address the epidemiological consequences of the invasion by this species into Central Africa - Europe in a context of viral globalization. The risk of transmission in these areas is influenced by virus-vector adaptation phenomena as well as environmental phenomena including climate. Faced with these new risks, it is essential to develop competences in entomological - virological surveillance, risk assessment - forecasting of epidemic risk in order to develop strategies for the prevention - control of epidemics.

311) The impact of wolbachia on virus infection in mosquitoes
Autor: Johnson Karyn N
Assunto: Drosophila; Wolbachia; Antiviral effects; Antiviral protection; Arbovirus; Insect virus; Mosquito; Symbiosis
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Arbovirus ; Chikungunya virus - RNA ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Transmission ; Chikungunya virus - Dengue
Fonte: Viruses, v. 7, n. 11, p. 5705-5717, 2015
ISSN: 1999-4915
Resumo: Mosquito-borne viruses such as dengue, West Nile - chikungunya viruses cause significant morbidity - mortality in human populations. Since current methods are not sufficient to control disease occurrence, novel methods to control transmission of arboviruses would be beneficial. Recent studies have shown that virus infection - transmission in insects can be impeded by co-infection with the bacterium Wolbachia pipientis. Wolbachia is a maternally inherited endosymbiont that is commonly found in insects, including a number of mosquito vector species. In Drosophila, Wolbachia mediates antiviral protection against a broad range of RNA viruses. This discovery pointed to a potential strategy to interfere with mosquito transmission of arboviruses by artificially infecting mosquitoes with Wolbachia. This review outlines research on the prevalence of Wolbachia in mosquito vector species - the impact of antiviral effects in both naturally - artificially Wolbachia-infected mosquitoes.

312) Activity of andrographolide against Chikungunya virus infection
Autor: Wintachai Phitchayapak, Kaur Parveen, Lee Regina Ching Hua, Ramphan Suwipa, Kuadkitkan Atichat, Wikan Nitwara, Ubol Sukathida, Roytrakul Sittiruk, Chu Justin Jang Hann, Smith Duncan R
Assunto: Alphaviruses; Microbiology techniques
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Cell ; Chikungunya virus - RNA ; Chikungunya virus - Infectious diseases ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Epidemic
Fonte: Scientific Reports, v. 5, p. 14179, 2015
ISSN: 2045-2322
Resumo: Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a re-emerging mosquito-borne alphavirus that has recently engendered large epidemics around the world. There is no specific antiviral for treatment of patients infected with CHIKV, - development of compounds with significant anti-CHIKV activity that can be further developed to a practical therapy is urgently required. -rographolide is derived from -rographis paniculata, a herb traditionally used to treat a number of conditions including infections. This study sought to determine the potential of -rographolide as an inhibitor of CHIKV infection. -rographolide showed good inhibition of CHIKV infection - reduced virus production by approximately 3log10 with a 50% effective concentration (EC50) of 77 ?M without cytotoxicity. Time-of-addition - RNA transfection studies showed that -rographolide affected CHIKV replication - the activity of -rographolide was shown to be cell type independent. This study suggests that -rographolide has the potential to be developed further as an anti-CHIKV therapeutic agent.

313) Chikungunya virus outbreak, Dominica, 2014
Autor: Ahmed Shalauddin, Francis Lorraine, Ricketts R Paul, Christian Trudy, Polson-Edwards Karen, Olowokure Babatunde
Assunto: Chikungunya; Dominica; Mosquito; Outbreaks; Vectorborne infections; Virus; Viruses
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Pathogenesis ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever ; Chikungunya virus - Epidemiology ; Chikungunya virus - Public health
Fonte: Emerging Infectious Diseases, v. 21, n. 5, p. 909-911, 2015
ISSN: 1080-6059
Resumo:

314) Chikungunya fever - a new global threat
Autor: Montero Antonio
Assunto: Chikungunya; Emerging infections; Infecciones emergentes; Medicina tropical; Tropical medicine
Descritores: Chikungunya Virus - Virus; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever; Chikungunya virus - Dengue; Chikungunya virus - Epidemic
Fonte: Medicina Cli?nica, v. 145, n. 3, p. 118-123, 2015
ISSN: 0025-7753
Resumo: The recent onset of epidemics caused by viruses such as Ebola, Marburg, Nipah, Lassa, coronavirus, West-Nile encephalitis, Saint Louis encephalitis, human immunodeficiency virus, dengue, yellow fever - Venezuelan hemorrhagic fever alerts about the risk these agents represent for the global health. Chikungunya virus represents a new threat. Surged from remote African regions, this virus has become endemic in the Indic ocean basin, the Indian subcontinent - the southeast of Asia, causing serious epidemics in Africa, Indic Ocean Isl-s, Asia - Europe. Due to their epidemiological - biological features - the global presence of their vectors, chikungunya represents a serious menace - could become endemic in the Americas. Although chikungunya infection has a low mortality rate, its high attack ratio may collapse the health system during epidemics affecting a sensitive population. In this paper, we review the clinical - epidemiological features of chikungunya fever as well as the risk of its introduction into the Americas. We remark the importance of the epidemiological control - mosquitoes fighting in order to prevent this disease from being introduced into the Americas.

315) Multiple dengue virus types harbored by individual mosquitoes
Autor: Angel, Bennet; Angel, Annette; Joshi, Vinod
Assunto: Multiple dengue types; Etiology; DHF
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Pathogenesis ; Aedes aegypti - RNA ; Aedes aegypti - RT-PCR ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Acta Tropica, v. 150, n. , p. 107-110, 2015
ISSN: 0001-706X
Resumo: The existing knowledge on pathogenesis and aetiology of DHF establishes that Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever (DHF) and Dengue Shock Syndrome (DSS) are caused by two subsequent infections of two different serotypes of dengue affecting a common human population with a time gap. Present studies have been undertaken on 212 laboratory reared infected individual mosquitoes from larvae collected from 31 dengue endemic towns of Rajasthan, India. Type specific DEN viruses were detected from individual mosquitoes employing RT-PCR. In 78.7% of 212 infected individual mosquitoes studied, vertically transmitted multiple DENV types were observed. We report for the first time that single mosquitoes contain multiple dengue virus types. (C) 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

316) Chikungunya, the 2014, emerging infectious diseases in the Americas
Autor: Alpuche-Aranda Celia M, Lopez-Gatell Hugo
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Pathogenesis ; Chikungunya virus - Infectious diseases ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Transmission ; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever ; Chikungunya virus - Dengue ; Chikungunya virus - Epidemiology ; Chikungunya virus - Public health
Fonte: Recent patents on anti-infective drug discovery, v. 10, n. 1, p. 6-7, 2015
ISSN: 2212-4071
Resumo:

317) The usual suspects: Comparison of the relative roles of potential urban Chikungunya virus vectors in australia
Autor: Jansen Cassie C, Williams Craig R, van den Hurk Andrew F
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Transmission ; Chikungunya virus - Public health
Fonte: PloS One, v. 10, n. 8, p. e0134975, 2015
ISSN: 1932-6203
Resumo: The global re-emergence of chikungunya virus (CHIKV) over the last decade presents a serious public health risk to Australia. An increasing number of imported cases further underline the potential for local transmission to occur if local mosquitoes bite an infected traveller. Laboratory experiments have identified a number of competent Australian mosquito species, including the primary vectors of CHIKV abroad, Aedes aegypti - Aedes albopictus, - local endemic species Aedes vigilax - Aedes notoscriptus. The implication of these additional endemic species as potential vectors has generated much uncertainty amongst public health professionals regarding their actual role in CHIKV transmission in the field. Using data estimated from or documented in the literature, we parameterise a simple vectorial capacity model to evaluate the relative roles of Australian mosquito species in potential CHIKV transmission. The model takes into account a number of key biological - ecological variables which influence the role of a species in field transmission, including population density, human feeding rates, mosquito survival rates - vector competence. We confirm the relative importance of Ae. aegypti - Ae. albopictus in sustaining potential CHIKV transmission in Australia. Even at maximum estimated densities - human feeding rates, Ae. vigilax - Ae. notoscriptus are likely to play a relatively minor role in CHIKV transmission, when compared with either Ae. aegypti or Ae. albopictus. This relatively straightforward analysis has application for any region where mosquito species have been incriminated in vector competence experiments, but where their actual role in CHIKV transmission has not been established.

318) A systematic meta-analysis of immune signatures in patients with acute Chikungunya virus infection
Autor: Teng Terk-Shin, Kam Yiu-Wing, Lee Bernett, Hapuarachchi Hapuarachchige Ch-itha, Wimal Abeyewickreme, Ng Lee-Ching, Ng Lisa F P
Assunto: Acute infection; Chemokines; Chikungunya virus; Cytokines; Meta-analysis
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Pathogenesis ; Chikungunya virus - Proteins ; Chikungunya virus - Cytokines ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever ; Chikungunya virus - Immunology
Fonte: The Journal of Infectious Diseases, v. 211, n. 12, p. 1925-1935, 2015
ISSN: 1537-6613
Resumo: Individuals infected with chikungunya virus (CHIKV) normally exhibit a variety of clinical manifestations during the acute phase of infection. However, studies in different patient cohorts have revealed that disease manifestations vary in frequency. Disease profiles between patients with acute CHIKV-infection - febrile patients without CHIKV were compared - examined to determine whether any clinical presentations were associated with the clinical outcome of CHIKV infection. Circulatory immune mediators profiles were then characterized - compared with data from 14 independent patient cohort studies. The particular immune mediator signature that defines acute CHIKV infection was determined. Our findings revealed a specific pattern of clinical presentations of joint-specific arthralgia from this CHIKV cohort. More importantly, we identified an immune mediator signature dominated by proinflammatory cytokines, which include interferon ? - ? - interleukin 2, 2R, 6, 7, 12, 15, 17, - 18, across different patient cohorts of CHIKV load associated with arthralgia. To our knowledge, this is the first study that associated levels of CHIKV load with arthralgia as an indicator of acute CHIKV infection. Importantly, our findings also revealed specific immune mediator signatures that can be used to better define CHIKV infection.

319) The green tea catechin, epigallocatechin gallate inhibits Chikungunya virus infection
Autor: Weber Christopher, Sliva Katja, von Rhein Christine, Kümmerer Beate M, Schnierle Barbara S
Assunto: Chikungunya virus; EGCG; Green tea
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Cell ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Vaccine ; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever
Fonte: Antiviral Research, v. 113, p. 1-3, 2015
ISSN: 1872-9096
Resumo: Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a mosquito-transmitted alphavirus that causes chikungunya fever - has infected millions of people mainly in developing countries. The associated disease is characterized by rash, high fever - severe arthritis that can persist for years. CHIKV has adapted to Aedes albopictus, which also inhabits temperate regions, including Europe - the United States of America - might cause new, large outbreaks there. No treatment or licensed CHIKV vaccine exists. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), the major component of green tea, has, among other beneficial properties, antiviral activities. Therefore, we examined if EGCG has antiviral activity against CHIKV. EGCG inhibited CHIKV infection in vitro, blocked entry of CHIKV Env-pseudotyped lentiviral vectors - inhibited CHIKV attachment to target cells. Thus EGCG might be used as a lead structure to develop more effective antiviral drugs.

320) Viral and vector zoonotic exploitation of a homo-sociome memetic complex
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Rupprecht C.E., Burgess G.W.
Assunto: DNA virus, neglected disease, RNA virus, zoonosis
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - DNA ; Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Clinical Microbiology and Infection, v. 21, n. 5, p. 394-403, may 2015
ISSN: 1469-0691 (electronic),1198-743X
Resumo: As most newly characterized emerging infectious diseases are considered to be zoonotic, a modern pre-eminence ascribed within this classification lies clearly within the viral taxonomic realm. In particular, RNA viruses deserve special concern given their documented impact on conservation biology, veterinary medicine and public health, with an unprecedented ability to promote an evolutionary host-pathogen arms race from the ultimate infection and immunity perspective. However, besides the requisite molecular/gross anatomical and physiological bases for infectious diseases to transmit from one host to another, both viral pathogens and their reservoirs/vectors exploit a complex anthropological, cultural, historical, psychological and social suite that specifically defines the phylodynamics within Homo sapiens, unlike any other species. Some of these variables include the ecological benefits of living in groups, decisions on hunting and foraging behaviours and dietary preferences, myths and religious doctrines, health economics, travel destinations, population planning, political decisions on agricultural product bans and many others, in a homo-sociome memetic complex. Taken to an extreme, such complexities elucidate the underpinnings of explanations as to why certain viral zoonoses reside in neglected people, places and things, whereas others are chosen selectively and prioritized for active mitigation. Canine-transmitted rabies serves as one prime example of how a neglected viral zoonosis may transition to greater attention on the basis of renewed advocacy, social media, local champions and vested international community engagement. In contrast, certain bat-associated and arboviral diseases suffer from basic ignorance and perpetuated misunderstanding of fundamental reservoir and vector ecology tenets, translated into failed control policies that only exacerbate the underlying environmental conditions of concern. Beyond applied biomedical knowledge, epidemiological skills and biotechnical abilities alone, if a homo-sociome memetic complex approach is also entertained in a modern transdisciplinary context, neglected viral zoonosis may be better understood, controlled, prevented and possibly eliminated, in a more holistic One Health context.

321) Dissecting the role of E2 protein domains in alphavirus pathogenicity
Autor: Weger-Lucarelli James, Aliota Matthew T, Wlodarchak Nathan, Kamlangdee Attapon, Swanson Ryan, Osorio Jorge E
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Arbovirus ; Chikungunya virus - Cell ; Chikungunya virus - Genome ; Chikungunya virus - Pathogenesis ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Vaccine ; Chikungunya virus - Public health
Fonte: Journal of Virology, v. 90, n. 5, p. 2418-2433, 2015
ISSN: 1098-5514
Resumo: Alphaviruses represent a diverse set of arboviruses, many of which are important pathogens. Chikungunya virus (CHIKV), an arthritis-inducing alphavirus, is the cause of a massive ongoing outbreak in the Caribbean - South America. In contrast to CHIKV, other related alphaviruses, such as Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) - Semliki Forest virus (SFV), can cause encephalitic disease. E2, the receptor binding protein, has been implicated as a determinant in cell tropism, host range, pathogenicity, - immunogenicity. Previous reports also have demonstrated that E2 contains residues important for host range expansions - monoclonal antibody binding; however, little is known about what role each protein domain (e.g., A, B, - C) of E2 plays on these factors. Therefore, we constructed chimeric cDNA clones between CHIKV - VEEV or SFV to probe the effect of each domain on pathogenicity in vitro - in vivo. CHIKV chimeras containing each of the domains of the E2 (?DomA, ?DomB, - ?DomC) from SFV, but not VEEV, were successfully rescued. Interestingly, while all chimeric viruses were attenuated compared to CHIKV in mice, ?DomB virus showed similar rates of infection - dissemination in Aedes aegypti mosquitoes, suggesting differing roles for the E2 protein in different hosts. In contrast to CHIKV; ?DomB, - to a lesser extent ?DomA, caused neuron degeneration - demyelination in mice infected intracranially, suggesting a shift toward a phenotype similar to SFV. Thus, chimeric CHIKV/SFV provide insights on the role the alphavirus E2 protein plays on pathogenesis. Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) has caused large outbreaks of acute - chronic arthritis throughout Africa - Southeast Asia - has now become a massive public health threat in the Americas, causing an estimated 1.2 million human cases in just over a year. No approved vaccines or antivirals exist for human use against CHIKV or any other alphavirus. Despite the threat, little is known about the role the receptor binding protein (E2) plays on disease outcome in an infected host. To study this, our laboratory generated chimeric CHIKV containing corresponding regions of the Semliki Forest virus (SFV) E2 (domains A, B, - C) substituted into the CHIKV genome. Our results demonstrate that each domain of E2 likely plays a critical, but dissimilar role in the viral life cycle. Our experiments show that manipulation of E2 domains can be useful for studies on viral pathogenesis - potentially the production of vaccines -/or antivirals.

322) The mosquito-borne viruses in Europe
Autor: Rossati Antonella, Bargiacchi Olivia, Kroumova Vesselina, Garavelli Pietro Luigi
Assunto: Dengue; Mosquitoes; Vectors; West Nile virus; Yellow fever
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Arbovirus; Chikungunya virus - Cytopathology; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections; Chikungunya Virus - Virus; Chikungunya virus - Transmission; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever; Chikungunya virus - Epidemic
Fonte: Recenti Progressi in Medicina, v. 106, n. 3, p. 125-130, 2015
ISSN: 2038-1840
Resumo: Epidemiologic changes of vector-borne diseases in recent years have multiple causes, including climate change. There are about 3500 species of mosquitoes worldwide, three-quarters of which live in tropical - subtropical wetl-s. Main viruses transmitted by mosquitoes in Europe belong to the genus Flavivirus; some of them have been recently reported in Italy (Usutu - Japanese encephalitis virus), while others have been circulating for years - autochthonous transmission has been documented (West Nile virus). Mosquito-borne viruses can be classified according to the vector (Aedes or Culex), which, in turn, is associated with different vertebrate host - pathology. The Flavivirus transmitted by Culex have birds as a reservoir - can cause meningoencephalitis, while viruses transmitted by Aedes have primates as reservoir, do not have neurotropism - mainly cause hemorrhagic diseases. Other arbovirus, potentially responsible of epidemics, are the Chikungunya virus (Alphavirus family), introduced for the first time in Europe in 2007, - the virus of Rift Valley fever (Phlebovirus family). The spread in non-endemic areas of vector-born diseases have highlighted the importance of surveillance systems - vector control strategies.

323) Temporal SILAC-based quantitative proteomics identifies host factors involved in Chikungunya virus replication
Autor: Treffers Emmely E, Tas Ali, Scholte Florine E M, Van Myrthe N, Heemskerk Matthias T, de Ru Arnoud H, Snijder Eric J, van Hemert Martijn J, van Veelen Peter A
Assunto: Alphavirus; Chikungunya virus; Microbiology; SILAC; Temporal proteomics; Virus-host interactions
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Cell ; Chikungunya virus - Genome ; Chikungunya virus - Proteins ; Chikungunya virus - RNA ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus
Fonte: Proteomics, v. 15, n. 13, p. 2267-2280, 2015
ISSN: 1615-9861
Resumo: Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is an arthropod-borne reemerging human pathogen that generally causes a severe persisting arthritis. Since 2005, the virus has infected millions of people during outbreaks in Africa, Indian Ocean Isl-s, Asia, - South/Central America. Many steps of the replication - expression of CHIKV's 12-kb RNA genome are highly dependent on cellular factors, which thus constitute potential therapeutic targets. SILAC - LC-MS/MS were used to define the temporal dynamics of the cellular response to infection. Using samples harvested at 8, 10, - 12 h postinfection, over 4700 proteins were identified - per time point 2800-3500 proteins could be quantified in both biological replicates. At 8, 10, - 12 h postinfection, 13, 38, - 106 proteins, respectively, were differentially expressed. The majority of these proteins showed decreased abundance. Most subunits of the RNA polymerase II complex were progressively degraded, which likely contributes to the transcriptional host shut-off observed during CHIKV infection. Overexpression of four proteins that were significantly downregulated (Rho family GTPase 3 (Rnd3), DEAD box helicase 56 (DDX56), polo-like kinase 1 (Plk1), - ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E2C (UbcH10) reduced susceptibility of cells to CHIKV infection, suggesting that infection-induced downregulation of these proteins is beneficial for CHIKV replication. All MS data have been deposited in the ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD001330 (http://proteomecentral.proteomexchange.org/dataset/PXD001330).

324) A rodent model of Chikungunya virus infection in RAG1 -/- Mice, with features of persistence, for vaccine safety evaluation
Autor: Seymour Robert L, Adams A Paige, Leal Grace, Alcorn Maria D H, Weaver Scott C
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Cytopathology ; Chikungunya virus - Immune response ; Chikungunya virus - Molecular structure ; Chikungunya virus - Pathogenesis ; Chikungunya virus - Proteins ; Chikungunya virus - RNA ; Chikungunya virus - Immune response ; Chikungunya virus - T lymphocytes ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Vaccine ; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever ; Chikungunya virus - Epidemic ; Chikungunya virus - Immunology ; Chikungunya virus - Public health
Fonte: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, v. 9, n. 6, p. e0003800, 2015
ISSN: 1935-2735
Resumo: Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a positive sense, single str-ed RNA virus in the genus Alphavirus, - the etiologic agent of epidemics of severe arthralgia in Africa, Asia, Europe -, most recently, the Americas. CHIKV causes chikungunya fever (CHIK), a syndrome characterized by rash, fever, - debilitating, often chronic arthritis. In recent outbreaks, CHIKV has been recognized to manifest more neurologic signs of illness in the elderly - those with co-morbidities. The syndrome caused by CHIKV is often self-limited; however, many patients develop persistent arthralgia that can last for months or years. These characteristics make CHIKV not only important from a human health st-point, but also from an economic st-point. Despite its importance as a reemerging disease, there is no licensed vaccine or specific treatment to prevent CHIK. Many studies have begun to elucidate the pathogenesis of CHIKF - the mechanism of persistent arthralgia, including the role of the adaptive immune response, which is still poorly understood. In addition, the lack of an animal model for chronic infection has limited studies of CHIKV pathogenesis as well as the ability to assess the safety of vaccine c-idates currently under development. To address this deficiency, we used recombination activating gene 1 (RAG1-/-) knockout mice, which are deficient in both T - B lymphocytes, to develop a chronic CHIKV infection model. Here, we describe this model as well as its use in evaluating the safety of a live-attenuated vaccine c-idate.

325) Natural vertical transmission of dengue viruses in Aedes aegypti in selected sites in Cebu City, Philippines
Autor: Edillo, Frances E.; Sarcos, Janet R.; Sayson, Stephanie L.
Assunto: Aedes; Culicidae; Dengue; Arbovirus; Control
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Arbovirus ; Aedes aegypti - RNA ; Aedes aegypti - RT-PCR ; Aedes aegypti - Epidemiology ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Journal of Vector Ecology, v. 40, n. 2, p. 282-291, 2015
ISSN: 1081-1710
Resumo: We attempted to determine the vertical transmission of dengue virus (DENV) in Aedes aegypti in selected sites in Cebu City, Philippines. Mosquito sub-adults were collected monthly from households and the field during the wet-dry-wet season from November, 2011 to July, 2012 and were laboratory-reared to adults. Viral RNA extracts in mosquitoes were assayed by hemi-nested RT-PCR. Results showed that 62 (36.26%; n=679) out of 171 mosquito pools (n=2,871) were DENV+. The minimum infection rate (MIR) of DENV ranged from 0 in wet months to 48.22/1,000 mosquitoes in April, 2012 (mid-dry). DENVs were detected in larvae, pupae, and male and female adults, with DENV-4, DENV-3, and DENV-1, in that rank of prevalence. DENV-1 co-infected with either DENV-3 or -4 or with both in April, 2012; DENV-3 and -4 were present in both seasons. More DENV+ mosquitoes were collected from households than in field premises (p<0.001) and in the dry than in the wet season (p<0.05), with significant interaction (p<0.05) between sites and premises but no interaction between sites and seasons (p>0.05). By Generalized Linear Mixed models, the type of premises nested in sites and monthly total rainfall were significant predictors of monthly dengue cases (p<0.05) and not MIR, season, temperature, and relative humidity. Surveillance of DENV prevalence in Ae. aegypti and detecting their natural foci in the dry season provide an early warning signal of dengue outbreak.

326) Chikungunya, a paradigm of neglected tropical disease that emerged to be a new health global risk
Autor: Rougeron Virginie, Sam I-Ching, Caron Mélanie, Nkoghe Dieudonné, Leroy Eric, Roques Pierre
Assunto: Chikungunya
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Pathogenesis ; Chikungunya virus - Infectious diseases ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Vaccine ; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever ; Chikungunya virus - Epidemiology ; Chikungunya virus - Immunology ; Chikungunya virus - Public health
Fonte: Journal of Clinical Virology, v. 64, p. 144-152, 2015
ISSN: 1873-5967
Resumo: Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is an alphavirus of the Togaviridae family that causes chronic - incapacitating arthralgia in human populations. Since its discovery in 1952, CHIKV was responsible for sporadic - infrequent outbreaks. However, since 2005, global Chikungunya outbreaks have occurred, inducing some fatalities - associated with severe - chronic morbidity. Chikungunya is thus considered as an important re-emerging public health problem in both tropical - temperate countries, where the distribution of the Aedes mosquito vectors continues to exp-. This review highlights the most recent advances in our knowledge - underst-ing of the epidemiology, biology, treatment - vaccination strategies of CHIKV.

327) Evaluating liquid and granular bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis broadcast applications for controlling vectors of Dengue and Chikungunya viruses in artificial containers and tree holes
Autor: Harwood James F, Farooq Muhammad, Turnwall Brent T, Richardson Alec G
Assunto: Aedes aegypti; Stihl SR 450; Backpack sprayer; Ground applications; Larval mosquito control
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Flaviviridae ; Chikungunya virus - Pathogenesis ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Dengue ; Chikungunya virus - Public health
Fonte: Journal of Medical Entomology, v. 52, n. 4, p. 663-671, 2015
ISSN: 0022-2585
Resumo: The principal vectors of chikungunya - dengue viruses typically oviposit in water-filled artificial - natural containers, including tree holes. Despite the risk these - similar tree hole-inhabiting mosquitoes present to global public health, surprisingly few studies have been conducted to determine an efficient method of applying larvicides specifically to tree holes. The Stihl SR 450, a backpack sprayer commonly utilized during military - civilian vector control operations, may be suitable for controlling larval tree-hole mosquitoes, as it is capable of delivering broadcast applications of granular - liquid dispersible formulations of Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis (Bti) to a large area relatively quickly. We compared the application effectiveness of two granular (AllPro Sustain MGB - VectoBac GR) - two liquid (Aquabac XT - VectoBac WDG) formulations of Bti in containers placed on bare ground, placed beneath vegetative cover, - hung 1.5 or 3 m above the ground to simulate tree holes. Aedes aegypti (L.) larval mortality - Bti droplet - granule density data (when appropriate) were recorded for each formulation. Overall, granular formulations of Bti resulted in higher mortality rates in the simulated tree-hole habitats, whereas applications of granular - liquid formulations resulted in similar levels of larval mortality in containers placed on the ground in the open - beneath vegetation.

328) A vaccine against an explosively spreading virus
Autor: Cassone Antonio
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Pathogenesis ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Vaccine ; Chikungunya virus - Immunology
Fonte: Pathogens and Global Health, v. 109, n. 2, p. 43, 2015
ISSN: 2047-7732
Resumo:

329) Standard operating procedures for standardized mass rearing of the dengue and chikungunya vectors Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) and II and Egg storage and hatching
Autor: Zheng Min-Lin, Zhang Dong-Jing, Damiens David D, Lees Rosemary Susan, Gilles Jeremie R L
Assunto: Bacterial broth; Boiled water; Hatch rate; Egg storage; Mass rearing; Mosquito production; Aedes; Dengue; Chikungunya
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Cell ; Chikungunya virus - Flaviviridae ; Chikungunya virus - Pathogenesis ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Transmission ; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever ; Chikungunya virus - Dengue ; Chikungunya virus - Public health
Fonte: Parasites & Vectors, v. 8, p. 348, 2015
ISSN: 1756-3305
Resumo: Management of large quantities of eggs will be a crucial aspect of the efficient - sustainable mass production of mosquitoes for programmes with a Sterile Insect Technique component. The efficiency of different hatching media - effectiveness of long term storage methods are presented here. The effect on hatch rate of storage duration - three hatching media was analysed: deionized water, boiled deionized water - a bacterial broth, using Two-way ANOVA - Post hoc Tukey tests, - the Pearson correlation coefficient was used to find the effect on the proportion of collapsed eggs. Two long term storage methods were also tested: conventional storage (egg paper strips stored in zip lock bags within a sealed plastic box), - water storage (egg papers in a covered plastic cup with deionized water). Regression analyses were used to find the effect of water storage - storage duration on hatch rate. Both species hatched most efficiently in bacterial broth. Few eggs hatched in deionized water, - pre-boiling the water increased the hatch rate of Ae. aegypti, but not Ae. albopictus. A hatch rate greater than 80% was obtained after 10 weeks of conventional storage in Ae. aegypti - 11 weeks in Ae. albopictus. After this period, hatching decreased dramatically; no eggs hatched after 24 weeks. Storing eggs in water produced an 85% hatch rate after 5 months in both species. A small but significant proportion of eggs hatched in the water, probably due to combined effects of natural deoxygenation of the water over time - the natural instalment hatching typical of the species. The demonstrated efficiency of the bacterial broth hatching medium for both Ae. albopictus - Ae. aegypti facilitates mass production of these two important vector species in the same facility, with use of a common hatching medium reducing cost - operational complexity. Similarly the increased hatch rate of eggs stored in water would allow greater flexibility of egg management in a large programme over the medium term, particularly if oxygenation of the water by bubbling oxygen through the storage tray could be applied to prevent hatching during storage.

330) What's new in clinical dermatology?
Autor: Valeyrie-Allanore L
Assunto: Agents infectieux émergeants; Burden; Drug adverse reaction; Emerging infectious agents; Fardeau; Hidradenitis suppurativa; IgG4-related disease; Maladie de Verneuil; Maladie à IgG4; Neuropathie des petites fibres; Pemphigoid; Pemphigoïde; Psoriasis; Small-fiber neuropathy; Toxidermies
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Arbovirus; Chikungunya Virus - Virus; Chikungunya virus - Dengue
Fonte: Annales de Dermatologie et de Ve?ne?re?ologie, v. 142, Supl 3, p. S1-S7, 2015
ISSN: 0151-9638
Resumo: Significant advances have been performed in cutaneous adverse reactions leading to primary prevention strategy - implication of new signaling pathways. Histological features of DRESS - methotrexate toxicity are detailed. New emerging infectious agents are reported including Zika Virus, an arbovirus which can be confused with dengue or chikungunya, a new cowpox virus transmitted by domestic cat leading to lymphadenitis, Spirurina type X larva transmitted in Japan by eating raw squid or fish. Malignancies in pemphigus - pemphigoid are emphasized. Expert recomm-ations are developped on definitions, diagnosis - disease activity of mucous membrane pemphigoid, bubllous pemphigoid - pemphigus. Psoriasis - cardiometabolic association are discussed. This risk association appears higher in hidradenitis suppurativa, which seems more frequent in patients of African ancestry. IgG4-related disease is an immune mediated entity characterized by fibroinflammatory lesions often misdiagnosed. Pruritus, heat sensations, numbness could be recognized as a small-fiber neuropathy symptoms. Burden impact in common dermatosis is demonstrated - should be integrated in our daily practice.

331) Modification of the suna trap for improved survival and quality of mosquitoes in support of epidemiological studies
Autor: Verhulst, Niels O; Bakker, Julian W; Hiscox, Alexandra
Assunto: Landing statistics; Adaptations; Magnets; Disease control; Survival; Pest control; Aquatic insects; Disease transmission; Light traps; Vector-borne diseases; Odor; Trapping; Aedes aegypti; Culex pipiens; Anopheles
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Molecular methods ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission
Fonte: Journal of the American Mosquito Control Association, v. 31, n. 3, p. 223-232, 2015.
ISSN: 8756-971X
Resumo: Monitoring adult mosquito populations provides information that is critical for assessing risk of vector-borne disease transmission. The recently developed Suna trap was found to be a very effective trap when baited with an attractive odor blend. A modification of this trap was tested to improve its function as a tool for monitoring mosquito populations, including Anopheles coluzzii (An. gambiae sensu stricto molecular form M), Aedes aegypti, and Culex pipiens. The modified Suna trap (Suna-M) was altered by changing the position of the catch bag and the inclusion of a holding chamber in attempts to increase trapping efficacy and enhance the survival of mosquitoes. Each adaptation was tested in a dual-choice setup in a climate-controlled room against the original Suna trap and against 4 standard monitoring methods: the BG-sentinel, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention light trap, Mosquito Magnet X trap, and human landing catch. The performance of the Suna-M trap equaled the performance of the original Suna trap and could therefore be used for monitoring purposes.

332) Chikungunya, the emerging migratory rheumatism
Autor: Alfaro-Toloza Patricio, Clouet-Huerta Diego E, Rodríguez-Morales Alfonso J
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Pathogenesis ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Public health
Fonte: The Lancet. Infectious Diseases, v. 15, n. 5, p. 510-512, 2015
ISSN: 1474-4457
Resumo:

333) The interferon-inducible mouse apolipoprotein L9 and prohibitins cooperate to restrict theiler's virus replication
Autor: Kreit Marguerite, Vertommen Didier, Gillet Laurent, Michiels Thomas
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Cell ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Dengue
Fonte: PloS One, v. 10, n. 7, p. e0133190, 2015
ISSN: 1932-6203
Resumo: Apolipoprotein L9b (Apol9b) is an interferon-stimulated gene (ISG) that has antiviral activity - is weakly expressed in primary mouse neurons as compared to other cell types. Here, we show that both Apol9 isoforms (Apol9b - Apol9a) inhibit replication of Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus (TMEV) but not replication of vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV), Murid herpesvirus-4 (MuHV-4), or infection by a lentiviral vector. Apol9 genes are strongly expressed in mouse liver -, to a lesser extent, in pancreas, adipose tissue - intestine. Their expression is increased by type I interferon - viral infection. In contrast to genuine apolipoproteins that are involved in lipid transport, ApoL9 has an intracytoplasmic localization - does not seem to be secreted. The cytoplasmic localization of ApoL9 is in line with the observation that ApoL9 inhibits the replication step of TMEV infection. In contrast to human ApoL6, ApoL9 did not sensitize cells to apoptosis, in spite of the presence of a conserved putative BH3 domain, required for antiviral activity. ApoL9a - b isoforms interact with cellular prohibitin 1 (Phb1) - prohibitin 2 (Phb2) - this interaction might contribute to ApoL9 antiviral activity. Knocking down Phb2 slightly increased TMEV replication, irrespective of ApoL9 overexpression. The antiviral activity of prohibitins against TMEV contrasts with the pro-viral activity of prohibitins observed for VSV - reported previously for Dengue 2 (DENV-2), Chikungunya (CHIKV) - influenza H5N1 viruses. ApoL9 is thus an example of ISG displaying a narrow antiviral range, which likely acts in complex with prohibitins to restrict TMEV replication.

334) Report on a measles epidemic in the Ústí nad Labem Region
Autor: Trmal J, Limberková R
Assunto: Measles epidemic; Health professionals; Emergency vaccination; Draft measures
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Antibodies; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections; Chikungunya virus - PCR detection; Chikungunya virus - RT-PCR; Chikungunya Virus - Virus; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever; Chikungunya virus - Dengue; Chikungunya virus - Epidemic; Chikungunya virus - Epidemiology; Chikungunya virus - Public health
Fonte: Epidemiologie, Mikrobiologie, Imunologie, v. 64, n. 3, p. 139-145, 2015
ISSN: 1210-7913
Resumo: The Czech Republic is a measles free country where only isolated, mostly imported cases have been reported. A measles epidemic that occurred in the Ústí nad Labem Region is presented, with the first case diagnosed early in February 2014 - the last one reported in August 2014. The index case - source of infection to other susceptible patients was an adult male with a history of travel to India. The diagnosis of measles was difficult to make as the patient presented with feverish condition due to co-infection with dengue fever, chikungunya, - measles. The primary measles outbreak occurred in contacts - spread to health workers of the Masaryk Hospital in Ústí nad Labem. The infection further spread to the general population of adults. In total, 305 persons presented with suspected measles. One hundred - eighty-six - of them (61%) met the criteria for a confirmed case (positive clinical symptoms - laboratory test). Fifty (16.4%) patients developed typical clinical symptoms - were epidemiologically linked to confirmed cases, but turned out to be antibody negative. In 69 (22.6%) patients, measles were ruled out. Cases were confirmed by the detection of IgM - IgG antibodies against the measles virus or by RT--PCR. Nearly all cases were verified by the National Reference Laboratory for Rubella, Measles, Mumps, - Parvovirus B 19 of the National Institute of Public Health in Prague. In response to the epidemic, apart from common anti-epidemic measures, emergency vaccination was provided to health professionals of the Masaryk Hospital in Ústí nad Labem. Within two weeks after vaccination, a considerable decline in cases was seen in the vaccinated group. Measles most often occurred in persons born in 1970-1980, but were also observed in the smallest, non-vaccinated children (32 cases). Isolated cases also emerged in duly vaccinated children - adolescents. General recommendations are provided based on practical experience from the epidemic.

335) New Year's resolution: Get to know Chikungunya
Autor: Harvey Carolyn Hester
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Pathogenesis ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever ; Chikungunya virus - Epidemiology ; Chikungunya virus - Public health
Fonte: Journal of Environmental Health, v. 77, n. 6, p. 6-7, 2015
ISSN: 0022-0892
Resumo:

336) Chikungunya virus infections among travelers-United States, 2010-2013
Autor: Lindsey Nicole P, Prince Harry E, Kosoy Olga, Laven Janeen, Messenger Sharon, Staples J Erin, Fischer Marc
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever ; Chikungunya virus - Epidemiology ; Chikungunya virus - Public health
Fonte: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, v. 92, n. 1, p. 82-87,2015
ISSN: 1476-1645
Resumo: Chikungunya virus is an emerging threat to the United States because humans are amplifying hosts - competent mosquito vectors are present in many regions of the country. We identified laboratory-confirmed chikungunya virus infections with diagnostic testing performed in the United States from 2010 through 2013. We described the epidemiology of these cases - determined which were reported to ArboNET. From 2010 through 2013, 115 laboratory-confirmed chikungunya virus infections were identified. Among 55 cases with known travel history, 53 (96%) reported travel to Asia - 2 (4%) to Africa. No locally-acquired infections were identified. Six patients had detectable viremia after returning to the United States. Only 21% of identified cases were reported to ArboNET, with a median of 72 days between illness onset - reporting. Given the risk of introduction into the United States, healthcare providers - public health officials should be educated about the recognition, diagnosis, - timely reporting of chikungunya virus disease cases.

337) Natural transovarial transmission of dengue virus 4 in Aedes aegypti from Cuiaba, State of Mato Grosso, Brazil
Autor: de Toni Aquino da Cruz, Lucineia Claudia; Serra, Otacilia Pereira; Leal-Santos, Fabio Alexandre; Maria Ribeiro, Ana Lucia; Slhessarenko, Renata Dezengrini; dos Santos, Marina Atanaka
Assunto: Aedes aegypti; Flavivirus; Vertical transmission; Entomological surveillance
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Arbovirus ; Aedes aegypti - RNA ; Aedes aegypti - RT-PCR
Fonte: Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical, v. 48, n. 1, p. 18-25, 2015
ISSN: 0037-8682
Resumo: Dengue is the most prevalent arboviral disease in tropical areas. In Mato Grosso, outbreaks are reported every year, but studies on dengue in this state are scarce. Methods: Natural transovarial infection of Aedes aegypti by a flavivirus was investigated in the Jardim Industriario neighborhood of Cuiaba, Mato Grosso. Eggs were collected with ovitraps during the dry, intermediate, and rainy seasons of 2012. After the eggs hatched and the larvae developed to adulthood, mosquitoes (n = 758) were identified and allocated to pools of 1-10 specimens according to the collection location, sex, and climatic period. After RNA extraction, multiplex semi-nested RT-PCR was performed to detect the four dengue virus (DENV) serotypes, yellow fever virus, West Nile virus and Saint Louis encephalitis virus. DENV-4 was the only flavivirus detected, and it was found in 8/50 pools (16.0%). Three of the positive pools contained females, and five contained males. Their nucleotide sequences presented 96-100% similarity with DENV-4 genotype II strains from Manaus, Amazonas. The minimum infection rate was 10.5 per 1000 specimens, and the maximum likelihood estimator of the infection rate was 11.6 (95% confidence interval: 4.8; 23.3). This study provides the first evidence of natural transovarial infection by DENV-4 in Ae. Aegypti in Mato Grosso, suggesting that this type of infection might serve as a mechanism of virus maintenance during interepidemic periods in Cuiaba, a city where dengue epidemics are reported every year. These results emphasize the need for efficient vector population control measures to prevent arbovirus outbreaks in the state.

338) Arthritogenic alphaviruses: new insights into arthritis and bone pathology
Autor: Chen Weiqiang, Foo Suan-Sin, Sims Natalie A, Herrero Lara J, Walsh Nicole C, Mahalingam Suresh
Assunto: Ross River virus; Alphavirus; Arthritis; Bone loss; Chikungunya virus; Inflammation
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Cell ; Chikungunya virus - Cytopathology ; Chikungunya virus - Pathogenesis ; Chikungunya virus - Proteins ; Chikungunya virus - Cytokines ; Chikungunya virus - Inflammation ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Immunology ; Chikungunya virus - Public health
Fonte: Trends in Microbiology, v. 23, n. 1, p. 35-43, 2015
ISSN: 1878-4380
Resumo: Arthritogenic alphaviral infection begins as a febrile illness - often progresses to joint pain - rheumatic symptoms that are described as polyarthritis. Alphaviral arthritis - classical arthritides share many similar cellular - immune mediators involved in their pathogenesis. Recent in vitro - in vivo evidence suggests that bone loss resulting from increased expression of bone resorption mediators may accompany alphaviral infection. In addition, several longitudinal studies have reported more severe - delayed recovery of alphaviral disease in patients with pre-existing arthritic conditions. This review aims to provide insights into alphavirus-induced bone loss - focuses on aspects of disease exacerbation in patients with underlying arthritis - on possible therapeutic targets.

339) High rates of o'nyong nyong and Chikungunya virus transmission in coastal Kenya
Autor: LaBeaud A Desiree, Banda Tamara, Brichard Julie, Muchiri Eric M, Mungai Peter L, Mutuku Francis M, Borland Erin, Gildengorin Ginny, Pfeil Sarah, Teng Crystal Y, Long Kristin, Heise Mark, Powers Ann M, Kitron Uriel, King Charles H
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Pathogenesis ; Chikungunya virus - Serology ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya virus - Serology ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Transmission ; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever ; Chikungunya virus - Epidemiology ; Chikungunya virus - Immunology ; Chikungunya virus - Public health
Fonte: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, v. 9, n. 2, p. e0003436, 2015
ISSN: 1935-2735
Resumo: Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) - o'nyong nyong virus (ONNV) are mosquito-borne alphaviruses endemic in East Africa that cause acute febrile illness - arthritis. The objectives of this study were to measure the seroprevalence of CHIKV - ONNV in coastal Kenya - link it to demographics - other risk factors. Demographic - exposure questionnaires were administered to 1,848 participants recruited from two village clusters (Milalani-Nganja - Vuga) in 2009. Sera were tested for alphavirus exposure using st-ardized CHIKV IgG ELISA protocols - confirmed with plaque reduction neutralization tests (PRNT). Logistic regression models were used to determine the variables associated with seropositivity. Weighted K test for global clustering of houses with alphavirus positive participants was performed for distance ranges of 50-1,000 meters, - G* statistic - kernel density mapping were used to identify locations of higher seroprevalence. 486 (26%) participants were seropositive by IgG ELISA. Of 443 PRNT confirmed positives, 25 samples (6%) were CHIKV+, 250 samples (56%) were ONNV+, - 168 samples (38%) had high titers for both. Age was significantly associated with seropositivity (OR 1.01 per year, 95% C.I. 1.00-1.01); however, younger adults were more likely to be seropositive than older adults. Males were less likely to be seropositive (p<0.05; OR 0.79, 95% C.I. 0.64-0.97). Adults who owned a bicycle (p<0.05; OR 1.37, 95% C.I. 1.00-1.85) or motor vehicle (p<0.05; OR 4.64, 95% C.I. 1.19-18.05) were more likely to be seropositive. Spatial analysis demonstrated hotspots of transmission within each village - clustering among local households in Milalani-Nganja, peaking at the 200-500m range. Alphavirus exposure, particularly ONNV exposure, is common in coastal Kenya with ongoing interepidemic transmission of both ONNV - CHIKV. Women - adults were more likely to be seropositive. Household location may be a defining factor for the ecology of alphaviral transmission in this region.

340) Chikungunya virus RNA and antibody testing at a National Reference Laboratory since the emergence of Chikungunya virus in the Americas
Autor: Prince Harry E, Seaton Brent L, Matud Jose L, Batterman Hollis J
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Pathogenesis ; Chikungunya virus - Proteins ; Chikungunya virus - RNA ; Chikungunya virus - Antibodies ; Chikungunya virus - Inflammation ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya virus - Real Time PCR ; Chikungunya virus - RT-PCR ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Vaccine ; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever ; Chikungunya virus - Epidemiology ; Chikungunya virus - Immunology ; Chikungunya virus - Public health
Fonte: Clinical and Vaccine Immunology, v. 22, n. 3, p. 291-297, 2015
ISSN: 1556-679X
Resumo: Since first reported in the Americas in December 2013, chikungunya virus (CHIKV) infections have been documented in travelers returning from the Caribbean, with many cases identified by CHIKV antibody -/or RNA testing at our laboratory. We used our large data set to characterize the relationship between antibody titers - RNA detection - to estimate IgM persistence. CHIKV RNA was measured by nucleic acid amplification - CHIKV IgG/IgM by indirect immunofluorescence. Of the 1,306 samples submitted for RNA testing in January through September 2014, 393 (30%) were positive; for 166 RNA-positive samples, CHIKV antibody testing was also ordered, - 84% were antibody negative. Of the 6,971 sera submitted for antibody testing in January through September 2014, 1,811 (26%) were IgM positive; 1,461 IgM positives (81%) were also IgG positive. The relationship between the CHIKV antibody titers - RNA detection was evaluated using 376 IgM-positive samples (138 with RNA testing ordered - 238 deidentified - tested for RNA). RNA detection showed no significant association with the IgM titer but was inversely related to the IgG titer; 63% of the IgG negative sera were RNA positive, compared to 36% of sera with low IgG titers (1:10 to 1:80) - 16% with IgG titers of ?1:160. Using second-sample results from 62 seroconverters, we estimated that CHIKV IgM persists for 110 days (95% confidence interval, 78 to 150 days) after the initial antibody-negative sample. These findings indicate that (i) RNA detection is more sensitive than antibody detection early in CHIKV infection, (ii) in the absence of RNA results, the IgG titer of the IgM-positive samples may be a useful surrogate for viremia, - (iii) CHIKV IgM persists for approximately 4 months after symptom onset.

341) Present and future projections of habitat suitability of the Asian tiger mosquito, a vector of viral pathogens, from global climate simulation
Autor: Proestos Y, Christophides G K, Ergüler K, Tanarhte M, Waldock J, Lelieveld J
Assunto: Aedes albopictus; Climate change; Global climate modelling; Habitat suitability; Vector distribution model; Vector-borne diseases
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Pathogenesis ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Transmission ; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever ; Chikungunya virus - Dengue ; Chikungunya virus - Public health
Fonte: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, v. 370, n. 1665, 2015
ISSN: 1471-2970
Resumo: Climate change can influence the transmission of vector-borne diseases (VBDs) through altering the habitat suitability of insect vectors. Here we present global climate model simulations - evaluate the associated uncertainties in view of the main meteorological factors that may affect the distribution of the Asian tiger mosquito (Aedes albopictus), which can transmit pathogens that cause chikungunya, dengue fever, yellow fever - various encephalitides. Using a general circulation model at 50 km horizontal resolution to simulate mosquito survival variables including temperature, precipitation - relative humidity, we present both global - regional projections of the habitat suitability up to the middle of the twenty-first century. The model resolution of 50 km allows evaluation against previous projections for Europe - provides a basis for comparative analyses with other regions. Model uncertainties - performance are addressed in light of the recent CMIP5 ensemble climate model simulations for the RCP8.5 concentration pathway - using meteorological re-analysis data (ERA-Interim/ECMWF) for the recent past. Uncertainty ranges associated with the thresholds of meteorological variables that may affect the distribution of Ae. albopictus are diagnosed using fuzzy-logic methodology, notably to assess the influence of selected meteorological criteria - combinations of criteria that influence mosquito habitat suitability. From the climate projections for 2050, - adopting a habitat suitability index larger than 70%, we estimate that approximately 2.4 billion individuals in a l- area of nearly 20 million km(2) will potentially be exposed to Ae. albopictus. The synthesis of fuzzy-logic based on mosquito biology - climate change analysis provides new insights into the regional - global spreading of VBDs to support disease control - policy making.

342) A sensitive epitope-blocking ELISA for the detection of Chikungunya virus-specific antibodies in patients.
Autor: Goh Lucas Y H, Kam Yiu-Wing, Metz Stefan W, Hobson-Peters Jody, Prow Natalie A, McCarthy Suzi, Smith David W, Pijlman Gorben P, Ng Lisa F P, Hall Roy A
Assunto: Chikungunya virus; Clinical diagnostic; Epitope-blocking ELISA; Monoclonal antibodies; Virus-like particles
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Cytopathology ; Chikungunya virus - Antibodies ; Chikungunya virus - Infectious diseases ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya virus - Molecular methods ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Molecular screening ; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever ; Chikungunya virus - Dengue ; Chikungunya virus - Immunology ; Chikungunya virus - Public health
Fonte: Journal of Virological Methods, v. 222, p. 55-61, 2015
ISSN: 1879-0984
Resumo: Chikungunya fever (CHIKF) has re-emerged as an arboviral disease that mimics clinical symptoms of other diseases such as dengue, malaria, as well as other alphavirus-related illnesses leading to problems with definitive diagnosis of the infection. Herein we describe the development - evaluation of a sensitive epitope-blocking ELISA (EB-ELISA) capable of specifically detecting anti-chikungunya virus (CHIKV) antibodies in clinical samples. The assay uses a monoclonal antibody (mAb) that binds an epitope on the E2 protein of CHIKV - does not exhibit cross-reactivity to other related alphaviruses. We also demonstrated the use of recombinant CHIK virus-like particles (VLPs) as a safe alternative antigen to infectious virions in the assay. Based on testing of 60 serum samples from patients in the acute or convalescent phase of CHIKV infection, the EB-ELISA provided us with 100% sensitivity, - exhibited 98.5% specificity when Ross River virus (RRV)- or Barmah Forest virus (BFV)-immune serum samples were included. This assay meets the public health dem-s of a rapid, robust, sensitive - specific, yet simple assay for specifically diagnosing CHIK-infections in humans.

343) A larval specific OBP able to bind the major female sex pheromone component in Spodoptera exigua (Hubner)
Autor: Jin Rong; Liu Nai-yong; Liu Yan; Dong Shuang-lin
Assunto: Odorant binding protein; Female sex pheromone; Larval specificity; Binding affinity; Behavioral response
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - RT-PCR ; Aedes aegypti - Real Time PCR
Fonte: Journal of Integrative Agriculture, v. 14, n. 7, p. 1356-1366, 2015
ISSN: 2095-3119
Resumo: Odorant binding proteins (OBPs) in insects are postulated to solubilize and transport the hydrophobic odorants across the hydrophilic antennal lymph to the olfactory receptors (ORs) located on the dendrite membrane of the sensory neurons. OBPs in adult insects have been intensively reported, but those in larvae are rarely addressed. In our study, a full-length OBP cDNA, namely SexiOBP13, was cloned by RT-PCR and RACE strategy from the heads of Spodoptera exigua larvae. The quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) measurement indicated that SexiOBP13 was highly expressed in larval head, but very low in other parts of larva and was not detected in any tissues of adult. The binding affinities of SexiOBP13 to plant volatiles and female sex pheromone components were measured by competitive binding assays. Interestingly, SexiOBP13 displayed a high binding affinity (K-i=3.82 mu mol L-1) to Z9,E12-14:Ac, the major sex pheromone component of S. exigua, while low affinities to the tested host plant volatiles (K-i>27 mu mol L-1). The behavioral tests further confirmed that Z9,E12-14:Ac was indeed active to elicit the behavioral activity of the third instar larvae of S. exigua. Taken together, our results suggest that SexiOBP13 may play a role in reception of female sex pheromone in S. exigua larvae. The ecological significance of the larvae preference to the adult female sex pheromone was discussed.

344) Current aspects on the management of viral uveitis in immunocompetent individuals
Autor: Pleyer Uwe, Chee Soon-Phaik
Assunto: Clinical trials; Cytomegalovirus; Herpes virus; Infection; Inflammation; Treatment; Uveitis
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Pathogenesis ; Chikungunya virus - Inflammation ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Molecular screening ; Chikungunya virus - Epidemiology ; Chikungunya virus - Immunology
Fonte: Clinical Ophthalmology, v. 9, p. 1017-1028, 2015
ISSN: 1177-5467
Resumo: Viruses are a fundamental etiology of ocular inflammation, which may affect all structures of the organ. Advances in molecular diagnostics reveal an increasingly broader spectrum of virus-associated intraocular inflammation, including all members of the herpes family, rubella virus, - other more rare causes such as Epstein-Barr - chikungunya virus. In particular, viruses of the herpes family are important causes of anterior - posterior uveitis. Owing to their often fulminant clinical course - persistence in ocular tissues, a clear differential diagnosis between alpha- - beta-type herpes viruses is essential to guide acute - long-term treatment. Here, we review the epidemiology, clinical, - laboratory findings of virus-associated uveitis with emphasis on their therapy - management - include our own experience.

345) From imported to an endemic disease: Impact of Chikungunya virus disease in the hospital epidemiology, Tolima, Colombia, 2014-2015
Autor: Jimenez-Canizales Carlos E, Medina-Gaitan David A, Mondragon-Cardona Álvaro E, Rodríguez-Morales Alfonso J
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Pathogenesis ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Transmission ; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever ; Chikungunya virus - Epidemiology ; Chikungunya virus - Public health
Fonte: Recent Patents on Anti-infective Drug Discovery, v. 10, n. 1, p. 64-66, 2015
ISSN: 2212-4071
Resumo:

346) Antiviral activity of flexibilane and tigliane diterpenoids from Stillingia lineata
Autor: Olivon Florent, Palenzuela Héliciane, Girard-Valenciennes Emmanuelle, Neyts Johan, Pannecouque Christophe, Roussi Fanny, Grondin Isabelle, Leyssen Pieter, Litaudon Marc
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Cell ; Chikungunya virus - Molecular structure ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus
Fonte: Journal of Natural Products, v. 78, n. 5, p. 1119-1128, 2015
ISSN: 1520-6025
Resumo: In an effort to identify new potent - selective inhibitors of chikungunya virus - HIV-1 - HIV-2 virus replication, the endemic Mascarene species Stillingia lineata was investigated. LC/MS - bioassay-guided purification of the EtOAc leaf extract using a chikungunya virus-cell-based assay led to the isolation of six new (4-9) - three known (1-3) tonantzitlolones possessing the rare C20-flexibilane skeleton, along with tonantzitloic acid (10), a new linear diterpenoid, - three new (11, 13, - 15) - two known (12 - 14) tigliane-type diterpenoids. The planar structures of the new compounds - their relative configurations were determined by spectroscopic analysis, - their absolute configurations were determined through comparison with literature data - from biogenetic considerations. These compounds were investigated for selective antiviral activity against chikungunya virus (CHIKV), Semliki Forest virus, Sindbis virus, -, for compounds 11-15, the HIV-1 - HIV-2 viruses. Compounds 12-15 were found to be the most potent - are selective inhibitors of CHIKV, HIV-1, - HIV-2 replication. In particular, compound 14 inhibited CHIKV replication with an EC50 value of 1.2 ?M on CHIKV - a selectivity index of >240, while compound 15 inhibited HIV-1 - HIV-2 with EC50 values of 0.043 - 0.018 ?M, respectively. It was demonstrated further that potency - selectivity are sensitive to the substitution pattern on the tigliane skeleton. The cytotoxic activities of compounds 1-10 were evaluated against the HCT-116, MCF-7, - PC3 cancer cell lines.

347) The microbiome modulates arbovirus transmission in mosquitoes
Autor: Hegde Shivanand, Rasgon Jason L, Hughes Grant L
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Arbovirus ; Chikungunya virus - Cytopathology ; Chikungunya virus - Infectious diseases ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Transmission ; Chikungunya virus - Dengue ; Chikungunya virus - Public health
Fonte: Current Opinion in Virology, v. 15, p. 97-102, 2015
ISSN: 1879-6265
Resumo: Mosquito-transmitted arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) such as dengue virus, chikungunya virus, - West Nile virus constitute a major public health burden - are increasing in severity - frequency worldwide. The microbiota associated with mosquitoes (comprised of viruses, bacteria, fungi - protozoa) can profoundly influence many host phenotypes including vector competence, which can either be enhanced or suppressed. Thus, the tripartite interactions between the mosquito vector, its microbiota - the pathogens they transmit offer novel possibilities to control arthropod-borne diseases.

348) A comprehensive immunoinformatics and target site study revealed the corner-stone toward Chikungunya virus treatment
Autor: Hasan Md Anayet, Khan Md Arif, Datta Amit, Mazumder Md Habibul Hasan, Hossain Mohammad Uzzal
Assunto: Chikungunya virus; HLA; Inhibitor; Pharmacophore study; Vaccine
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Cell ; Chikungunya virus - Immune response ; Chikungunya virus - Molecular structure ; Chikungunya virus - Pathogenesis ; Chikungunya virus - Proteins ; Chikungunya virus - Proteome ; Chikungunya virus - Antibodies ; Chikungunya virus - Immune response ; Chikungunya virus - T lymphocytes ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Vaccine ; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever ; Chikungunya virus - Immunology
Fonte: Molecular Immunology, v. 65, n. 1, p. 189-204, 2015
ISSN: 1872-9142
Resumo: Recent concerning facts of Chikungunya virus (CHIKV); a Togaviridae family alphavirus has proved this as a worldwide emerging threat which causes Chikungunya fever - devitalizing arthritis. Despite severe outbreaks - lack of antiviral drug, a mere progress has been made regarding to an epitope-based vaccine designed for CHIKV. In this study, we aimed to design an epitope-based vaccine that can trigger a significant immune response as well as to prognosticate inhibitor that can bind with potential drug target sites by using various immunoinformatics - docking simulation tools. Initially, whole proteome of CHIKV was retrieved from database - perused to identify the most immunogenic protein. Structural properties of the selected protein were analyzed. The capacity to induce both humoral - cell-mediated immunity by T cell - B cell were checked for the selected protein. The peptide region spanning 9 amino acids from 397 to 405 - the sequence YYYELYPTM were found as the most potential B cell - T cell epitopes respectively. This peptide could interact with as many as 19 HLAs - showed high population coverage ranging from 69.50% to 84.94%. By using in silico docking techniques the epitope was further assessed for binding against HLA molecules to verify the binding cleft interaction. In addition with this, the allergenicity of the epitopes was also evaluated. In the post therapeutic strategy, three dimensional structure was predicted along with validation - verification that resulted in molecular docking study to identify the potential drug binding sites - suitable therapeutic inhibitor against targeted protein. Finally, pharmacophore study was also performed in quest of seeing potent drug activity. However, this computational epitope-based peptide vaccine designing - target site prediction against CHIKV opens up a new horizon which may be the prospective way in Chikungunya virus research; the results require validation by in vitro - in vivo experiments.

349) Stress granule components G3BP1 and G3BP2 play a proviral role early in Chikungunya virus replication.
Autor: Scholte Florine E M,Tas Ali,Albulescu Irina C,Žusinaite Eva,Merits Andres,Snijder Eric J,van Hemert Martijn J
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Real Time PCR
Fonte: Journal of Virology, v. 89, n. 8, p. 4457-4469, 2015
ISSN: 1098-5514
Resumo: Stress granules (SGs) are protein-mRNA aggregates that are formed in response to environmental stresses, resulting in translational inhibition. SGs are generally believed to play an antiviral role and are manipulated by many viruses, including various alphaviruses. GTPase-activating protein (SH3 domain)-binding protein 1 (G3BP1) is a key component and commonly used marker of SGs. Its homolog G3BP2 is a less extensively studied SG component. Here, we demonstrate that Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) infection induces cytoplasmic G3BP1- and G3BP2-containing granules that differ from bona fide SGs in terms of morphology, composition, and behavior. For several Old World alphaviruses it has been shown that nonstructural protein 3 (nsP3) interacts with G3BPs, presumably to inhibit SG formation, and we have confirmed this interaction in CHIKV-infected cells. Surprisingly, CHIKV also relied on G3BPs for efficient replication, as simultaneous depletion of G3BP1 and G3BP2 reduced viral RNA levels, CHIKV protein expression, and viral progeny titers. The G3BPs colocalized with CHIKV nsP2 and nsP3 in cytoplasmic foci, but no colocalization with nsP1, nsP4, or dsRNA was observed. Furthermore, G3BPs could not be detected in a cellular fraction enriched for CHIKV replication/transcription complexes, suggesting that they are not directly involved in CHIKV RNA synthesis. Depletion of G3BPs did not affect viral entry, translation of incoming genomes, or nonstructural polyprotein processing but resulted in severely reduced levels of negative-stranded (and consequently also positive-stranded) RNA. This suggests a role for the G3BPs in the switch from translation to genome amplification, although the exact mechanism by which they act remains to be explored. Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) causes a severe polyarthritis that has affected millions of people since its reemergence in 2004. The lack of approved vaccines or therapeutic options and the ongoing explosive outbreak in the Caribbean underline the importance of better understanding CHIKV replication. Stress granules (SGs) are cytoplasmic protein-mRNA aggregates formed in response to various stresses, including viral infection. The RNA-binding proteins G3BP1 and G3BP2 are essential SG components. SG formation and the resulting translational inhibition are generally considered an antiviral response, and many viruses manipulate or block this process. Late in infection, we and others have observed CHIKV nonstructural protein 3 in cytoplasmic G3BP1- and G3BP2-containing granules. These virally induced foci differed from true SGs and did not appear to represent replication complexes. Surprisingly, we found that G3BP1 and G3BP2 were also needed for efficient CHIKV replication, likely by facilitating the switch from translation to genome amplification early in infection.

350) Antiviral activity of diterpene esters on Chikungunya virus and HIV replication
Autor: Nothias-Scaglia Louis-Félix, Pannecouque Christophe, Renucci Franck, Delang Leen, Neyts Johan, Roussi Fanny, Costa Jean, Leyssen Pieter, Litaudon Marc, Paolini Julien
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - DNA ; Chikungunya virus - Molecular structure ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus
Fonte: Journal of Natural Products, v. 78, n. 6, p. 1277-1283, 2015
ISSN: 1520-6025
Resumo: Recently, new daphnane, tigliane, - jatrophane diterpenoids have been isolated from various Euphorbiaceae species, of which some have been shown to be potent inhibitors of chikungunya virus (CHIKV) replication. To further explore this type of compound, the antiviral activity of a series of 29 commercially available natural diterpenoids was evaluated. Phorbol-12,13-didecanoate (11) proved to be the most potent inhibitor, with an EC50 value of 6.0 ± 0.9 nM - a selectivity index (SI) of 686, which is in line with the previously reported anti-CHIKV potency for the structurally related 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (13). Most of the other compounds exhibited low to moderate activity, including an ingenane-type diterpene ester, compound 28, with an EC50 value of 1.2 ± 0.1 ?M - SI = 6.4. Diterpene compounds are known also to inhibit HIV replication, so the antiviral activities of compounds 1-29 were evaluated also against HIV-1 - HIV-2. Tigliane- (4?-hydroxyphorbol analogues 10, 11, 13, 15, 16, - 18) - ingenane-type (27 - 28) diterpene esters were shown to inhibit HIV replication in vitro at the nanomolar level. A Pearson analysis performed with the anti-CHIKV - anti-HIV data sets demonstrated a linear relationship, which supported the hypothesis made that PKC may be an important target in CHIKV replication.

351) The first imported case infected with Chikungunya virus in Korea
Autor: Hwang Jeong-Hwan, Lee Chang-Seop
Assunto: Chikungunya virus; Korea; Travel
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Arbovirus ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever
Fonte: Infection & Chemotherapy, v. 47, n. 1, p. 55-59, 2015
ISSN: 2093-2340
Resumo: Chikungunya is caused by an arbovirus transmitted by Aedes mosquito vector. With the increase of habitat of mosquito by global warming - frequent international travel - interchange, chikungunya reemerged - showed global distribution recently. Until now there has not been reported any case infected with chikungunya virus in Korea. A 23-year-old man has been the Republic of the Philippines for 1 week, - visited our emergency center due to fever - back pain. Chikungunya viral infection was diagnosed by specific IgM for chickungunya virus by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assayin Korea Centers for Disease Control - Prevention. His clinical course was self limited. We introduce the first imported case infected with chikungunya virus in Korea.

352) Antiviral phosphorodiamidate morpholino oligomers are protective against Chikungunya virus infection on cell-based and murine models
Autor: Lam Shirley, Chen Huixin, Chen Caiyun Karen, Min Nyo, Chu Justin Jang Hann
Assunto: Alphaviruses; Antivirals
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Cell ; Chikungunya virus - Pathogenesis ; Chikungunya virus - RNA ; Chikungunya virus - Clinical examination ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Vaccine
Fonte: Scientific Reports, v. 5, p. 12727, 2015
ISSN: 2045-2322
Resumo: Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) infection in human is associated with debilitating - persistent arthralgia - arthritis. Currently, there is no specific vaccine or effective antiviral available. Anti-CHIKV Phosphorodiamidate Morpholino Oligomer (CPMO) was evaluated for its antiviral efficacy - cytotoxcity in human cells - neonate murine model. Two CPMOs were designed to block translation initiation of a highly conserved sequence in CHIKV non-structural - structural polyprotein, respectively. Pre-treatment of HeLa cells with CPMO1 significantly suppressed CHIKV titre, CHIKV E2 protein expression - prevented CHIKV-induced CPE. CPMO1 activity was also CHIKV-specific as shown by the lack of cross-reactivity against SINV or DENV replication. When administered prophylactically in neonate mice, 15 ?g/g CPMO1v conferred 100% survival against CHIKV disease. In parallel, these mice demonstrated significant reduction in viremia - viral load in various tissues. Immunohistological examination of skeletal muscles - liver of CPMO1v-treated mice also showed healthy tissue morphology, in contrast to evident manifestation of CHIKV pathogenesis in PBS- or scrambled sCPMO1v-treated groups. Taken together, our findings highlight for the first time that CPMO1v has strong protective effect against CHIKV infection. This warrants future development of morpholino as an alternative antiviral agent to address CHIKV infection in clinical applications.

353) A neuron-specific antiviral mechanism prevents lethal flaviviral infection of mosquitoes
Autor: Xiao, Xiaoping; Zhang, Rudian; Pang, Xiaojing; Liang, Guodong; Wang, Penghua; Cheng, Gong
Assunto: West nile - Virus; Mannose - Binding lectin; Quinquefasciatus diptera - Culicidae; Culex ?Pipiens - Quinquefasciatus; Aedes aegypti - Mosquitos; Surfactant protein D; Dengue - Virus; RNA interference; Sindbis virus; Hikaru - Genki
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - RNA ; Aedes aegypti - Viral infections ; Aedes aegypti - virus ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Plos Pathogens, v. 11, n. 4, 2015
ISSN: 1553-7366
Resumo: Mosquitoes are natural vectors for many etiologic agents of human viral diseases. Mosquito-borne flaviviruses can persistently infect the mosquito central nervous system without causing dramatic pathology or influencing the mosquito behavior and lifespan. The mechanism by which the mosquito nervous system resists flaviviral infection is still largely unknown. Here we report that an Aedes aegypti homologue of the neural factor Hikaru genki (AaHig) efficiently restricts flavivirus infection of the central nervous system. AaHig was predominantly expressed in the mosquito nervous system and localized to the plasma membrane of neural cells. Functional blockade of AaHig enhanced Dengue virus (DENV) and Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), but not Sindbis virus (SINV), replication in mosquito heads and consequently caused neural apoptosis and a dramatic reduction in the mosquito lifespan. Consistently, delivery of recombinant AaHig to mosquitoes reduced viral infection. Furthermore, the membrane-localized AaHig directly interfaced with a highly conserved motif in the surface envelope proteins of DENV and JEV, and consequently interrupted endocytic viral entry into mosquito cells. Loss of either plasma membrane targeting or virion-binding ability rendered AaHig nonfunctional. Interestingly, Culex pipien pallens Hig also demonstrated a prominent anti-flavivirus activity, suggesting a functionally conserved function for Hig. Our results demonstrate that an evolutionarily conserved antiviral mechanism prevents lethal flaviviral infection of the central nervous system in mosquitoes, and thus may facilitate flaviviral transmission in nature.

354) Susceptibility of Indigenous and Transplanted Mosquito Spp. to Dengue Virus in Japan
Autor: Sasaki Toshinori,Higa Yukiko,Bertuso Arlene G,Isawa Haruhiko,Takasaki Tomohiko,Minakawa Noboru,Sawabe Kyoko
Assunto:
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Infectious diseases ; Aedes aegypti - Viral infections ; Aedes aegypti - virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue
Fonte: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases, v. 68, n. 5, p. 425-427, 2015
ISSN: 1884-2836
Resumo: Dengue fever, an acute, mosquito-borne, febrile illness caused by Flavivirus spp., is a problem in Africa, South and Southeast Asia, Latin America, and the Caribbean. A dengue outbreak occurred after nearly 70 years of absence or no detection, and then 158 autochthonous cases occurred in Japan from August to October 15, 2014. The most competent mosquito vectors for dengue virus transmission were Aedes aegypti and A. albopictus. Since A. albopictus is widely distributed across Japan and A. aegypti recently invaded Japan by airplane, we examined the susceptibility of these species to infection by dengue virus.

355) The use of serum spotted onto filter paper for diagnosing and monitoring Chikungunya virus infection
Autor: Matheus Séverine, Huc Patricia, Labeau Bhety, Bremand Laetitia, Enfissi Antoine, Merle Olivier, Flusin Olivier, Rousset Dominique, Leparc-Goffart Isabelle
Assunto: Chikungunya; Diagnosis; Filter paper
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Arbovirus ; Chikungunya virus - Molecular methods ; Chikungunya virus - RT-PCR ; Chikungunya virus - Serological diagnosis ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Molecular screening ; Chikungunya virus - Dengue ; Chikungunya virus - Public health
Fonte: Journal of Clinical Virology, v. 71, p. 89-92, 2015
ISSN: 1873-5967
Resumo: The recent emergence of Chikungunya Virus (CHIKV) in the Americas constitutes a major public health problem on this continent, where the mosquito vector is widespread. The rapid diagnosis of suspected cases is essential for the monitoring - control of this ongoing outbreak. However, this requires reliable tools that are difficult to establish in areas without specialized laboratories. The aim was to evaluate the performances of serum samples spotted onto filter paper for molecular - serological diagnosis of Chikungunya infection. Analyses were performed from frozen sera - serum spotted onto filter paper provided from 121 Chikungunya suspected cases collected at a biological laboratory on Saint-Martin Isl-. This approach performed well in comparisons with st-ard methods, with a sensitivity of 100% - a specificity of 93.6% for the combined technical approaches (RT-PCR - serological results). Comparisons of serum samples spotted onto filter paper - frozen samples showed a concordance rate of 94.8% in molecular tests - 98.2% in serological tests. This simple sampling technique could overcome the problems of the lack of efficient CHIKV diagnosis tools in remote regions, providing good results regardless of the molecular or serological approach used. This simple filter paper-based method can be used to diagnose both chikungunya - dengue infections, as previously demonstrated following transport at ambient temperature to specialized laboratories. Given the set-up costs - high performance of this method, it could be recommended for the monitoring - control of Chikungunya virus expansion in the Americas - in other affected regions.

356) A trypsin inhibitor from clitoria fairchildiana cotyledons is active against digestive enzymes of Aedes aegypti larvae
Autor: de Oliveira Lucilene O, Fern-es Kátia V S, Pádua Dayanni de Souza, Carvalho -ré de O, Lemos Francisco J A, Gomes Valdirene M, Oliveira Antônia E A, Ferreira -ré T da Silva, Perales Jonas
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Vaccine ; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever ; Chikungunya virus - Dengue
Fonte: Protein and Peptide Letters, v. 22, n. 10, p. 893-902, 2015
ISSN: 1875-5305
Resumo: Aedes aegypti, the principal mosquito vector of yellow fever, dengue fever - chikungunya fever virus-transmitted diseases, is an insect closely associated with humans - their housing habitats. As there is no commercially available vaccine, prevention is the most suggested form of avoiding disease spreading - a number of studies are being developed in order to give support to vector control operations. The present study reports on the identification of a trypsin inhibitor isolated from cotyledons of the Clitoria fairchildiana amazonic tree seeds, which was able to reduce by 87.93 % the activity of digestive enzymes of fourth instar A. aegypti larva. A partial amino acid sequence showed strong similarity with sequences from several trypsin inhibitors already reported in the literature. The 13,000 Da isolated inhibitor was seen to be active solely against trypsin-like enzymes, neither acting on papain, ?-amylase nor on other serine proteases, such as elastase, chymotrypsin or subtilisin. At least six from seven active digestive proteases from A. aegypti larvae, visualized by zymography, were severely affected soon after exposed to the inhibitor. The strong - specific action of the isolated inhibitor against trypsin digestive enzymes of this insect vector led us to believe that this protein may be a good c-idate for a prospective alternative biocontrol method.

357) Chikungunya, the emerging migratory rheumatism
Autor: Javelle Emilie, Gautret Philippe, Simon Fabrice
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Pathogenesis ; Chikungunya virus - Infectious diseases ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus
Fonte: The Lancet. Infectious Diseases, v. 15, n. 5, p. 509-510, 2015
ISSN: 1474-4457
Resumo:

358) Waiting for chikungunya fever in Argentina: spatio-temporal risk maps
Autor: Carbajo Aníbal E,Vezzani Darío
Assunto: Aedes aegypti; Vector-borne diseases; Alphavirus; South america
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Pathogenesis ; Aedes aegypti - Viral infections ; Aedes aegypti - virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Chikungunya Fever ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, v. 110, n. 2, p. 259-262, 2015
ISSN: 1678-8060
Resumo: Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) transmission has been detected in America in 2013 and recently reached south up to Bolivia, Brazil and Paraguay, bordering countries of Argentina. The presence of the mosquito Aedes aegypti in half of the country together with the regional context drove us to make a rapid assessment of transmission risk. Temperature thresholds for vector breeding and for virus transmission, together with adult activity from the literature, were mapped on a monthly basis to estimate risk. Transmission of chikungunya by Ae. aegypti in the world was seen at monthly mean temperatures from 21-34ºC, with the majority occurring between 26-28ºC. In Argentina temperatures above 21ºC are observed since September in the northeast, expanding south until January and retreating back to the northeast in April. The maximum area under risk encompasses more than half the country and around 32 million inhabitants. Vector adult activity was registered where monthly means temperatures exceeded 13ºC, in the northeast all over the year and in the northern half from September-May. The models herein proposed show that conditions for transmission are already present. Considering the regional context and the historic inability to control dengue in the region, chikungunya fever illness seems unavoidable.

359) Novel mode of ISG15-mediated protection against influenza A virus and Sendai virus in mice
Autor: Morales David J, Monte Kristen, Sun Lulu, Struckhoff Jessica J, Agapov Eugene, Holtzman Michael J, Stappenbeck Thaddeus S, Lenschow Deborah J
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Biosynthesis ; Chikungunya virus - Cell ; Chikungunya virus - Cytopathology ; Chikungunya virus - Immune response ; Chikungunya virus - Pathogenesis ; Chikungunya virus - Proteins ; Chikungunya virus - Cytokines ; Chikungunya virus - Immune response ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Immunology ; Chikungunya virus - Public health
Fonte: Journal of Virology, v. 89, n. 1, p. 337-349, 2015
ISSN: 1098-5514
Resumo: ISG15 is a diubiquitin-like modifier - one of the most rapidly induced genes upon type I interferon stimulation. Hundreds of host proteins - a number of viral proteins have been shown to be ISGylated, - underst-ing how these modifications affect the interferon response - virus replication has been of considerable interest. ISG15(-/-) mice exhibit increased susceptibility to viral infection, - in the case of influenza B virus - vaccinia virus, ISG15 conjugation has been shown to restrict virus replication in vivo. A number of studies have also found that ISG15 is capable of antagonizing replication of some viruses in tissue culture. However, recent findings have demonstrated that ISG15 can protect mice from Chikungunya virus infection without affecting the virus burden. In order to better underst- the function of ISG15 in vivo, we characterized the pathogenesis of influenza A virus - Sendai virus in ISG15(-/-) mice. We found that ISG15 protects mice from virus induced lethality by a conjugation-dependent mechanism in both of these models. However, surprisingly, we found that ISG15 had minimal effect on virus replication - did not have an obvious role in the modulation of the acute immune response to infection. Instead, we observed an increase in the number of diseased small airways in mice lacking ISG15. This ability of ISG15 to protect mice in a conjugation-dependent, but nonantiviral, manner from respiratory virus infection represents a previously undescribed role for ISG15 - demonstrates the importance of further characterization of ISG15 in vivo. It has previously been demonstrated that ISG15(-/-) mice are more susceptible to a number of viral infections. Since ISG15 is one of the most strongly induced genes after type I interferon stimulation, analysis of ISG15 function has largely focused on its role as an antiviral molecule during acute infection. Although a number of studies have shown that ISG15 does have a small effect on virus replication in tissue culture, few studies have confirmed this mechanism of protection in vivo. In these studies we have found that while ISG15(-/-) mice are more susceptible to influenza A virus - Sendai virus infections, ISGylation does not appear to mediate this protection through the direct inhibition of virus replication or the modulation of the acute immune response. Thus, in addition to showing a novel mode of ISG15 mediated protection from virus infection, this study demonstrates the importance of studying the role of ISG15 in vivo.

360) Chikungunya virus pathogenesis: From bedside to bench
Autor: Couderc Thérèse, Lecuit Marc
Assunto: Arbovirus; Arthralgia; Chikungunya virus; Emerging virus; Mosquito-borne
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Arbovirus ; Chikungunya virus - Cell ; Chikungunya virus - Pathogenesis ; Chikungunya virus - Infectious diseases ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Public health
Fonte: Antiviral Research, v. 121, p. 120-131, 2015
ISSN: 1872-9096
Resumo: Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is an arbovirus transmitted to humans by mosquito bite. A decade ago, the virus caused a major outbreak in the isl-s of the Indian Ocean, then reached India - Southeast Asia. More recently, CHIKV has emerged in the Americas, first reaching the Caribbean - now extending to Central, South - North America. It is therefore considered a major public health - economic threat. CHIKV causes febrile illness typically associated with debilitating joint pains. In rare cases, it may also cause central nervous system disease, notably in neonates. Joint symptoms may persist for months to years, - lead to arthritis. This review focuses on the spectrum of signs - symptoms associated with CHIKV infection in humans. It also illustrates how the analysis of clinical - biological data from human cohorts - the development of animal - cellular models of infection has helped to identify the tissue - cell tropisms of the virus - to decipher host responses in benign, severe or persistent disease. This article forms part of a symposium in Antiviral Research on Chikungunya discovers the New World"."

361) Immunogenicity, safety, and tolerability of a recombinant measles-virus-based chikungunya vaccine: A randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, active-comparator, first-in-man trial
Autor: Ramsauer Katrin, Schwameis Michael, Firbas Christa, Müllner Matthias, Putnak Robert J, Thomas Stephen J, Desprès Philippe, Tauber Erich, Jilma Bernd, Tangy Frederic
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Biosynthesis ; Chikungunya virus - Pathogenesis ; Chikungunya virus - Proteins ; Chikungunya virus - Antibodies ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Vaccine ; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever ; Chikungunya virus - Epidemiology ; Chikungunya virus - Immunology ; Chikungunya virus - Public health
Fonte: The Lancet. Infectious Diseases, v. 15, n. 5, p. 519-527, 2015
ISSN: 1474-4457
Resumo: Chikungunya is an emerging arthropod-borne disease that has spread from tropical endemic areas to more temperate climates of the USA - Europe. However, no specific treatment or preventive measure is yet available. We aimed to investigate the immunogenicity - safety of a live recombinant measles-virus-based chikungunya vaccine. We did a r-omised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, active-comparator, phase 1, dose-escalation study at one centre in Vienna, Austria. Healthy men - women aged 18-45 years with no comorbidities were r-omly assigned, by computer-generated block r-omisation (block size of 14), to receive either one of three escalating doses of the measles-virus-based c-idate vaccine (low dose [1·5 × 10(4) median tissue culture infection doses (TCID50) per 0·05 mL], medium dose [7·5 × 10(4) TCID50 per 0·25 mL], or high dose [3·0 × 10(5) TCID50 per 1·0 mL]), or the active comparator-Priorix. Participants were additionally block-r-omised to receive a booster injection on either day 28 or day 90 after the first vaccination. Participants - study investigators were masked to group allocation. The primary endpoint was the presence of neutralising anti-chikungunya antibodies on day 28, as assessed by 50% plaque reduction neutralisation test. Analysis was by intention to treat - per protocol. This trial is registered with EudraCT, number 2013-001084-23. Between Nov 22, 2013, - Feb 25, 2014, we r-omly assigned 42 participants to receive the low dose (n=12), the medium dose (n=12), or the high dose (n=12) of the measles-virus-based c-idate vaccine, or Priorix (n=6), of whom 36 participants (86%; n=9, n=12, n=10, n=5, respectively) were included in the per-protocol population. The c-idate vaccine raised neutralising antibodies in all dose cohorts after one immunisation, with seroconversion rates of 44% (n=4) in the low-dose group, 92% (n=11) in the medium-dose group, - 90% (n=10) in the high-dose group. The immunogenicity of the c-idate vaccine was not affected by pre-existing anti-measles immunity. The second vaccination resulted in a 100% seroconversion for all participants in the c-idate vaccine groups. The c-idate vaccine had an overall good safety profile, - the rate of adverse events increased with vaccine dose - volume. No vaccination-related serious adverse events were recorded. The live recombinant measles-virus-based chikungunya vaccine had good immunogenicity, even in the presence of anti-vector immunity, was safe, - had a generally acceptable tolerability profile. This vaccine is the first promising measles-virus-based c-idate vaccine for use in human beings. Themis Bioscience GmBH.

362) Sero-prevalence of dengue infections in the Kassala state in the eastern part of the Sudan in 2011
Autor: Himatt Sayed,Osman Kamal E,Okoued Somia I,Seidahmed Osama E,Beatty Mark E,Soghaier Mohammed A,Elmusharaf Khalifa
Assunto: Primary dengue; Surveillance; Vector borne disease
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Antibodies ; Aedes aegypti - Viral infections ; Aedes aegypti - virus ; Aedes aegypti - Vaccine ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Epidemiology ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Journal of Infection and Public Health, v. 8, n. 5, p. 487-492, 2015
ISSN: 1876-035X
Resumo: Dengue fever is a vector-borne disease that is transmitted to humans by infected Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. The eastern part of the Sudan is one of the regions that is affected by dengue virus circulation. In this study, we estimated the prevalence of dengue infections in the Kassala state in the eastern part of the Sudan. The study objective was to estimate the sero-prevalence of dengue IgG/IgM antibodies in the Kassala locality in 2011. This was a cross sectional community-based study that utilized a multi-stage cluster sampling technique regarding the probability sampling the study participants. Capture ELISA serological techniques were used for both IgM and IgG, with the specific cut-offs for each set by the manufacturer. The prevalence of dengue infection was found to be 9.4% (95% CI: 7.1-12.3). In conclusion, there is evidence that the dengue virus is being transmitted in Kassala. Disease surveillance, including the clinical, serological and entomological components, should be strengthened, and additional epidemiological studies are needed to better understand of the disease burden and effects in the area.

363) Risk factors for the presence of chikungunya and dengue vectors (Aedes aegypti - Aedes albopictus), their altitudinal distribution and climatic determinants of their abundance in central Nepal
Autor: Dhimal Meghnath, Gautam Ishan, Joshi Hari Datt, O'Hara Robert B, Ahrens Bodo, Kuch Ulrich
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Pathogenesis ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Transmission ; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever ; Chikungunya virus - Dengue ; Chikungunya virus - Public health
Fonte: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, v. 9, n. 3, p. e0003545, 2015
ISSN: 1935-2735
Resumo: The presence of the recently introduced primary dengue virus vector mosquito Aedes aegypti in Nepal, in association with the likely indigenous secondary vector Aedes albopictus, raises public health concerns. Chikungunya fever cases have also been reported in Nepal, - the virus causing this disease is also transmitted by these mosquito species. Here we report the results of a study on the risk factors for the presence of chikungunya - dengue virus vectors, their elevational ceiling of distribution, - climatic determinants of their abundance in central Nepal. We collected immature stages of mosquitoes during six monthly cross-sectional surveys covering six administrative districts along an altitudinal transect in central Nepal that extended from Birgunj (80 m above sea level [asl]) to Dhunche (highest altitude sampled: 2,100 m asl). The dengue vectors Ae. aegypti - Ae. albopictus were commonly found up to 1,350 m asl in Kathm-u valley - were present but rarely found from 1,750 to 2,100 m asl in Dhunche. The lymphatic filariasis vector Culex quinquefasciatus was commonly found throughout the study transect. Physiographic region, month of collection, collection station - container type were significant predictors of the occurrence - co-occurrence of Ae. aegypti - Ae. albopictus. The climatic variables rainfall, temperature, - relative humidity were significant predictors of chikungunya - dengue virus vectors abundance. We conclude that chikungunya - dengue virus vectors have already established their populations up to the High Mountain region of Nepal - that this may be attributed to the environmental - climate change that has been observed over the decades in Nepal. The rapid expansion of the distribution of these important disease vectors in the High Mountain region, previously considered to be non-endemic for dengue - chikungunya fever, calls for urgent actions to protect the health of local people - tourists travelling in the central Himalayas.

364) A small antigenic determinant of the Chikungunya virus E2 protein is sufficient to induce neutralizing antibodies which are partially protective in mice.
Autor: Weber Christopher, Büchner Sarah M, Schnierle Barbara S
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Biosynthesis ; Chikungunya virus - Cell ; Chikungunya virus - Immune response ; Chikungunya virus - Pathogenesis ; Chikungunya virus - Proteins ; Chikungunya virus - Antibodies ; Chikungunya virus - Immune response ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Vaccine ; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever ; Chikungunya virus - Immunology
Fonte: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, v. 9, n. 4, p. e0003684, 2015
ISSN: 1935-2735
Resumo: The mosquito-borne Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) causes high fever - severe joint pain in humans. It is expected to spread in the future to Europe - has recently reached the USA due to globalization, climate change - vector switch. Despite this, little is known about the virus life cycle -, so far, there is no specific treatment or vaccination against Chikungunya infections. We aimed here to identify small antigenic determinants of the CHIKV E2 protein able to induce neutralizing immune responses. E2 enables attachment of the virus to target cells - a humoral immune response against E2 should protect from CHIKV infections. Seven recombinant proteins derived from E2 - consisting of linear -/or structural antigens were created, - were expressed in - purified from E. coli. BALB/c mice were vaccinated with these recombinant proteins - the mouse sera were screened for neutralizing antibodies. Whereas a linear N-terminally exposed peptide (L) - surface-exposed parts of the E2 domain A (sA) alone did not induce neutralizing antibodies, a construct containing domain B - a part of the ?-ribbon (called B+) was sufficient to induce neutralizing antibodies. Furthermore, domain sA fused to B+ (sAB+) induced the highest amount of neutralizing antibodies. Therefore, the construct sAB+ was used to generate a recombinant modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA), MVA-CHIKV-sAB+. Mice were vaccinated with MVA-CHIKV-sAB+ -/or the recombinant protein sAB+ - were subsequently challenged with wild-type CHIKV. Whereas four vaccinations with MVA-CHIKV-sAB+ were not sufficient to protect mice from a CHIKV infection, protein vaccination with sAB+ markedly reduced the viral titers of vaccinated mice. The recombinant protein sAB+ contains important structural antigens for a neutralizing antibody response in mice - its formulation with appropriate adjuvants might lead to a future CHIKV vaccine.

365) Detection of Chikungunya virus from a case of encephalitis, Bangalore, Karnataka State
Autor: Shaikh N J, Raut C G, Sinha D P, Manjunath M J
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Cytopathology ; Chikungunya virus - DNA ; Chikungunya virus - Pathogenesis ; Chikungunya virus - Proteins ; Chikungunya virus - RNA ; Chikungunya virus - Antibodies ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya virus - RT-PCR ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever
Fonte: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology, v. 33, n. 3, p. 454-455, 2015
ISSN: 1998-3646
Resumo:

366) Chikungunya virus - West Nile virus infections imported into Belgium, 2007-2012.
Autor: VAN DEN Bossche D,Cnops L,Meersman K,Domingo C,VAN Gompel A,VAN Esbroeck M
Assunto: Arboviruses; Epidemiology
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Arbovirus ; Chikungunya virus - Flaviviridae ; Chikungunya virus - Pathogenesis ; Chikungunya virus - Serology ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya virus - Real Time PCR ; Chikungunya virus - RT-PCR ; Chikungunya virus - Serology ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever ; Chikungunya virus - Epidemiology ; Chikungunya virus - Immunology
Fonte: Epidemiology & Infection, v. 143, n. 10, p. 2227-2236, 2015
ISSN: 1469-4409
Resumo: Arboviral infections are emerging among tourists travelling to (sub)tropical regions. This study aims to describe the importation of chikungunya virus (CHIKV) - West Nile virus (WNV) into Belgium over a 6-year period from 2007 to 2012. Clinical samples were obtained from travellers presenting at the outpatient clinic of the Institute of Tropical Medicine (ITM), Antwerp, Belgium or submitted to the Central Laboratory for Clinical Biology of the ITM. Testing was performed by serology -/or by real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. A total of 1288 returning travellers were investigated for CHIKV infection resulting in 34 confirmed - two probable diagnoses (2·80%). Out of 899 patients, four confirmed - one probable imported WNV infections were diagnosed (0·55%). No locally acquired cases have been registered in Belgium until now - the geographical origin of the imported infections reflects the global locations where the viruses are circulating.

367) Evaluation of Chikungunya virus infection in children from India during 2009-2010: A cross sectional observational study
Autor: Raghavendhar B Siva, Ray Pratima, Ratagiri Vinod H, Sharma B S, Kabra Sushil K, Lodha Rakesh
Assunto: Chikungunya virus; E1 gene; IgM elisa; Phylogenetic analysis; RT-PCR
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - RNA ; Chikungunya virus - Antibodies ; Chikungunya virus - PCR detection ; Chikungunya virus - RT-PCR ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever
Fonte: Journal of Medical Virology, v. 88, n. 6, p. 923-930, 2015
ISSN: 1096-9071
Resumo: Chikungunya virus, a small (about 60-70 nm diameter), spherical, enveloped, positive, single str-ed RNA virus is transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes. After a short period of incubation (3-5 days) symptoms like fever with joint pains - others start appearing. After a gap of 20 years, this virus re-emerged during 2006-2008 in India causing a major outbreak of CHIKV in India. This study was conducted subsequent to the major outbreak in order to evaluate the proportion of chikungunya virus infection in children with suggestive symptoms at three geographical locations of India. Lineage of circulating strains - changes in the E1 structural polypeptide were also determined. Blood samples were collected (in Sodium citrate vacutainer tubes) during 1st June 2009 to 31st May 2010 from children (age 0 ? 18 years) suspected to have chikungunya infection, that is, those who presented with sudden onset of fever -/or joint pain, myalgia, - headache from three regions of India, All India Institute of Medical Sciences (AIIMS) in New Delhi, Karnataka Institute of Medical Sciences (KIMS) in Hubli - Sawai Mansingh Medical College (SMS) in Jaipur. Detection of CHIKV antibodies in all acute-phase patient plasma samples was done by IgM ELISA - for samples within ?5 days of fever, a one-step RT-PCR was carried out on a block thermo-cycler targeting 294 bp region of E1 gene that codes for the viral envelope protein. Comparison of nucleotide - amino acid sequences from few positive samples of two regions was done with African S-27 reference strain using BioEdit. A phylogenetic tree was constructed using MEGA 6 by using the Maximum Likelihood method based on the Kimura 2-parameter model. Out of the 723 acute phase samples tested from three geographical locations of India, Chikungunya virus infection was detected in 249/723 (34.44%) subjects by either IgM Elisa (180/723) or RT-PCR (69/412). RT-PCR was employed in samples collected from children with ?5 days of fever. Maximum positive cases were from KIMS center, Hubli. Seasonally, positivity varied with number of enrolled cases at KIMS - SMS. Joint pain was significantly associated with CHIKV positivity (P = 0.0156). Presence/absence of certain clinical features varied with age (P < 0.05). Sequence analysis revealed four amino acid changes. Phylogenetic analysis with partial sequences of E1 gene from KIMS (n = 12) - SMS (n = 5) showed that the study isolates clustered with Indian Ocean Lineage strains (IOL) of East, Central - South African (ECSA) type. Evaluation of chikungunya virus infection in children from India during 2009-2010 showed high proportion of CHIKV infection in Southern region of India compared to Northern region. The circulating CHIKV strains were of Indian Ocean Lineage (IOL) group within the East, Central, - South African (ECSA) genotype. However few amino acid changes were observed in E1 polypeptide with reference to African strain S-27 (AF369024). Further studies are needed to know the implications of these changes in vector-pathogen compatibility - host-pathogen interactivity. As a whole, this study highlighted the proportion of CHIKV cases, lineage of causative strain - evolutionary pattern of circulating strain in terms of amino acid changes in the structural protein. J. Med. Virol. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

368) Chikungunya virus fusion properties elucidated by single-particle and bulk approaches
Autor: van Duijl-Richter Mareike K S, Blijleven Jelle S, van Oijen Antoine M, Smit Jolanda M
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Biosynthesis ; Chikungunya virus - Cell ; Chikungunya virus - Pathogenesis ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Vaccine ; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever
Fonte: The Journal of General Virology, v. 96, n. 8, p. 2122-2132, 2015
ISSN: 1465-2099
Resumo: Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a rapidly spreading, enveloped alphavirus causing fever, rash - debilitating polyarthritis. No specific treatment or vaccines are available to treat or prevent infection. For the rational design of vaccines - antiviral drugs, it is imperative to underst- the molecular mechanisms involved in CHIKV infection. A critical step in the life cycle of CHIKV is fusion of the viral membrane with a host cell membrane. Here, we elucidate this process using ensemble-averaging liposome-virus fusion studies, in which the fusion behaviour of a large virus population is measured, - a newly developed microscopy-based single-particle assay, in which the fusion kinetics of an individual particle can be visualised. The combination of these approaches allowed us to obtain detailed insight into the kinetics, lipid dependency - pH dependency of hemifusion. We found that CHIKV fusion is strictly dependent on low pH, with a threshold of pH 6.2 - optimal fusion efficiency below pH 5.6. At this pH, CHIKV fuses rapidly with target membranes, with typically half of the fusion occurring within 2 s after acidification. Cholesterol - sphingomyelin in the target membrane were found to strongly enhance the fusion process. By analysing our single-particle data using kinetic models, we were able to deduce that the number of rate-limiting steps occurring before hemifusion equals about three. To explain these data, we propose a mechanistic model in which multiple E1 fusion trimers are involved in initiating the fusion process.

369) Serotonin receptor agonist 5-nonyloxytryptamine alters the kinetics of reovirus cell entry
Autor: Mainou Bernardo A, Ashbrook Alison W, Smith Everett Clinton, Dorset Daniel C, Denison Mark R, Dermody Terence S
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Cell ; Chikungunya virus - Cytopathology ; Chikungunya virus - RNA ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Immunology
Fonte: Journal of Virology, v. 89, n. 17, p. 8701-8712, 2015
ISSN: 1098-5514
Resumo: Mammalian orthoreoviruses (reoviruses) are nonenveloped double-str-ed RNA viruses that infect most mammalian species, including humans. Reovirus binds to cell surface glycans, junctional adhesion molecule A (JAM-A), - the Nogo-1 receptor (depending on the cell type) - enters cells by receptor-mediated endocytosis. Within the endocytic compartment, reovirus undergoes stepwise disassembly, which is followed by release of the transcriptionally active viral core into the cytoplasm. In a small-molecule screen to identify host mediators of reovirus infection, we found that treatment of cells with 5-nonyloxytryptamine (5-NT), a prototype serotonin receptor agonist, diminished reovirus cytotoxicity. 5-NT also blocked reovirus infection. In contrast, treatment of cells with methiothepin mesylate, a serotonin antagonist, enhanced infection by reovirus. 5-NT did not alter cell surface expression of JAM-A or attachment of reovirus to cells. However, 5-NT altered the distribution of early endosomes with a concomitant impairment of reovirus transit to late endosomes - a delay in reovirus disassembly. Consistent with an inhibition of viral disassembly, 5-NT treatment did not alter infection by in vitro-generated infectious subvirion particles, which bind to JAM-A but bypass a requirement for proteolytic uncoating in endosomes to infect cells. We also found that treatment of cells with 5-NT decreased the infectivity of alphavirus chikungunya virus - coronavirus mouse hepatitis virus. These data suggest that serotonin receptor signaling influences cellular activities that regulate entry of diverse virus families - provides a new, potentially broad-spectrum target for antiviral drug development. Identification of well-characterized small molecules that modulate viral infection can accelerate development of antiviral therapeutics while also providing new tools to increase our underst-ing of the cellular processes that underlie virus-mediated cell injury. We conducted a small-molecule screen to identify compounds capable of inhibiting cytotoxicity caused by reovirus, a prototype double-str-ed RNA virus. We found that 5-nonyloxytryptamine (5-NT) impairs reovirus infection by altering viral transport during cell entry. Remarkably, 5-NT also inhibits infection by an alphavirus - a coronavirus. The antiviral properties of 5-NT suggest that serotonin receptor signaling is an important regulator of infection by diverse virus families - illuminate a potential new drug target.

370) Chikungunya virus susceptibility & variation in populations of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) mosquito from India
Autor: Gokhale Mangesh D, Paingankar Mandar S, Sudeep Anakathil B, Parashar Deepti
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya Virus - Virus
Fonte: The Indian Journal of Medical Research, v. 142, p. 33-43, 2015
ISSN: 0971-5916
Resumo: Although having immense clinical relevance, yet only a few studies have been targeted to underst- the chikungunya virus (CHIKV) susceptibility - growth in Aedes aegypti populations from India. This study was undertaken to investigate CHIKV susceptibility - growth kinetics in Ae. aegypti along with genetic heterogeneity of Ae. aegypti populations. Dose dependent CHIKV susceptibility - growth kinetic studies for three CHIKV strains reported from India were carried out in Ae. aegypti mosquito populations. The phenotypic variation - genetic heterogeneity in five Ae. aegypti populations were investigated using multivariate morphometrics - allozyme variation studies. The dissemination - growth kinetics studies of the three CHIKV strains showed no selective advantage for a particular strain of CHIKV in Ae. aegypti. At 100 per cent infection rate, five geographic Ae. aegypti populations showed differences in dissemination to three CHIKV strains. Morphometric studies revealed phenotypic variation in all the studied populations. The allelic frequencies, F statistics, - Nei's genetic identity values showed that genetic differences between the populations were small, but significant. The results obtained in this study suggest that genetic background of the vector strongly influences the CHIKV susceptibility in Ae. aegypti.

371) Mutations conferring a noncytotoxic phenotype on Chikungunya virus replicons compromise enzymatic properties of nonstructural protein 2
Autor: Utt Age, Das Pratyush Kumar, Varjak Margus, Lulla Valeria, Lulla Aleksei, Merits Andres
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Biochemistry ; Chikungunya virus - Biosynthesis ; Chikungunya virus - Cell ; Chikungunya virus - Genome ; Chikungunya virus - Pathogenesis ; Chikungunya virus - Protein synthesis ; Chikungunya virus - Proteins ; Chikungunya virus - RNA ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Molecular screening ; Chikungunya virus - Vaccine
Fonte: Journal of Virology, v. 89, n. 6, p. 3145-3162, 2015
ISSN: 1098-5514
Resumo: Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) (genus Alphavirus) has a positive-sense RNA genome. CHIKV nonstructural protein 2 (nsP2) proteolytically processes the viral nonstructural polyprotein, possesses nucleoside triphosphatase (NTPase), RNA triphosphatase, - RNA helicase activities, - induces cytopathic effects in vertebrate cells. Although alphaviral nsP2 mutations can result in a noncytotoxic phenotype, the effects of such mutations on nsP2 enzymatic activities are not well understood. In this study, we introduced a P718G (PG) mutation - selected for additional mutations in CHIKV nsP2 that resulted in a CHIKV replicon with a noncytotoxic phenotype in BHK-21 cells. Combinations of PG - either an E116K (EK) substitution or a GEEGS sequence insertion after residue T648 (5A) markedly reduced RNA synthesis; however, neither PG nor 5A prevented nsP2 nuclear translocation. Introducing PG into recombinant nsP2 inhibited proteolytic cleavage of nsP1/nsP2 - nsP3/nsP4 sites, reduced GTPase - RNA helicase activities, - abolished RNA stimulation of GTPase activity. 5A - EK modulated the effects of PG. However, only the RNA helicase activity of nsP2 was reduced by both of these mutations, suggesting that defects in this activity may be linked to a noncytotoxic phenotype. These results increase our underst-ing of the molecular basis for the cytotoxicity that accompanies alphaviral replication. Furthermore, adaptation of the CHIKV replicon containing both 5A - PG allowed the selection of a CHIKV replicon with adaptive mutations in nsP1 - nsP3 that enable persistence in human cell line. Such cell lines represent valuable experimental systems for discovering host factors - for screening inhibitors of CHIKV replication at lower biosafety levels. CHIKV is a medically important pathogen that causes febrile illness - can cause chronic arthritis. No approved vaccines or antivirals are available for CHIKV. The attenuation of CHIKV is critical to the establishment of experimental systems that can be used to conduct virus replication studies at a lower biosafety level. We applied a functional selection approach to develop, for the first time, a noncytotoxic CHIKV replicon capable of persisting in human cell lines. We anticipate that this safe - efficient research tool will be valuable for screening CHIKV replication inhibitors - for identifying - analyzing host factors involved in viral replication. We also analyzed, from virological - protein biochemistry perspectives, the functional defects caused by mutations conferring noncytotoxic phenotypes; we found that all known enzymatic activities of CHIKV nsP2, as well as its RNA-binding capability, were compromised by these mutations, which led to a reduced capacity for replication.

372) Antiviral activity of silymarin against Chikungunya virus
Autor: Lani Rafidah, Hassandarvish Pouya, Chiam Chun Wei, Moghaddam Ehsan, Chu Justin Jang Hann, Rausalu Kai, Merits Andres, Higgs Stephen, Vanlandingham Dana, Abu Bakar Sazaly, Zandi Keivan
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Cell ; Chikungunya virus - Proteins ; Chikungunya virus - RNA ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Vaccine ; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever
Fonte: Scientific Reports, v. 5, p. 11421, 2015
ISSN: 2045-2322
Resumo: The mosquito-borne chikungunya virus (CHIKV) causes chikungunya fever, with clinical presentations such as severe back - small joint pain, - debilitating arthritis associated with crippling pains that persist for weeks - even years. Although there are several studies to evaluate the efficacy of drugs against CHIKV, the treatment for chikungunya fever is mainly symptom-based - no effective licensed vaccine or antiviral are available. Here, we investigated the antiviral activity of three types of flavonoids against CHIKV in vitro replication. Three compounds: silymarin, quercetin - kaempferol were evaluated for their in vitro antiviral activities against CHIKV using a CHIKV replicon cell line - clinical isolate of CHIKV of Central/East African genotype. A cytopathic effect inhibition assay was used to determine their activities on CHIKV viral replication - quantitative reverse transcription PCR was used to calculate virus yield. Antiviral activity of effective compound was further investigated by evaluation of CHIKV protein expression using western blotting for CHIKV nsP1, nsP3, - E2E1 proteins. Briefly, silymarin exhibited significant antiviral activity against CHIKV, reducing both CHIKV replication efficiency - down-regulating production of viral proteins involved in replication. This study may have important consequence for broaden the chance of getting the effective antiviral for CHIKV infection.

373) Susceptibility of indigenous and transplanted mosquito spp. to dengue virus in Japan
Autor: Sasaki, Toshinori; Higa, Yukiko; Bertuso, Arlene G; Isawa, Haruhiko; Takasaki, Tomohiko; Minakawa, Noboru; Sawabe, Kyoko
Assunto: Human diseases; Infectious diseases; Interspecific relationships; Pest control; Hosts; Disease transmission; Public health; Aircraft; Dengue; Vectors; Infection; Dengue virus; Aedes aegypti; Flavivirus; Flaviviridae
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Infectious diseases ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue
Fonte: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases, v. 68, n. 5, p. 425-427, 2015.
ISSN: 1344-6304
Resumo: Dengue fever, an acute, mosquito-borne, febrile illness caused by Flavivirus spp., is a problem in Africa, South and Southeast Asia, Latin America, and the Caribbean. A dengue outbreak occurred after nearly 70 years of absence or no detection, and then 158 autochthonous cases occurred in Japan from August to October 15, 2014. The most competent mosquito vectors for dengue virus transmission were Aedes aegypti and A. albopictus. Since A. albopictus is widely distributed across Japan and A. aegypti recently invaded Japan by airplane, we examined the susceptibility of these species to infection by dengue virus.

374) Zika Virus Transmission from French Polynesia to Brazil
Autor: Musso Didier
Assunto: Ae. aegypti; Ae. africanus; Ae. hensilli; Ae. luteocephalus; Aedes spp.; Brazil; Cook Islands; Easter Island; French Polynesia; New Caledonia; Pacific Islands; Vanuatu; ZIKV; Zika virus; arbovirus; mosquito; vector-borne infections; viruses
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Arbovirus ; Aedes aegypti - virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission
Fonte: Emerging Infectious Diseases, v. 21, n. 10, p. 1887, 2015
ISSN: 1080-6059
Resumo: To date, the largest ZIKV outbreak occurred in French Polynesia during 2013-2014. The outbreak spread to other Pacific Islands: New Caledonia, Cook Islands, Easter Island, Vanuatu, and Solomon Islands (2). The origin of introduction of ZIKV to French Polynesia remains unknown; introduction of ZIKV in New Caledonia was after imported cases from French Polynesia (3); introduction to Easter Island was suspected to have occurred among attendees of the annual Tapati festival, including those from French Polynesia (4). The virus was likely transmitted to New Caledonia, Cook Islands, and Easter Island when infected travelers from French Polynesia were bitten by vectors while on the islands. Frequent travel between New Caledonia and Vanuatu is likely related to the introduction of ZIKV in the latter country.

375) Spatio-temporal distribution of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) mitochondrial lineages in cities with distinct dengue incidence rates suggests complex population dynamics of the dengue vector in Colombia
Autor: Jaimes-Dueñez Jeiczon, Arboleda Sair, Triana-Chávez Omar, Gómez-Palacio Andrés
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Biosynthesis ; Chikungunya virus - DNA ; Chikungunya virus - Flaviviridae ; Chikungunya virus - Molecular structure ; Chikungunya virus - Pathogenesis ; Chikungunya virus - Proteins ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya virus - Molecular methods ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Transmission ; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever ; Chikungunya virus - Dengue ; Chikungunya virus - Epidemiology ; Chikungunya virus - Public health
Fonte: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, v. 9, n. 4, p. e0003553, 2015
ISSN: 1935-2735
Resumo: Aedes aegypti is the primary vector of the four serotypes of dengue virus (DENV1-4), Chikungunya - yellow fever virus to humans. Previous population genetic studies have revealed a particular genetic structure among the vector populations in the Americas that suggests differences in the ability to transmit DENV. In Colombia, despite its high epidemiologic importance, the genetic population structure - the phylogeographic depiction of Ae. aegypti, as well as its relationship with the epidemiologic l-scapes in cities with heterogeneous incidence levels, remains unknown. We conducted a spatiotemporal analysis with the aim of determining the genetic structure - phylogeography of Colombian populations of Ae. aegypti among cities with different eco-epidemiologic characteristics with regard to DENV. Mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase C subunit 1 (COI)--NADH dehydrogenase subunit 4 (ND4) genes were sequenced - analyzed from 341 adult mosquitoes collected during 2012 - 2013 in the Colombian cities of Bello, Riohacha - Villavicencio, which exhibit low, medium - high levels of incidence of DENV, respectively. The results demonstrated a low genetic differentiation over time - a high genetic structure between the cities due to changes in the frequency of two highly supported genetic groups. The phylogeographic analyses indicated that one group (associated with West African populations) was found in all the cities throughout the sampling while the second group (associated with East African populations) was found in all the samples from Bello - in only one sampling from Riohacha. Environmental factors such as the use of chemical insecticides showed a significant correlation with decreasing genetic diversity, indicating that environmental factors affect the population structure of Ae. aegypti across time - space in these cities. Our results suggest that two Ae. aegypti lineages are present in Colombia; one that is widespread - related to a West African conspecific, - a second that may have been recently introduced - is related to an East African conspecific. The first lineage can be found in cities showing a high incidence of dengue fever - the use of chemical insecticides, whereas the second is present in cities showing a low incidence of dengue fever where the use of chemical insecticides is not constant. This study helps to improve our knowledge of the population structure of Ae. aegypti involved in the diversity of dengue fever epidemiology in Colombia.

376) Chikungunya virus infections among patients with dengue-like illness at a tertiary care hospital in the Philippines, 2012-2013
Autor: Velasco John Mark, Valderama Maria Theresa, Lopez Maria Nila, Chua Domingo, Latog Rene, Roque Vito, Corpuz June, Klungthong Chonticha, Rodpradit Prinyada, Hussem Kittinun, Poolpanichupatam Yongyuth, Macareo Louis, Fernandez Stefan, Yoon In-Kyu
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - RNA ; Chikungunya virus - RT-PCR ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Dengue ; Chikungunya virus - Epidemiology
Fonte: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, v. 93, n. 6, p. 1318-1324, 2015
ISSN: 1476-1645
Resumo: Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) often co-circulates with dengue virus (DENV). A cross-sectional surveillance study was conducted at a tertiary hospital in Manila, Philippines, to describe the prevalence - characteristics of DENV - CHIKV infections among patients seeking care for dengue-like illness. Acute blood samples from patients ? 6 months of age clinically diagnosed with dengue from November 2012 to December 2013 underwent reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) to detect DENV - CHIKV RNA. A total of 118 patients with clinically diagnosed dengue (age range = 1-89 years, mean = 22 years; male-to-female ratio = 1.51) were tested by DENV RT-PCR; 40 (34%) were DENV PCR-positive (age range = 1-45 years, mean = 17 years). All DENV serotypes were detected: 11 (28%) DENV-1, 6 (15%) DENV-2, 6 (15%) DENV-3, - 17 (42%) DENV-4. Of 112 patients clinically diagnosed with dengue - tested by CHIKV RT-PCR, 11 (10%) were CHIKV PCR-positive (age range = 2-47 years, mean = 20.3 years). No coinfections were detected. Presenting signs/symptoms did not differ between DENV- - CHIKV-positive cases. Sequencing of envelope 1 gene from two CHIKV PCR-positive samples showed Asian genotype. This study highlights the potential for misdiagnosis of medically attended CHIKV infections as DENV infection - the difficulty in clinically differentiating dengue - chikungunya based on presenting signs/symptoms alone. This underscores the necessity for diagnostic laboratory tests to distinguish CHIKV infections in the background of actively co-circulating DENV.

377) Chikungunya virus in the Caribbean: A threat for all of the Americas
Autor: Gutierrez-Saravia Enrique, Gutierrez Camilo E
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Infectious diseases ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus
Fonte: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society, v. 4, n. 1, p. 1-3, 2015
ISSN: 2048-7207
Resumo:

378) Congenital Chikungunya virus infection in Sincelejo, Colombia: A case series
Autor: Villamil-Gómez Wilmer, Alba-Silvera Luz, Menco-Ramos Antonio, Gonzalez-Vergara Alfonso, Molinares-Palacios Tatiana, Barrios-Corrales María, Rodríguez-Morales Alfonso J
Assunto: Chikungunya; Colombia; Arbovirus; Congenital; Epidemiology
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Arbovirus ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya virus - Serological diagnosis ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever ; Chikungunya virus - Epidemiology ; Chikungunya virus - Public health
Fonte: Journal of Tropical Pediatrics, v. 61, n. 5, p. 386-392, 2015
ISSN: 1465-3664
Resumo: Congenital chikungunya virus (CHIK) infection has been infrequently reported, even more so during the current 2013-15 outbreak in Latin America. In this study, the consequences of CHIK on pregnancy outcomes - particularly consequences in infants born to infected women were assessed in a case series from a single private institution in the north of Colombia. During September 2014 to February 2015, seven pregnant women with serological - reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction-positive test for CHIK delivered eight infants with CHIK. These newborns required admission to pediatric intensive care, - related support, owing to severe clinical manifestations, which included respiratory distress, sepsis, necrotizing enterocolitis, meningoencephalitis, myocarditis, edema, bullous dermatitis - pericarditis. There were three deaths (case fatality rate of 37.5%). Pregnant women - newborns with CHIK long term should be followed up, given the implications of chronic sequelae (e.g. chronic inflammatory rheumatism in women) as well as recently described neurocognitive impairment in infants.

379) The spread of Aedes albopictus in metropolitan France: Contribution of environmental drivers and human activities and predictions for a near future
Autor: Roche Benjamin, Léger Lucas, L'Ambert Grégory, Lacour Guillaume, Foussadier Rémi, Besnard Gilles, Barré-Cardi Hélène, Simard Frédéric, Fontenille Didier
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Arbovirus ; Chikungunya virus - Pathogenesis ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Transmission ; Chikungunya virus - Dengue ; Chikungunya virus - Public health
Fonte: PloS One, v. 10, n. 5, p. e0125600, 2015
ISSN: 1932-6203
Resumo: Invasion of new territories by insect vector species that can transmit pathogens is one of the most important threats for human health. The spread of the mosquito Aedes albopictus in Europe is emblematic, because of its major role in the emergence - transmission of arboviruses such as dengue or chikungunya. Here, we modeled the spread of this mosquito species in France through a statistical framework taking advantage of a long-term surveillance dataset going back to the first observation of Ae. albopictus in the Metropolitan area. After validating the model, we show that human activities are especially important for mosquito dispersion while l- use is a major factor for mosquito establishment. More importantly, we show that Ae. albopictus invasion is accelerating through time in this area, resulting in a geographic range extending further - further year after year. We also show that sporadic jump" of Ae. albopictus in a new location far from the colonized area did not succeed in starting a new invasion front so far. Finally, we discuss on a potential adaptation to cooler climate - the risk of invasion into Northern latitudes."

380) Control of immunopathology during chikungunya virus infection
Autor: Petitdemange Caroline, Wauquier Nadia, Vieillard Vincent
Assunto: Chikungunya virus; Immune responses; Immunotherapy; Vaccination
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Immune response ; Chikungunya virus - Pathogenesis ; Chikungunya virus - Immune response ; Chikungunya virus - Immunopathology ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Vaccine ; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever ; Chikungunya virus - Epidemic ; Chikungunya virus - Immunology ; Chikungunya virus - Public health
Fonte: The Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, v. 135, n. 4, p. 846-855, 2015
ISSN: 1097-6825
Resumo: After several decades of epidemiologic silence, chikungunya virus (CHIKV) has recently re-emerged, causing explosive outbreaks - reaching the 5 continents. Transmitted through the bite of Aedes species mosquitoes, CHIKV is responsible for an acute febrile illness accompanied by several characteristic symptoms, including cutaneous rash, myalgia, - arthralgia, with the latter sometimes persisting for months or years. Although CHIKV has previously been known as a relatively benign disease, more recent epidemic events have brought waves of increased morbidity - fatality, leading it to become a serious public health problem. The host's immune response plays a crucial role in controlling the infection, but it might also contribute to the promotion of viral spread - immunopathology. This review focuses on the immune responses to CHIKV in human subjects with an emphasis on early antiviral immune responses. We assess recent developments in the underst-ing of their possible Janus-faced effects in the control of viral infection - pathogenesis. Although preventive vaccination - specific therapies are yet to be developed, exploring this interesting model of virus-host interactions might have a strong effect on the design of novel therapeutic options to minimize immunopathology without impairing beneficial host defenses.

381) Post-Chikungunya rheumatoid arthritis, Saint Martin
Autor: Foissac Maud, Javelle Emilie, Ray Simon, Guérin Bruno, Simon Fabrice
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Pathogenesis ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever ; Chikungunya virus - Epidemiology
Fonte: Emerging Infectious Diseases, v. 21, n. 3, p. 530-532, 2015
ISSN: 1080-6059
Resumo:

382) Zika virus: A review to clinicians
Autor: Pinto Junior Vitor Laerte, Luz Kleber, Parreira Ricardo, Ferrinho Paulo
Assunto: Aedes; Arboviruses; Flavivirus; Flaviviridae Infections
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Arbovirus ; Chikungunya virus - Antibodies ; Chikungunya virus - PCR detection ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever ; Chikungunya virus - Dengue ; Chikungunya virus - Epidemic ; Chikungunya virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Acta Me?dica Portuguesa, v. 28, n. 6, p. 760-765, 2015
ISSN: 1646-0758
Resumo: Zika virus is a flavivirus related to Dengue virus, yellow fever virus - West Nile virus. It is considered an emerging arbovirus transmitted by mosquitos of the genus Aedes. Its first description took place in 1947 in the Zika Forest in Ug-a, isolated on Rhesus monkey used as bait to study the yellow fever virus. Sporadic cases have been detected in African countries - at the end of the 70's in Indonesia. In 2007, epidemics were described in Micronesia - other isl-s in the Pacific Ocean - more recently in Brazil. Clinical picture is characterized as a 'dengue-like' syndrome, with abrupt onset of fever - an early onset evanescent rash, often pruritic. Occasionally the disease has been associated with Guillain-Barré syndrome. Nevertheless, until now deaths - complications caused by the disease were not reported. The diagnosis can be performed by PCR or by IgG - IgM antibodies detection. The rapid spread of the virus - its epidemic potential are especially problematic in countries where there are the circulation of other arboviruses whichimposes difficulties in the differential diagnosis - healthcare burden. Control measures are the same recommended for dengue - chikungunya which are based in health education - vector control.

383) Molecular characterization of Chikungunya virus from three regions of Cameroon
Autor: Maurice Demanou, Alain Sadeuh-Mba Serge, Christophe Vanhecke, Rene Ndikweti, Irene Kouna Tsala, Marthe Inais Nsizoa, Richard Njouom
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya Virus - Virus
Fonte: Virologica Sinica, v. 30, n. 6, p. 470-473, 2015
ISSN: 1995-820X
Resumo:

384) Sialic acid expression in the mosquito Aedes aegypti and its possible role in dengue virus-vector interactions
Autor: Cime-Castillo Jorge,Delannoy Philippe,Mendoza-Hernández Guillermo,Monroy-Martínez Verónica,Harduin-Lepers Anne,Lanz-Mendoza Humberto,Hernández-Hernández Fidel de la Cruz,Zenteno Edgar,Cabello-Gutiérrez Carlos,Ruiz-Ordaz Blanca H
Assunto:
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Biochemistry ; Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - Flaviviridae ; Aedes aegypti - Genome ; Aedes aegypti - Pathogenesis ; Aedes aegypti - Proteins ; Aedes aegypti - virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: BioMed Research International, v. 2015, ID. 504187, 2015
ISSN: 2314-6141
Resumo: Dengue fever (DF) is the most prevalent arthropod-borne viral disease which affects humans. DF is caused by the four dengue virus (DENV) serotypes, which are transmitted to the host by the mosquito Aedes aegypti that has key roles in DENV infection, replication, and viral transmission (vector competence). Mosquito saliva also plays an important role during DENV transmission. In this study, we detected the presence of sialic acid (Sia) in Aedes aegypti tissues, which may have an important role during DENV-vector competence. We also identified genome sequences encoding enzymes involved in Sia pathways. The cDNA for Aedes aegypti CMP-Sia synthase (CSAS) was amplified, cloned, and functionally evaluated via the complementation of LEC29.Lec32 CSAS-deficient CHO cells. AedesCSAS-transfected LEC29.Lec32 cells were able to express Sia moieties on the cell surface. Sequences related to α-2,6-sialyltransferase were detected in the Aedes aegypti genome. Likewise, we identified Sia-α-2,6-DENV interactions in different mosquito tissues. In addition, we evaluated the possible role of sialylated molecules in a salivary gland extract during DENV internalization in mammalian cells. The knowledge of early DENV-host interactions could facilitate a better understanding of viral tropism and pathogenesis to allow the development of new strategies for controlling DENV transmission.

385) Pentosan Polysulfate: a Novel Glycosaminoglycan-Like Molecule for Effective Treatment of Alphavirus-Induced Cartilage Destruction and Inflammatory Disease.
Autor: Herrero Lara J,Foo Suan-Sin,Sheng Kuo-Ching,Chen Weiqiang,Forwood Mark R,Bucala Richard,Mahalingam Suresh
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Real Time PCR
Fonte: Journal of Virology, v. 89, n. 15, p. 8063-8076, 2015
ISSN: 1098-5514
Resumo: Arthritogenic alphaviruses such as Ross River virus (RRV) and chikungunya virus (CHIKV) cause large-scale epidemics of severe musculoskeletal disease and have been progressively expanding their global distribution. Since its introduction in July 2014, CHIKV now circulates in the United States. The hallmark of alphavirus disease is crippling pain and inflammation of the joints, a similar immunopathology to rheumatoid arthritis. The use of glycans as novel therapeutics is an area of research that has increased in recent years. Here, we describe the promising therapeutic potential of the glycosaminoglycan (GAG)-like molecule pentosan polysulfate (PPS) to alleviate virus-induced arthritis. Mouse models of RRV and CHIKV disease were used to characterize the extent of cartilage damage in infection and investigate the potential of PPS to treat disease. This was assessed using histological analysis, real-time PCR, and fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS). Alphaviral infection resulted in cartilage destruction, the severity of which was alleviated by PPS therapy during RRV and CHIKV clinical disease. The reduction in cartilage damage corresponded with a significant reduction in immune infiltrates. Using multiplex bead arrays, PPS treatment was found to have significantly increased the anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-10 and reduced proinflammatory cytokines, typically correlated with disease severity. Furthermore, we reveal that the severe RRV-induced joint pathology, including thinning of articular cartilage and loss of proteoglycans in the cartilage matrix, was diminished with treatment. PPS is a promising new therapy for alphavirus-induced arthritis, acting to preserve the cartilage matrix, which is damaged during alphavirus infection. Overall, the data demonstrate the potential of glycotherapeutics as a new class of treatment for infectious arthritis. The hallmark of alphavirus disease is crippling pain and joint arthritis, which often has an extended duration. In the past year, CHIKV has expanded into the Americas, with approximately 1 million cases reported to date, whereas RRV continues to circulate in the South Pacific. Currently, there is no licensed specific treatment for alphavirus disease, and the increasing spread of infection highlights an urgent need for therapeutic intervention strategies. Pentosan polysulfate (PPS) is a glycan derivative that is orally bioavailable, has few toxic side effects, and is currently licensed under the name Elmiron for the treatment of cystitis in the United States. Our findings show that RRV infection damages the articular cartilage, including a loss of proteoglycans within the joint. Furthermore, treatment with PPS reduced the severity of both RRV- and CHIKV-induced musculoskeletal disease, including a reduction in inflammation and joint swelling, suggesting that PPS is a promising candidate for drug repurposing for the treatment of alphavirus-induced arthritis.

386) The Efficacy of Some Commercially Available Insect Repellents for Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) and Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae)
Autor: Rodriguez Stacy D,Drake Lisa L,Price David P,Hammond John I,Hansen Immo A
Assunto: Aedes; Asian tiger mosquito; DEET; Repellents; Yellow fever mosquito
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - virus ; Aedes aegypti - Repellent
Fonte: Journal of Insect Science (Online), v. 15, n. 1, p. 140, 2015
ISSN: 1536-2442
Resumo: Reducing the number of host-vector interactions is an effective way to reduce the spread of vector-borne diseases. Repellents are widely used to protect humans from a variety of protozoans, viruses, and nematodes. DEET (N,N-Diethyl-meta-toluamide), a safe and effective repellent, was developed during World War II. Fear of possible side effects of DEET has created a large market for natural" DEET-free repellents with a variety of active ingredients. We present a comparative study on the efficacy of eight commercially available products, two fragrances, and a vitamin B patch. The products were tested using a human hand as attractant in a Y-tube olfactometer setup with Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus) and Aedes albopictus (Skuse), both major human disease vectors. We found that Ae. albopictus were generally less attracted to the test subject's hand compared with Ae, aegypti. Repellents with DEET as active ingredient had a prominent repellency effect over longer times and on both species. Repellents containing p-menthane-3,8-diol produced comparable results but for shorter time periods. Some of the DEET-free products containing citronella or geraniol did not have any significant repellency effect. Interestingly, the perfume we tested had a modest repellency effect early after application, and the vitamin B patch had no effect on either species. This study shows that the different active ingredients in commercially available mosquito repellent products are not equivalent in terms of duration and strength of repellency. Our results suggest that products containing DEET or p-menthane-3,8-diol have long-lasting repellent effects and therefore provide good protection from mosquito-borne diseases."

387) Discovery of novel peptidomimetics as irreversible CHIKV nsP2 protease inhibitors using quantum mechanical-based ligand descriptors
Autor: El-Labbad Eman M, Ismail Mohammed A H, Abou Ei Ella Dalal A, Ahmed Marawan, Wang Feng, Barakat Khaled H, Abouzid Khaled A M
Assunto: Chikungunya virus; Admet; Atomic condensed Fukui functions; Covalent docking; Lowest unoccupied molecular orbital energies; Peptidomimetics
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Cell ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Molecular screening ; Chikungunya virus - Vaccine ; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever
Fonte: Chemical Biology & Drug Design, v. 86, n. 6, p. 1518-1527, 2015
ISSN: 1747-0285
Resumo: Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a mosquito-borne alphavirus. Recent outbreaks of CHIKV infections have been reported in Asia, Africa, - Europe. The symptoms of CHIKV infection include fever, headache, nausea, vomiting, myalgia, rash, - chronic persistent arthralgia. To date, no vaccines or selective antiviral drugs against this important emerging virus have been reported. In this study, the design, synthesis, - antiviral activity screening of new topographical peptidomimetics revealed three potential prototype agents 3a, 4b, - 5d showing 93-100% maximum inhibition of CHIKV replication in cell-based assay having EC90 of 8.76-9.57 ?g/mL. Intensive molecular modeling studies including covalent docking, lowest unoccupied molecular orbital energies, - the atomic condensed Fukui functions calculations strongly suggested the covalent binding of peptidomimetics 3a, 4b, - 5d to CHIKV nsP2 protease leading to permanent enzyme inactivation via Michael adduct formation between ?/?-unsaturated ketone functionality in our designed peptidomimetics - active site catalytic cysteine1013. Furthermore, small molecular weight peptidomimetics 3a - 4b satisfied the Lipinski rule of five for drug-likeness - showed promising intestinal absorption - aqueous solubility via computational admet studies making them promising hits for further optimization.

388) The hub protein loquacious connects the microRNA and short interfering RNA pathways in mosquitoes
Autor: Haac Mary Etna, Anderson Michelle A E, Eggleston Heather, Myles Kevin M, Adelman Zach N
Assunto:
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Arbovirus ; Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - Pathogenesis ; Aedes aegypti - Proteins ; Aedes aegypti - RNA ; Aedes aegypti - virus ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue
Fonte: Nucleic Acids Research, v. 43, n. 7, p. 3688-3700, 2015
ISSN: 1362-4962
Resumo: Aedes aegypti mosquitoes vector several arboviruses of global health significance, including dengue viruses and chikungunya virus. RNA interference (RNAi) plays an important role in antiviral immunity, gene regulation and protection from transposable elements. Double-stranded RNA binding proteins (dsRBPs) are important for efficient RNAi; in Drosophila functional specialization of the miRNA, endo-siRNA and exo-siRNA pathway is aided by the dsRBPs Loquacious (Loqs-PB, Loqs-PD) and R2D2, respectively. However, this functional specialization has not been investigated in other dipterans. We were unable to detect Loqs-PD in Ae. aegypti; analysis of other dipteran genomes demonstrated that this isoform is not conserved outside of Drosophila. Overexpression experiments and small RNA sequencing following depletion of each dsRBP revealed that R2D2 and Loqs-PA cooperate non-redundantly in siRNA production, and that these proteins exhibit an inhibitory effect on miRNA levels. Conversely, Loqs-PB alone interacted with mosquito dicer-1 and was essential for full miRNA production. Mosquito Loqs interacted with both argonaute 1 and 2 in a manner independent of its interactions with dicer. We conclude that the functional specialization of Loqs-PD in Drosophila is a recently derived trait, and that in other dipterans, including the medically important mosquitoes, Loqs-PA participates in both the miRNA and endo-siRNA based pathways.

389) Pentosan polysulfate: A novel glycosaminoglycan-like molecule for effective treatment of alphavirus-induced cartilage destruction and inflammatory disease
Autor: Herrero Lara J, Foo Suan-Sin, Sheng Kuo-Ching, Chen Weiqiang, Forwood Mark R, Bucala Richard, Mahalingam Suresh
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Cell ; Chikungunya virus - Cytopathology ; Chikungunya virus - Pathogenesis ; Chikungunya virus - Cytokines ; Chikungunya virus - Immunopathology ; Chikungunya virus - Infectious diseases ; Chikungunya virus - Inflammation ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya virus - Real Time PCR ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever ; Chikungunya virus - Epidemic ; Chikungunya virus - Immunology
Fonte: Journal of Virology, v. 89, n. 15, p. 8063-8076, 2015
ISSN: 1098-5514
Resumo: Arthritogenic alphaviruses such as Ross River virus (RRV) - chikungunya virus (CHIKV) cause large-scale epidemics of severe musculoskeletal disease - have been progressively exp-ing their global distribution. Since its introduction in July 2014, CHIKV now circulates in the United States. The hallmark of alphavirus disease is crippling pain - inflammation of the joints, a similar immunopathology to rheumatoid arthritis. The use of glycans as novel therapeutics is an area of research that has increased in recent years. Here, we describe the promising therapeutic potential of the glycosaminoglycan (GAG)-like molecule pentosan polysulfate (PPS) to alleviate virus-induced arthritis. Mouse models of RRV - CHIKV disease were used to characterize the extent of cartilage damage in infection - investigate the potential of PPS to treat disease. This was assessed using histological analysis, real-time PCR, - fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS). Alphaviral infection resulted in cartilage destruction, the severity of which was alleviated by PPS therapy during RRV - CHIKV clinical disease. The reduction in cartilage damage corresponded with a significant reduction in immune infiltrates. Using multiplex bead arrays, PPS treatment was found to have significantly increased the anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-10 - reduced proinflammatory cytokines, typically correlated with disease severity. Furthermore, we reveal that the severe RRV-induced joint pathology, including thinning of articular cartilage - loss of proteoglycans in the cartilage matrix, was diminished with treatment. PPS is a promising new therapy for alphavirus-induced arthritis, acting to preserve the cartilage matrix, which is damaged during alphavirus infection. Overall, the data demonstrate the potential of glycotherapeutics as a new class of treatment for infectious arthritis. The hallmark of alphavirus disease is crippling pain - joint arthritis, which often has an extended duration. In the past year, CHIKV has exp-ed into the Americas, with approximately 1 million cases reported to date, whereas RRV continues to circulate in the South Pacific. Currently, there is no licensed specific treatment for alphavirus disease, - the increasing spread of infection highlights an urgent need for therapeutic intervention strategies. Pentosan polysulfate (PPS) is a glycan derivative that is orally bioavailable, has few toxic side effects, - is currently licensed under the name Elmiron for the treatment of cystitis in the United States. Our findings show that RRV infection damages the articular cartilage, including a loss of proteoglycans within the joint. Furthermore, treatment with PPS reduced the severity of both RRV- - CHIKV-induced musculoskeletal disease, including a reduction in inflammation - joint swelling, suggesting that PPS is a promising c-idate for drug repurposing for the treatment of alphavirus-induced arthritis.

390) Chikungunya virus infection: First detection of imported and autochthonous cases in Panama
Autor: Díaz Yamilka, Carrera Jean-Paul, Cerezo Lizbeth, Arauz Dimelza, Guerra Ilka, Cisneros Julio, Armién Blas, Botello Ana Margarita, Araúz Ana Belén, Gonzalez Vladimir, López Yamileth, Moreno Lourdes, López-Vergès Sandra, Moreno Brechla A
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Pathogenesis ; Chikungunya virus - RNA ; Chikungunya virus - Infectious diseases ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Transmission ; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever ; Chikungunya virus - Epidemiology
Fonte: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, v. 92, n. 3, p. 482-485, 2015
ISSN: 1476-1645
Resumo: Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a mosquito-borne pathogen that was only endemic in Africa - south Asia until 2005 - 2006, when the virus spread into the Indian Ocean isl-s, Europe, - Asia. Autochthonous CHIKV transmission in the Caribbean isl-s was reported in December of 2013. In Panama, two febrile cases were detected in May of 2014: one traveling from Haiti, - the other traveling from the Dominican Republic. After other imported cases were detected, the first autochthonous case was reported in August of the same year. We detected CHIKV viral RNA - isolated the virus from serum samples. The phylogenetic analysis of the two imported isolates - one autochthonous CHIKV isolate indicated that the viruses belong to the Asian lineage in the Caribbean clade - are related to viruses recently identified in Saint Martin isl-, British Virgin Isl-s, China, - the Philippines. Although the circulating CHIKV lineages in the Americas have not yet been described, our results suggest that the Asian lineage is circulating in most American countries reporting autochthonous infection.

391) In silico analysis of MHC-I restricted epitopes of Chikungunya virus proteins: Implication in underst-ing anti-CHIKV CD8(+) T cell response and advancement of epitope based immunotherapy for CHIKV infection
Autor: Pratheek B M, Suryawanshi Amol R, Chattopadhyay Soma, Chattopadhyay Subhasis
Assunto: Chikungunya virus; H2-Db; H2-Dd; HLA-I; MHC-I epitope
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Cell ; Chikungunya virus - Genome ; Chikungunya virus - Immune response ; Chikungunya virus - Molecular structure ; Chikungunya virus - Pathogenesis ; Chikungunya virus - Proteins ; Chikungunya virus - Immune response ; Chikungunya virus - T lymphocytes ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya virus - Molecular methods ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever ; Chikungunya virus - Epidemic ; Chikungunya virus - Immunology ; Chikungunya virus - Public health
Fonte: Infection, Genetics and Evolution, v. 31, p. 118-126, 2015
ISSN: 1567-7257
Resumo: Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a mosquito-borne Alphavirus, responsible for acute febrile infection. The high morbidity - socio-economic loss associated with the recent CHIKV epidemics worldwide have raised a great public health concern - emphasize the need to study the immunological basis of CHIKV infection to control the disease. MHC-I restricted CD8(+) T cell response represent one of the major anti-viral immune responses. Accordingly, it is essential to have a detailed underst-ing towards CHIKV specific MHC-I restricted immunogenic epitopes for anti-viral CD8(+) CTL immunogenicity. In the present study, a computational approach was used to predict the conserved MHC-I epitopes for mouse haplotypes (H2-Db - H2-Dd) - some alleles of the major HLA-I supertypes (HLA-A2, -A3, -A24, -B7, -B15) of all CHIKV proteins. Further, an in-depth computational analysis was carried out to validate the selected epitopes for their nature of conservation in different global CHIKV isolates to assess their binding affinities to the appropriate site of respective MHC-I molecules - to predict anti-CHIKV CD8(+) CTL immunogenicity. Our analyses resulted in fifteen highly conserved epitopes for H2-Db - H2-Dd - fifty epitopes for different HLA-I supertypes. Out of these, the MHC-I epitopes VLLPNVHTL - MTPERVTRL were found to have highest predictable CTL immunogenicities - least binding energies for H2-Db - H2-Dd, whereas, for HLA-I, the epitope FLTLFVNTL was with the highest population coverage, CTL immunogenicity - least binding energy. Hence, our study has identified MHC-I restricted epitopes that may help in the advancement of MHC-I restricted epitope based anti-CHIKV immune responses against this infection - this will be useful towards the development of epitope based anti-CHIKV immunotherapy in the future. However, further experimental investigations for cross validation - evaluation are warranted to establish the ability of epitopes to induce CD8(+) T cell mediated immune responses.

392) Anti-chikungunya activity of luteolin and apigenin rich fraction from Cynodon dactylon
Autor: Murali Krishnan Saravana, Sivasubramanian Srinivasan, Vincent Savariar, Murugan Shanmugaraj Bala, Giridaran Bupesh, Dinesh Sundaram, Gunasekaran Palani, Krishnasamy Kaveri, Sathishkumar Ramalingam
Assunto: Antiviral activity; Apigenin; Chikungunya virus; Cynodon dactylon; Flavonoids; Luteolin
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Cell ; Chikungunya virus - RT-PCR ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus
Fonte: Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine, v. 8, n. 5, p. 352-358, 2015
ISSN: 1995-7645
Resumo: To obtain luteolin - apigenin rich fraction from the ethanolic extract of Cynodon dactylon (L.) (C. dactylon) Pers - evaluate the fraction's cytotoxicity - anti-Chikungunya potential using Vero cells. The ethanolic extract of C. dactylon was subjected to silica gel column chromatography to obtain anti-chikungunya virus (CHIKV) fraction. Reverse phase-HPLC - GC-MS studies were carried out to identify the major phytochemicals in the fraction using phytochemical st-ards. Cytotoxicity - the potential of the fraction against CHIKV were evaluated in vitro using Vero cells. Reduction in viral replication was assessed by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) after treating the viral infected Vero cells with the fraction. Reverse Phase-HPLC - GC-MS studies confirmed the presence of flavonoids, luteolin - apigenin as major phytochemicals in the anti-CHIKV ethanolic fraction of C. dactylon. The fraction was found to exhibit potent viral inhibitory activity (about 98%) at the concentration of 50 µg/mL as observed by reduction in cytopathic effect, - the cytotoxic concentration of the fraction was found to be 250 µg/mL. RT-PCR analyses indicated that the reduction in viral mRNA synthesis in fraction treated infected cells was much higher than the viral infected control cells. Luteolin - apigenin rich ethanolic fraction from C. dactylon can be utilized as a potential therapeutic agent against CHIKV infection as the fraction does not show cytotoxicity while inhibiting the virus.

393) The olfactory nerve: A shortcut for influenza and other viral diseases into the central nervous system
Autor: van Riel Debby, Verdijk Rob, Kuiken Thijs
Assunto: CNS; H5N1; Cell-to-cell transmission; Influenza; Olfactory nerve; Olfactory receptor neuron; Virus
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Biochemistry ; Chikungunya virus - Cell ; Chikungunya virus - Cytopathology ; Chikungunya virus - Immune response ; Chikungunya virus - Pathogenesis ; Chikungunya virus - Immune response ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya virus - Molecular methods ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Molecular screening ; Chikungunya virus - Transmission ; Chikungunya virus - Public health
Fonte: The Journal of Pathology, v. 235, n. 2, p. 277-287, 2015
ISSN: 1096-9896
Resumo: The olfactory nerve consists mainly of olfactory receptor neurons - directly connects the nasal cavity with the central nervous system (CNS). Each olfactory receptor neuron projects a dendrite into the nasal cavity on the apical side, - on the basal side extends its axon through the cribriform plate into the olfactory bulb of the brain. Viruses that can use the olfactory nerve as a shortcut into the CNS include influenza A virus, herpesviruses, poliovirus, paramyxoviruses, vesicular stomatitis virus, rabies virus, parainfluenza virus, adenoviruses, Japanese encephalitis virus, West Nile virus, chikungunya virus, La Crosse virus, mouse hepatitis virus, - bunyaviruses. However, mechanisms of transport via the olfactory nerve - subsequent spread through the CNS are poorly understood. Proposed mechanisms are either infection of olfactory receptor neurons themselves or diffusion through channels formed by olfactory ensheathing cells. Subsequent virus spread through the CNS could occur by multiple mechanisms, including trans-synaptic transport - microfusion. Viral infection of the CNS can lead to damage from infection of nerve cells per se, from the immune response, or from a combination of both. Clinical consequences range from nervous dysfunction in the absence of histopathological changes to severe meningoencephalitis - neurodegenerative disease.

394) A potent neutralizing IgM mAb targeting the N218 epitope on E2 protein protects against Chikungunya virus pathogenesis
Autor: Lam Shirley, Nyo Min, Phuektes Patchara, Yew Chow Wenn, Tan Yee Joo, Chu Justin Jang Hann
Assunto: Envelope 2 protein; Epitope; Monoclonal antibody; Virus pathogenesis
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Cell ; Chikungunya virus - Pathogenesis ; Chikungunya virus - RNA ; Chikungunya virus - Antibodies ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Vaccine ; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever
Fonte: mAbs, v. 7, n. 6, p. 1178-1194, 2015
ISSN: 1942-0870
Resumo: Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a medically important human viral pathogen that causes Chikungunya fever accompanied with debilitating - persistent joint pain. Host-elicited or passively-transferred monoclonal antibodies (mAb) are essential mediators of CHIKV clearance. Therefore, this study aimed to generate - characterize a panel of mAbs for their neutralization efficacy against CHIKV infection in a cell-based - murine model. To evaluate their antigenicity - neutralization profile, indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), an immunofluorescence assay (IFA) - a plaque reduction neutralization test were performed on mAbs of IgM isotype. CHIKV escape mutants against mAb 3E7b neutralization were generated, - reverse genetics techniques were then used to create an infectious CHIKV clone with a single mutation. 3E7b was also administered to neonate mice prior or after CHIKV infection. The survival rate, CHIKV burden in tissues - histopathology of the limb muscles were evaluated. Both IgM 3E7b - 8A2c bind strongly to native CHIKV surface - potently neutralize CHIKV replication. Further analyses of 3E7b binding - neutralization of CHIKV single-mutant clones revealed that N218 of CHIKV E2 protein is a potent neutralizing epitope. In a pre-binding neutralization assay, 3E7b blocks CHIKV attachment to permissive cells, possibly by binding to the surface-accessible E2-N218 residue. Prophylactic administration of 3E7b to neonate mice markedly reduced viremia - protected against CHIKV pathogenesis in various mice tissues. Given therapeutically at 4 h post-infection, 3E7b conferred 100% survival rate - similarly reduced CHIKV load in most mice tissues except the limb muscles. Collectively, these findings highlight the usefulness of 3E7b for future prophylactic or epitope-based vaccine design.

395) The influence of diet on the use of near-infrared spectroscopy to determine the age of female Aedes aegypti mosquitoes
Autor: Liebman, Kelly; Swamidoss, Isabel; Vizcaino, Lucrecia; Lenhart, Audrey; Dowell, Floyd; Wirtz, Robert
Assunto: Diets; Feeding experiments; Vaccines; Age determination; Hygiene; Larval development; Aquatic insects; Disease transmission; Public health; Sugar; Age composition; Age; Vector-borne diseases; Vectors; Models; Blood; I.R. spectroscopy; Dengue; Thorax; Infants; Aedes aegypti
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Vaccine ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, v. 92, n. 5, p. 1070-1075, 2015.
ISSN: 0002-9637
Resumo: Interventions targeting adult mosquitoes are used to combat transmission of vector-borne diseases, including dengue. Without available vaccines, targeting the primary vector, Aedes aegypti, is essential to prevent transmission. Older mosquitoes (> or = 7 days) are of greatest epidemiological significance due to the 7-day extrinsic incubation period of the virus. Age-grading of female mosquitoes is necessary to identify post-intervention changes in mosquito population age structure. We developed models using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) to age-grade adult female Ae. aegypti. To determine if diet affects the ability of NIRS models to predict age, two identical larval groups were fed either fish food or Infant cereal. Adult females were separated and fed sugar water + or - blood, resulting in four experimental groups. Females were killed 1, 4, 7, 10, 13, or 16 days postemergence. The head/thorax of each mosquito was scanned using a near-infrared spectrometer. Scans from each group were analyzed, and multiple models were developed using partial least squares regression. The best model included all experimental groups, and positively predicted the age group ( or = 7 days) of 90.2% mosquitoes. These results suggest both larval and adult diets can affect the ability of NIRS models to accurately assign age categories to female Ae. aegypti.

396) Global emergence of Alphaviruses that cause arthritis in humans
Autor: Lwande Olivia Wesula, Obanda Vincent, Bucht Göran, Mosomtai Gladys, Otieno Viola, Ahlm Clas, Evander Magnus
Assunto: Mayaro; O'nyong'nyong; Ross River; Sindbis; Arthritis; Chikungunya
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Arbovirus ; Chikungunya virus - Infectious diseases ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Transmission ; Chikungunya virus - Dengue
Fonte: Infection Ecology & Epidemiology, v. 5, p. 29853, 2015
ISSN: 2000-8686
Resumo: Arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) may cause severe emerging - re-emerging infectious diseases, which pose a significant threat to human - animal health in the world today. These infectious diseases range from mild febrile illnesses, arthritis, - encephalitis to haemorrhagic fevers. It is postulated that certain environmental factors, vector competence, - host susceptibility have a major impact on the ecology of arboviral diseases. Presently, there is a great interest in the emergence of Alphaviruses because these viruses, including Chikungunya virus, O'nyong'nyong virus, Sindbis virus, Ross River virus, - Mayaro virus, have caused outbreaks in Africa, Asia, Australia, Europe, - America. Some of these viruses are more common in the tropics, whereas others are also found in temperate regions, but the actual factors driving Alphavirus emergence - re-emergence remain unresolved. Furthermore, little is known about the transmission dynamics, pathophysiology, genetic diversity, - evolution of circulating viral strains. In addition, the clinical presentation of Alphaviruses may be similar to other diseases such as dengue, malaria, - typhoid, hence leading to misdiagnosis. However, the typical presence of arthritis may distinguish between Alphaviruses - other differential diagnoses. The absence of validated diagnostic kits for Alphaviruses makes even routine surveillance less feasible. For that purpose, this review describes the occurrence, genetic diversity, clinical characteristics, - the mechanisms involving Alphaviruses causing arthritis in humans. This information may serve as a basis for better awareness - detection of Alphavirus-caused diseases during outbreaks - in establishing appropriate prevention - control measures.

397) A survey of the 2014 dengue fever epidemic in Guangzhou, China
Autor: Yang, Liu; Chen, Yue; Yan, Huacheng; Zhang, Pei; Xu, Xiaoli; Tang, Boheng; Zhao, Ping; Ren, Ruiwen
Assunto: Clinical picture; Dengue virus; Diagnostics; Phylogenetic analysis
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Immunology ; Aedes aegypti - PCR detection ; Aedes aegypti - Real Time PCR
Fonte: Emerging Microbes & Infections, v. 4, n. 57, 2015
ISSN: 2222-1751
Resumo: In 2014, a serious dengue outbreak in Guangzhou occurred, consisting of 37 354 laboratory confirmed cases of infection. In this study, the clinical picture of dengue fever due to dengue virus (DENV) type 1 in Guangzhou was described. Clinical and laboratory data collected by studying 726 sera of suspected clinical cases from hospitals and 328 sera of healthy persons from two residence communities were analyzed during the outbreak, and 484 patients were diagnosed with an acute dengue infection. Fever, headache, congestion of the throat, and myalgia were the most typical symptoms in DENV-infected patients. Thrombocytopenia, leukopenia, and an increase in liver enzymes were significantly more common in the infected patients than in the healthy controls. Fourteen cases of silent infection were discovered among the 328 healthy persons, suggesting a DENV inapparent infection rate of 4.27% among healthy individuals. The data obtained by analyzing 212 positive sera with three methods indicated different results with different detection methods. DENV RNA should be used for early diagnoses during days 1-6 after symptom onset, immunoglobulin M (IgM) can be easily recognized after four days have passed since symptom onset and DENV isolation has a peak positive rate during days 1-3 after the onset of symptoms. A phylogenetic analysis of viral NS1 gene sequences from this outbreak indicated that the predominant isolates could be categorized as DENV-1 genotype III and had the highest homology with the India genotypes from 2009 to 2011. However, this analysis also revealed a co-epidemic of the 2013 Zhongshan and 2003 Singapore genotypes, both belonging to DENV-1 genotype I, which suggested multiple geographic origins for the 2014 epidemic of dengue 1 strains in Guangzhou.

398) Chikungunya virus non-structural protein 2-mediated host shut-off disables the unfolded protein response
Autor: Fros Jelke J, Major Lee D, Scholte Florine E M, Gardner Joy, van Hemert Martijn J, Suhrbier Andreas, Pijlman Gorben P
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Biosynthesis ; Chikungunya virus - Cell ; Chikungunya virus - Cytopathology ; Chikungunya virus - DNA ; Chikungunya virus - Pathogenesis ; Chikungunya virus - Protein synthesis ; Chikungunya virus - Proteins ; Chikungunya virus - RNA ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Molecular screening ; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever ; Chikungunya virus - Immunology
Fonte: The Journal of General Virology, v. 96, Pt 3, p. 580-589, 2015
ISSN: 1465-2099
Resumo: The unfolded protein response (UPR) is a cellular defence mechanism against high concentrations of misfolded protein in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). In the presence of misfolded proteins, ER-transmembrane proteins PERK - IRE1? become activated. PERK phosphorylates eIF2? leading to a general inhibition of cellular translation, whilst the expression of transcription factor ATF4 is upregulated. Active IRE1? splices out an intron from XBP1 mRNA, to produce a potent transcription factor. Activation of the UPR increases the production of several proteins involved in protein folding, degradation - apoptosis. Here, we demonstrated that transient expression of chikungunya virus (CHIKV) (family Togaviridae, genus Alphavirus) envelope glycoproteins induced the UPR - that CHIKV infection resulted in the phosphorylation of eIF2? - partial splicing of XBP1 mRNA. However, infection with CHIKV did not increase the expression of ATF4 - known UPR target genes (GRP78/BiP, GRP94 - CHOP). Moreover, nuclear XBP1 was not observed during CHIKV infection. Even upon stimulation with tunicamycin, the UPR was efficiently inhibited in CHIKV-infected cells. Individual expression of CHIKV non-structural proteins (nsPs) revealed that nsP2 alone was sufficient to inhibit the UPR. Mutations that rendered nsP2 unable to cause host-cell shut-off prevented nsP2-mediated inhibition of the UPR. This indicates that initial UPR induction takes place in the ER but that expression of functional UPR transcription factors - target genes is efficiently inhibited by CHIKV nsP2.

399) Zika virus outbreaks in the Americas.
Autor:
Assunto:
Descritores: Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Pathogenesis ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Epidemiology ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Releve? É?pide?miologique Hebdomadaire, v. 90, n. 45, p. 609-610, 2015
ISSN: 0049-8114
Resumo:

400) Zika virus infection, philippines, 2012
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Alera M.T., Hermann L., Tac-An I.A., Klungthong C., Rutvisuttinunt W., Manasatienkij W., Villa D., Thaisomboonsuk B., Velasco J.M., Chinnawirotpisan P., Lago C.B., Roque V.G., Macareo L.R., Srikiatkhachorn A., Fernandez S., Yoon I.-K.
Assunto: Flaviviridae infection, Flavivirus, Zika virus, Zika virus infection
Descritores: Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Phylogenesis ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Serology ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Emerging Infectious Diseases, v. 21, n. 4, p. 722-724, 2015
ISSN: 1080-6059 (electronic),1080-6040
Resumo:

401) Public health response to Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus mosquitoes invading California, USA
Autor: Porse Charsey Cole, Kramer Vicki, Yoshimizu Melissa Hardstone, Metzger Marco, Hu Renjie, Padgett Kerry, Vugia Duc J
Assunto: Aedes aegypti; Aedes albopictus; California; Invasive Aedes mosquitoes; Chikungunya fever; Chikungunya virus; Control; Dengue; Dengue virus; Education; Mosquitoes; Public health response; Surveillance; Vectors; Viruses
Descritores: Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Transmission ; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever ; Chikungunya virus - Dengue ; Chikungunya virus - Public health
Fonte: Emerging Infectious Diseases, v. 21, n. 10, p. 1827-1829, 2015
ISSN: 1080-6059
Resumo: Aedes aegypti - Ae. albopictus mosquitoes, primary vectors of dengue - chikungunya viruses, were recently detected in California, USA. The threat of potential local transmission of these viruses increases as more infected travelers arrive from affected areas. Public health response has included enhanced human - mosquito surveillance, education, - intensive mosquito control.

402) Correction: Molecular characterisation of Chikungunya virus infections in trinidad and comparison of clinical and laboratory features with Dengue and other acute febrile cases
Autor: Sahadeo Nikita, Mohammed Hamish, Allicock Orchid M, Auguste Albert J, Widen Steven G, Badal Kimberly, Pulchan Krishna, Foster Jerome E, Weaver Scott C, Carrington Christine V F
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Dengue
Fonte: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, v. 9, n. 12, p. e0004305, 2015
ISSN: 1935-2735
Resumo:

403) Chikungunya virus infections
Autor: Simon Fabrice, Javelle Emilie, Gasque Philippe
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Public health ; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever
Fonte: The New England Journal of Medicine, v. 373, n. 1, p. 93-94, 2015
ISSN: 1533-4406
Resumo:

404) BST2/tetherin inhibition of alphavirus exit
Autor: Ooi Yaw Shin, Dubé Mathieu, Kielian Margaret
Assunto: Alphavirus; Tetherin/BST2; Virus budding; Rubella virus; Dengue virus
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Biosynthesis ; Chikungunya virus - Cell ; Chikungunya virus - Pathogenesis ; Chikungunya virus - Proteins ; Chikungunya virus - RNA ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Dengue ; Chikungunya virus - Immunology
Fonte: Viruses, v. 7, n. 4, p. 2147-2167, 2015
ISSN: 1999-4915
Resumo: Alphaviruses such as chikungunya virus (CHIKV) - Semliki Forest virus (SFV) are small enveloped RNA viruses that bud from the plasma membrane. Tetherin/BST2 is an interferon-induced host membrane protein that inhibits the release of many enveloped viruses via direct tethering of budded particles to the cell surface. Alphaviruses have highly organized structures - exclude host membrane proteins from the site of budding, suggesting that their release might be insensitive to tetherin inhibition. Here, we demonstrated that exogenously-expressed tetherin efficiently inhibited the release of SFV - CHIKV particles from host cells without affecting virus entry - infection. Alphavirus release was also inhibited by the endogenous levels of tetherin in HeLa cells. While rubella virus (RuV) - dengue virus (DENV) have structural similarities to alphaviruses, tetherin inhibited the release of RuV but not DENV. We found that two recently identified tetherin isoforms differing in length at the N-terminus exhibited distinct capabilities in restricting alphavirus release. SFV exit was efficiently inhibited by the long isoform but not the short isoform of tetherin, while both isoforms inhibited vesicular stomatitis virus exit. Thus, in spite of the organized structure of the virus particle, tetherin specifically blocks alphavirus release - shows an interesting isoform requirement.

405) Lymphadenopathy in patients with Chikungunya virus infection imported from Hispaniola: Case reports
Autor: Norman Francesca F, Monge-Maillo Begoña, Perez-Molina Jose-Antonio, de Ory Fernando, Franco Leticia, Sánchez-Seco María-Paz, López-Vélez Rogelio
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Infectious diseases ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever
Fonte: Journal of Travel Medicine, v. 22, n. 4, p. 272-275, 2015
ISSN: 1708-8305
Resumo: Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is currently spreading in the Caribbean - America. Lymphadenopathy, described in infections with other alphaviruses, is not commonly reported in CHIKV infections. Painful lymphadenopathy was found in three of the first six CHIKV infections from the current outbreak diagnosed at a reference center in Madrid, Spain.

406) Correction: Native Wolbachia from Aedes albopictus blocks Chikungunya virus infection in cellulo
Autor: Raquin Vincent, Valiente Moro Claire, Saucereau Yoann, Tran Florence-Hélène, Potier Patrick, Mavingui Patrick
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya Virus - Virus
Fonte: PloS One, v. 10, n. 7, p. e0134069, 2015
ISSN: 1932-6203
Resumo:

407) The phosphatidylserine and phosphatidylethanolamine receptor CD300a binds Dengue virus and enhances infection
Autor: Carnec Xavier, Meertens Laurent, Dejarnac Ophélie, Perera-Lecoin Manuel, Hafirassou Mohamed Lamine, Kitaura Jiro, Ramdasi Rasika, Schwartz Olivier, Amara Ali
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Cell ; Chikungunya virus - Proteins ; Chikungunya virus - Antibodies ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Dengue
Fonte: Journal of Virology, v. 90, n. 1, p. 92-102, 2015
ISSN: 1098-5514
Resumo: Dengue virus (DENV) is the etiological agent of the major human arboviral disease. We previously demonstrated that the TIM - TAM families of phosphatidylserine (PtdSer) receptors involved in the phagocytosis of apoptotic cells mediate DENV entry into target cells. We show here that human CD300a, a recently identified phospholipid receptor, also binds directly DENV particles - enhances viral entry. CD300a facilitates infection of the four DENV serotypes, as well as of other mosquito-borne viruses such as West Nile virus - Chikungunya virus. CD300a acts as an attachment factor that enhances DENV internalization through clathrin-mediated endocytosis. CD300a recognizes predominantly phosphatidylethanolamine (PtdEth) - to a lesser extent PtdSer associated with viral particles. Mutation of residues in the IgV domain critical for phospholipid binding abrogate CD300a-mediated enhancement of DENV infection. Finally, we show that CD300a is expressed at the surface of primary macrophages - anti-CD300a polyclonal antibodies partially inhibited DENV infection of these cells. Overall, these data indicate that CD300a is a novel DENV binding receptor that recognizes PtdEth - PtdSer present on virions - enhance infection. Dengue disease, caused by dengue virus (DENV), has emerged as the most important mosquito-borne viral disease of humans - is a major global health concern. The molecular bases of DENV-host cell interactions during virus entry are poorly understood, hampering the discovery of new targets for antiviral intervention. We recently discovered that the TIM - TAM proteins, two receptor families involved in the phosphatidylserine (PtdSer)-dependent phagocytic removal of apoptotic cells, interact with DENV particles-associated PtdSer through a mechanism that mimics the recognition of apoptotic cells - mediate DENV infection. In this study, we show that CD300a, a novel identified phospholipid receptor, mediates DENV infection. CD300a-dependent DENV infection relies on the direct recognition of phosphatidylethanolamine - to a lesser extent PtdSer associated with viral particles. This study provides novel insights into the mechanisms that mediate DENV entry - reinforce the concept that DENV uses an apoptotic mimicry strategy for viral entry.

408) An outbreak of chikungunya in rural Bangladesh, 2011
Autor: Khatun Selina, Chakraborty Apurba, Rahman Mahmudur, Nasreen Banu Nuzhat, Rahman Mohammad Mostafizur, Hasan S M Murshid, Luby Stephen P, Gurley Emily S
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Pathogenesis ; Chikungunya virus - Antibodies ; Chikungunya virus - Infectious diseases ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Transmission ; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever ; Chikungunya virus - Epidemiology ; Chikungunya virus - Public health
Fonte: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, v. 9, n. 7, 2015
ISSN: 1935-2735
Resumo: The first identified Chikungunya outbreak occurred in Bangladesh in 2008. In late October 2011, a local health official from Dohar Sub-district, Dhaka District, reported an outbreak of undiagnosed fever - joint pain. We investigated the outbreak to confirm the etiology, describe the clinical presentation, - identify associated vectors. During November 2-21, 2011, we conducted house-to-house surveys to identify suspected cases, defined as any inhabitant of Char Kushai village with fever followed by joint pain in the extremities with onset since August 15, 2011. We collected blood specimens - clinical histories from self-selected suspected cases using a structured questionnaire. Blood samples were tested for IgM antibodies against Chikungunya virus. The village was divided into nine segments - we collected mosquito larvae from water containers in seven r-omly selected houses in each segment. We calculated the Breteau index for the village - identified the mosquito species. The attack rate was 29% (1105/3840) - 29% of households surveyed had at least one suspected case: 15% had ?3. The attack rate was 38% (606/1589) in adult women - 25% in adult men (320/1287). Among the 1105 suspected case-patients, 245 self-selected for testing - 80% of those (196/245) had IgM antibodies. In addition to fever - joint pain, 76% (148/196) of confirmed cases had rash - 38%(75/196) had long-lasting joint pain. The village Breteau index was 35 per 100 - 89%(449/504) of hatched mosquitoes were Aedes albopictus. The evidence suggests that this outbreak was due to Chikungunya. The high attack rate suggests that the infection was new to this area, - the increased risk among adult women suggests that risk of transmission may have been higher around households. Chikungunya is an emerging infection in Bangladesh - current surveillance - prevention strategies are insufficient to mount an effective public health response.

409) Stress granule components G3BP1 and G3BP2 play a proviral role early in Chikungunya virus replication
Autor: Scholte Florine E M, Tas Ali, Albulescu Irina C, ?usinaite Eva, Merits Andres, Snijder Eric J, van Hemert Martijn J
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Biosynthesis ; Chikungunya virus - Cell ; Chikungunya virus - DNA ; Chikungunya virus - Genome ; Chikungunya virus - Pathogenesis ; Chikungunya virus - Protein synthesis ; Chikungunya virus - Proteins ; Chikungunya virus - RNA ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya virus - Real Time PCR ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Vaccine ; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever
Fonte: Journal of Virology, v. 89, n. 8, p. 4457-4469, 2015
ISSN: 1098-5514
Resumo: Stress granules (SGs) are protein-mRNA aggregates that are formed in response to environmental stresses, resulting in translational inhibition. SGs are generally believed to play an antiviral role - are manipulated by many viruses, including various alphaviruses. GTPase-activating protein (SH3 domain)-binding protein 1 (G3BP1) is a key component - commonly used marker of SGs. Its homolog G3BP2 is a less extensively studied SG component. Here, we demonstrate that Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) infection induces cytoplasmic G3BP1- - G3BP2-containing granules that differ from bona fide SGs in terms of morphology, composition, - behavior. For several Old World alphaviruses it has been shown that nonstructural protein 3 (nsP3) interacts with G3BPs, presumably to inhibit SG formation, - we have confirmed this interaction in CHIKV-infected cells. Surprisingly, CHIKV also relied on G3BPs for efficient replication, as simultaneous depletion of G3BP1 - G3BP2 reduced viral RNA levels, CHIKV protein expression, - viral progeny titers. The G3BPs colocalized with CHIKV nsP2 - nsP3 in cytoplasmic foci, but no colocalization with nsP1, nsP4, or dsRNA was observed. Furthermore, G3BPs could not be detected in a cellular fraction enriched for CHIKV replication/transcription complexes, suggesting that they are not directly involved in CHIKV RNA synthesis. Depletion of G3BPs did not affect viral entry, translation of incoming genomes, or nonstructural polyprotein processing but resulted in severely reduced levels of negative-str-ed (- consequently also positive-str-ed) RNA. This suggests a role for the G3BPs in the switch from translation to genome amplification, although the exact mechanism by which they act remains to be explored. Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) causes a severe polyarthritis that has affected millions of people since its reemergence in 2004. The lack of approved vaccines or therapeutic options - the ongoing explosive outbreak in the Caribbean underline the importance of better underst-ing CHIKV replication. Stress granules (SGs) are cytoplasmic protein-mRNA aggregates formed in response to various stresses, including viral infection. The RNA-binding proteins G3BP1 - G3BP2 are essential SG components. SG formation - the resulting translational inhibition are generally considered an antiviral response, - many viruses manipulate or block this process. Late in infection, we - others have observed CHIKV nonstructural protein 3 in cytoplasmic G3BP1- - G3BP2-containing granules. These virally induced foci differed from true SGs - did not appear to represent replication complexes. Surprisingly, we found that G3BP1 - G3BP2 were also needed for efficient CHIKV replication, likely by facilitating the switch from translation to genome amplification early in infection.

410) Zika virus infection and dengue: A new problem in diagnosis in a dengue-endemic area
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Joob B., Wiwanitkit V.
Assunto: dengue (diagnosis), endemic disease, virus infection (diagnosis), zika virus infection (diagnosis)
Descritores: Zika virus - Serology ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Public health
Fonte: Annals of Tropical Medicine and Public Health, v. 8, n. 4, p. 145-146, jul. 2015
ISSN: 0974-6005 (electronic),1755-6783
Resumo:

411) Chikungunya: bmerging threat to the United States
Autor: Stamm Lola V
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Pathogenesis ; Chikungunya virus - Infectious diseases ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Transmission ; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever ; Chikungunya virus - Epidemiology ; Chikungunya virus - Public health
Fonte: JAMA Dermatology, v. 151, n. 3, p. 257-258, 2015
ISSN: 2168-6084
Resumo:

412) Small mosquitoes, large implications: crowding and starvation affects gene expression and nutrient accumulation in Aedes aegypti
Autor: Price David P,Schilkey Faye D,Ulanov Alexander,Hansen Immo A
Assunto: Aedes aegypti; Fat body; RNAseq; Nutrition; Transcriptome; Metabolome; Immunity; Starvation
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Biochemistry ; Aedes aegypti - Genome ; Aedes aegypti - Pathogenesis ; Aedes aegypti - RNA ; Aedes aegypti - Molecular methods
Fonte: Parasites & Vectors, v. 8, p. 252, 2015
ISSN: 1756-3305
Resumo: Environmental factors such as temperature, nutrient availability, and larval density determine the outcome of postembryonic development in mosquitoes. Suboptimal temperatures, crowding, and starvation during the larval phase reduce adult mosquito size, nutrient stores and affect vectorial capacity. In this study we compared adult female Aedes aegypti, Rockefeller strain, raised under standard laboratory conditions (Large) with those raised under crowded and nutritionally deprived conditions (Small). To compare the gene expression and nutritional state of the major energy storage and metabolic organ, the fat body, we performed transcriptomics using Illumina based RNA-seq and metabolomics using GC/MS on females before and 24 hours following blood feeding. Analysis of fat body gene expression between the experimental groups revealed a large number of significantly differentially expressed genes. Transcripts related to immunity, reproduction, autophagy, several metabolic pathways; including amino acid degradation and metabolism; and membrane transport were differentially expressed. Metabolite profiling identified 60 metabolites within the fat body to be significantly affected between small and large mosquitoes, with the majority of detected free amino acids at a higher level in small mosquitoes compared to large. Gene expression and metabolites in the adult fat body reflect the individual post-embryonic developmental history of a mosquito larva. These changes affect nutritional storage and utilization, immunity, and reproduction. Therefore, it is apparent that changes in larval environment due to weather conditions, nutrition availability, vector control efforts, and other factors can affect adult vectorial capacity in the field.

413) The chikungunya epidemic: A look at five cases
Autor: Shiferaw Bethel, Lam Paul, Tuthill Summer, Choudhry Hira, Syed Sarah, Ahmed Shadab, Yasmin Tabassum
Assunto: Americas; Chikungunya; Endemic; Epidemic; Local transmission
Descritores: Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Transmission ; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever ; Chikungunya virus - Epidemic
Fonte: IDCases, v. 2, n. 4, p. 89-91, 2015
ISSN: 2214-2509
Resumo: Chikungunya is an infection caused by the Chikungunya virus - transmitted by the bite of infected mosquito. The most common symptoms of Chikungunya virus infection are fever, joint pain or rash. Chikungunya virus outbreaks had been identified in countries in Africa, Asia, Europe, - the Indian - Pacific Oceans. In late 2013, the first local transmission of Chikungunya virus in the Americas was identified in Caribbean countries - territories. Chikungunya virus disease became a nationally notifiable condition in 2015. There is a threat that Chikungunya will continue to spread to new areas in the Americas. We describe 5 patients who presented to our hospital with Chikungunya infection, shortly after returning from endemic areas. Fever - travel history to endemic areas were documented in all of our cases. Skin rash, arthralgia - contact history were also reported by these patients. Persons with suspected Chikungunya infection should be counseled to avoid mosquito bites during illness to decrease the risk of local transmission. The transmitting mosquitos are present in the US, - limiting the viral spread is essential. In this report, we describe the clinical presentation, risk factors - laboratory tests of each patient, - attempt to ensure awareness on the risk of potential spread of the disease.

414) Relationship between insecticide resistance and kdr mutations in the dengue vector Aedes aegypti in Southern China
Autor: Li Chun-Xiao,Kaufman Phillip E,Xue Rui-De,Zhao Ming-Hui,Wang Gang,Yan Ting,Guo Xiao-Xia,Zhang Ying-Mei,Dong Yan-De,Xing Dan,Zhang Heng-Duan,Zhao Tong-Yan
Assunto: Aedes aegypti; Kdr mutation; China
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - DNA ; Aedes aegypti - Pathogenesis ; Aedes aegypti - Proteins ; Aedes aegypti - RNA ; Aedes aegypti - Viral infections ; Aedes aegypti - PCR detection ; Aedes aegypti - virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Epidemiology ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Parasites & Vectors, v. 8, p. 325, 2015
ISSN: 1756-3305
Resumo: Aedes aegypti is an important vector for dengue virus and thus has been targeted with pyrethroid insecticides in many areas of the world. As such, resistance has been detected to several of these insecticides, including in China, but the mechanisms of the resistance are not well understood in this country. Using the World Health Organization larval mosquito bioassay, five field populations of Aedes aegypti from Southern China were characterized for their resistance to cypermethrin and cyhalothrin. RNA extraction with PCR amplification, cloning and sequencing of the sodium channel gene was followed by comparisons of susceptible and wild mosquito strains Additionally, genomic DNA was used for Allele-specific PCR (AS-PCR) genotyping of the sodium channel genes to detect S989P, V1016G and F1534C mutations and allow for correlation analysis of resistance expression for the different mutations. All wild strains expressed resistance to cypermethrin and cyhalothrin and the resistance expression between the two insecticides was highly correlated suggesting cross-resistance between these two pyrethroids. The AS-PCR technique effectively distinguished individual genotypes for all three mutations. Among the five wild strains tested, two strains carried all three mutations. Although the S989P and V1016G mutations were positively correlated to resistance expression of both pyrethroids, the F1534C mutation was negatively correlated. Our methodology proved highly reliable and will aid future detection of kdr mutations. The three sodium channel mutations were common in the Ae. aegypti strains sampled from Southern China. The V1016G mutation appears to be the most important kdr mutation in Ae. aegypti strains in Southern China.

415) Sialic acid expression in the mosquito Aedes aegypti and its possible role in dengue virus-vector interactions
Autor: Cime-Castillo, Jorge; Delannoy, Philippe; Mendoza-Hernandez, Guillermo; Monroy-Martinez, Veronica; Harduin-Lepers, Anne; Lanz-Mendoza, Humberto; Hernandez-Hernandez, Fidel de la Cruz; Zenteno, Edgar; Cabello-Gutierrez, Carlos; Ruiz-Ordaz, Blanca H.
Assunto: Mosquitoes; Dengue fever; West Nile virus; Vector competence; Proteins; Pathogenesis; Infections; Biomedical research
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Viral infections ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue
Fonte: BioMed Research International, v. 2015, 2015.
ISSN: 2314-6133
Resumo: Dengue fever (DF) is the most prevalent arthropod-borne viral disease which affects humans. DF is caused by the four dengue virus (DENV) serotypes, which are transmitted to the host by the mosquito Aedes aegypti that has key roles in DENV infection, replication, and viral transmission (vector competence). Mosquito saliva also plays an important role during DENV transmission. In this study, we detected the presence of sialic acid (Sia) in Aedes aegypti tissues, which may have an important role during DENV-vector competence. We also identified genome sequences encoding enzymes involved in Sia pathways. The cDNA for Aedes aegypti CMP-Sia synthase (CSAS) was amplified, cloned, and functionally evaluated via the complementation of LEC29.Lec32 CSAS-deficient CHO cells. Aedes CSAS-transfected LEC29.Lec32 cells were able to express Sia moieties on the cell surface. Sequences related to alpha -2,6-sialyltransferase were detected in the Aedes aegypti genome. Likewise, we identified Sia- alpha -2,6-DENV interactions in different mosquito tissues. In addition, we evaluated the possible role of sialylated molecules in a salivary gland extract during DENV internalization in mammalian cells. The knowledge of early DENV-host interactions could facilitate a better understanding of viral tropism and pathogenesis to allow the development of new strategies for controlling DENV transmission.

416) Standard operating procedures for standardized mass rearing of the dengue and chikungunya vectors Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) - II - Egg storage and hatching
Autor: Zheng Min-Lin,Zhang Dong-Jing,Damiens David D,Lees Rosemary Susan,Gilles Jeremie R L
Assunto: Bacterial broth; Boiled water; Hatch rate; Egg storage; Mass rearing; Mosquito production; Aedes; Dengue; Chikungunya
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - Flaviviridae ; Aedes aegypti - Pathogenesis ; Aedes aegypti - Viral infections ; Aedes aegypti - virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Chikungunya Fever ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Parasites & Vectors, v. 8, p. 348, 2015
ISSN: 1756-3305
Resumo: Management of large quantities of eggs will be a crucial aspect of the efficient and sustainable mass production of mosquitoes for programmes with a Sterile Insect Technique component. The efficiency of different hatching media and effectiveness of long term storage methods are presented here. The effect on hatch rate of storage duration and three hatching media was analysed: deionized water, boiled deionized water and a bacterial broth, using Two-way ANOVA and Post hoc Tukey tests, and the Pearson correlation coefficient was used to find the effect on the proportion of collapsed eggs. Two long term storage methods were also tested: conventional storage (egg paper strips stored in zip lock bags within a sealed plastic box), and water storage (egg papers in a covered plastic cup with deionized water). Regression analyses were used to find the effect of water storage and storage duration on hatch rate. Both species hatched most efficiently in bacterial broth. Few eggs hatched in deionized water, and pre-boiling the water increased the hatch rate of Ae. aegypti, but not Ae. albopictus. A hatch rate greater than 80% was obtained after 10 weeks of conventional storage in Ae. aegypti and 11 weeks in Ae. albopictus. After this period, hatching decreased dramatically; no eggs hatched after 24 weeks. Storing eggs in water produced an 85% hatch rate after 5 months in both species. A small but significant proportion of eggs hatched in the water, probably due to combined effects of natural deoxygenation of the water over time and the natural instalment hatching typical of the species. The demonstrated efficiency of the bacterial broth hatching medium for both Ae. albopictus and Ae. aegypti facilitates mass production of these two important vector species in the same facility, with use of a common hatching medium reducing cost and operational complexity. Similarly the increased hatch rate of eggs stored in water would allow greater flexibility of egg management in a large programme over the medium term, particularly if oxygenation of the water by bubbling oxygen through the storage tray could be applied to prevent hatching during storage.

417) High rate of subclinical Chikungunya virus infection and association of neutralizing antibody with protection in a prospective cohort in the Philippines
Autor: Yoon In-Kyu, Alera Maria Theresa, Lago Catherine B, Tac-An Ilya A, Villa Daisy, Fernandez Stefan, Thaisomboonsuk Butsaya, Klungthong Chonticha, Levy Jens W, Velasco John Mark, Roque Vito G, Salje Henrik, Macareo Louis R, Hermann Laura L, Nisalak Ananda, Srikiatkhachorn Anon
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Arbovirus ; Chikungunya virus - Molecular structure ; Chikungunya virus - Pathogenesis ; Chikungunya virus - Proteins ; Chikungunya virus - RNA ; Chikungunya virus - Antibodies ; Chikungunya virus - Infectious diseases ; Chikungunya virus - Serology ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya virus - Serology ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Transmission ; Chikungunya virus - Vaccine ; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever ; Chikungunya virus - Epidemiology ; Chikungunya virus - Immunology ; Chikungunya virus - Public health
Fonte: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, v. 9, n. 5, p. e0003764, 2015
ISSN: 1935-2735
Resumo: Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a globally re-emerging arbovirus for which previous studies have indicated the majority of infections result in symptomatic febrile illness. We sought to characterize the proportion of subclinical - symptomatic CHIKV infections in a prospective cohort study in a country with known CHIKV circulation. A prospective longitudinal cohort of subjects ?6 months old underwent community-based active surveillance for acute febrile illness in Cebu City, Philippines from 2012-13. Subjects with fever history were clinically evaluated at acute, 2, 5, - 8 day visits, - at a 3-week convalescent visit. Blood was collected at the acute - 3-week convalescent visits. Symptomatic CHIKV infections were identified by positive CHIKV PCR in acute blood samples -/or CHIKV IgM/IgG ELISA seroconversion in paired acute/convalescent samples. Enrollment - 12-month blood samples underwent plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT) using CHIKV attenuated strain 181/clone25. Subclinical CHIKV infections were identified by ?8-fold rise from a baseline enrollment PRNT titer <10 without symptomatic infection detected during the intervening surveillance period. Selected CHIKV PCR-positive samples underwent viral isolation - envelope protein-1 gene sequencing. Of 853 subjects who completed all study procedures at 12 months, 19 symptomatic infections (2.19 per 100 person-years) - 87 subclinical infections (10.03 per 100 person-years) occurred. The ratio of subclinical-to-symptomatic infections was 4.6:1 varying with age from 2:1 in 6 month-5 year olds to 12:1 in those >50 years old. Baseline CHIKV PRNT titer ?10 was associated with 100% (95%CI: 46.1, 100.0) protection from symptomatic CHIKV infection. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated Asian genotype closely related to strains from Asia - the Caribbean. Subclinical infections accounted for a majority of total CHIKV infections. A positive baseline CHIKV PRNT titer was associated with protection from symptomatic CHIKV infection. These findings have implications for assessing disease burden, underst-ing virus transmission, - supporting vaccine development.

418) Complete genome sequences of chikungunya virus strains isolated in Mexico: First detection of imported and autochthonous cases
Autor: Díaz-Quiñonez José Alberto, Ortiz-Alcántara Joanna, Fragoso-Fonseca David Esaú, Garcés-Ayala Fabiola, Escobar-Escamilla Noé, Vázquez-Pichardo Mauricio, Núñez-León Alma, Torres-Rodríguez María de la Luz, Torres-Longoria Belem, López-Martínez Irma, Ruíz-Matus Cuitláhuac, Kuri-Morales Pablo, Ramírez-González José Ernesto
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Genome ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Epidemic
Fonte: Genome Announcements, v. 3, n. 3, 2015
ISSN: 2169-8287
Resumo: The mosquito-borne chikungunya virus, an alphavirus of the Togaviridae family, is responsible for acute polyarthralgia epidemics. Here, we report the complete genome sequences of two chikungunya virus strains, InDRE04 - InDRE51, identified in the Mexican states of Jalisco - Chiapas in 2014. Phylogenetic analysis showed that both strains belong to the Asian genotype.

419) Zika virus infection in a traveller returning to Europe from Brazil, March 2015
Autor: Zammarchi L, Tappe D, Fortuna C, Remoli M E, Günther S, Venturi G, Bartoloni A, Schmidt-Chanasit J
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Arbovirus ; Chikungunya virus - Flaviviridae ; Chikungunya virus - Pathogenesis ; Chikungunya virus - Proteins ; Chikungunya virus - RNA ; Chikungunya virus - Antibodies ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya virus - RT-PCR ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever ; Chikungunya virus - Dengue ; Chikungunya virus - Immunology ; Chikungunya virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Euro Surveillance, v. 20, n. 23, 2015
ISSN: 1560-7917
Resumo: We report a case of laboratory-confirmed Zika virus infection imported into Europe from the Americas. The patient developed fever, rash, - oedema of h-s - feet after returning to Italy from Brazil in late March 2015. The case highlights that, together with chikungunya virus - dengue virus, three major arboviruses are now co-circulating in Brazil. These arboviruses represent a burden for the healthcare systems in Brazil - other countries where competent mosquito vectors are present.

420) Viral exanthems
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Keighley C.L., Saunderson R.B., Kok J., Dwyer D.E.
Assunto: rash (diagnosis, etiology), viral exanthem (diagnosis, etiology), viral skin disease (diagnosis, etiology)
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Serology ; Zika virus - Viral infections ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Epidemic
Fonte: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases, v. 28, n. 2, p. 139-150, apr. 2015
ISSN: 1473-6527 (electronic),0951-7375
Resumo: Purpose of review Determining the viral cause of a rash presents significant diagnostic challenges. We review contemporary literature on viral exanthems and suggest a structured approach to aid diagnosis. Recent findings Strains responsible for, and the clinical presentation of, enteroviral infections have diverged from classic descriptions. The causative relationship between antibiotic administration and rash in Epstein-Barr virus infection has been recently questioned. Major measles virus outbreaks have recently occurred in Europe and the USA. The largest Ebola virus outbreak in West Africa has resulted in importation of the virus to other countries and secondary local transmission. Autochthonous transmission of Chikungunya virus has occurred in nonendemic areas, including Europe, the Caribbean and Americas. Zika virus has re-emerged in the Pacific with local transmission from imported cases. Climate change, global warming and spillover of zoonotic viruses are contributing to the emergence and spread of viral diseases. Summary Important clues to the diagnosis of viral exanthems include their distribution and morphology, geographic location and potential exposure to vector-borne or blood-borne viruses. Diagnosis is commonly made via serology, nucleic acid tests or, rarely, viral culture. Skin biopsy is not usually required. In general, viral exanthems are self-limiting and treatment is supportive.

421) The Hidden Burden of Dengue and Chikungunya in Chennai, India
Autor: Rodríguez-Barraquer Isabel, Solomon Sunil S, Kuganantham Periaswamy, Srikrishnan Aylur Kailasom, Vasudevan Canjeevaram K, Iqbal Syed H, Balakrishnan Pachamuthu, Solomon Suniti, Mehta Shruti H, Cummings Derek A T
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Transmission ; Chikungunya virus - Dengue ; Chikungunya virus - Epidemic
Fonte: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, v. 9, n. 7, p. e0003906, 2015
ISSN: 1935-2735
Resumo: Dengue - chikungunya are rapidly exp-ing viruses transmitted by mosquitoes of the genus Aedes. Few epidemiological studies have examined the extent of transmission of these infections in South India despite an increase in the number of reported cases, - a high suitability for transmission. We conducted a household-based seroprevalence survey among 1010 individuals aged 5-40 years living in fifty r-omly selected spatial locations in Chennai, Tamil Nadu. Participants were asked to provide a venous blood sample - to complete a brief questionnaire with basic demographic - daily activity information. Previous exposure to dengue - chikungunya was determined using IgG indirect ELISA (Panbio) - IgG ELISA (Novatec), respectively. We used this data to estimate key transmission parameters (force of infection - basic reproductive number) - to explore factors associated with seropositivity. While only 1% of participants reported history of dengue - 20% of chikungunya, we found that 93% (95%CI 89-95%) of participants were seropositive to dengue virus, - 44% (95%CI 37-50%) to chikungunya. Age-specific seroprevalence was consistent with long-tem, endemic circulation of dengue - suggestive of epidemic chikungunya transmission. Seropositivity to dengue - chikungunya were significantly correlated, even after adjusting for individual - household factors. We estimate that 23% of the susceptible population gets infected by dengue each year, corresponding to approximately 228,000 infections. This transmission intensity is significantly higher than that estimated in known hyperendemic settings in Southeast Asia - the Americas. These results provide unprecedented insight into the very high transmission potential of dengue - chikungunya in Chennai - underscore the need for enhanced surveillance - control methods.

422) Zika Virus in an American Recreational Traveler
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Summers D.J., Acosta R.W., Acosta A.M.
Assunto: Flavivirus, Flavivirus infection (diagnosis), travel, Zika virus, Zika virus infection (diagnosis)
Descritores: Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Clinical examination ; Zika virus - Vaccine ; Zika virus - Chikungunya Fever ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Rash maculopapular ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Journal of Travel Medicine, v. 22, n. 5, p. 338-340, sept. 2015
ISSN: 1708-8305 (electronic),1195-1982
Resumo: We report the case of a 48-year-old American traveler who presented to our clinic with diffuse rash, malaise, fatigue, fever, arthralgia, low back pain, and bilateral exudative conjunctivitis. The patient had an extensive vaccination and travel history: most notable for prior receipt of yellow fever vaccine; extensive travel or residence in areas endemic for dengue, chikungunya, and West Nile virus; and recent travel to French Polynesia. Clinical and laboratory findings were consistent with Zika virus (ZIKV) infection. Our report highlights the need to include ZIKV in the differential diagnosis, especially in febrile patients with a rash returning from endemic areas.

423) Seroprevalence of infections with Dengue, Rift Valley Fever and Chikungunya viruses in Kenya, 2007
Autor: Ochieng Caroline, Ahenda Petronella, Vittor Amy Y, Nyoka Raymond, Gikunju Stella, Wachira Cyrus, Waiboci Lilian, Umuro Mamo, Kim Andrea A, Nderitu Leonard, Juma Bonventure, Montgomery Joel M, Breiman Robert F, Fields Barry
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Arbovirus ; Chikungunya virus - Antibodies ; Chikungunya virus - Infectious diseases ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Transmission ; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever ; Chikungunya virus - Dengue ; Chikungunya virus - Epidemic ; Chikungunya virus - Public health
Fonte: PloS One, v. 10, n. 7, p. e0132645, 2015
ISSN: 1932-6203
Resumo: Arthropod-borne viruses are a major constituent of emerging infectious diseases worldwide, but limited data are available on the prevalence, distribution, - risk factors for transmission in Kenya - East Africa. In this study, we used 1,091 HIV-negative blood specimens from the 2007 Kenya AIDS Indicator Survey (KAIS 2007) to test for the presence of IgG antibodies to dengue virus (DENV), chikungunya virus (CHIKV) - Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV).The KAIS 2007 was a national population-based survey conducted by the Government of Kenya to provide comprehensive information needed to address the HIV/AIDS epidemic. Antibody testing for arboviruses was performed on stored blood specimens from KAIS 2007 through a two-step s-wich IgG ELISA using either commercially available kits or CDC-developed assays. Out of the 1,091 samples tested, 210 (19.2%) were positive for IgG antibodies against at least one of the three arboviruses. DENV was the most common of the three viruses tested (12.5% positive), followed by RVFV - CHIKV (4.5% - 0.97%, respectively). For DENV - RVFV, the participant's province of residence was significantly associated (P?.01) with seropositivity. Seroprevalence of DENV - RVFV increased with age, while there was no correlation between province of residence/age - seropositivity for CHIKV. Females had twelve times higher odds of exposure to CHIK as opposed to DENV - RVFV where both males - females had the same odds of exposure. Lack of education was significantly associated with a higher odds of previous infection with either DENV or RVFV (p <0.01). These data show that a number of people are at risk of arbovirus infections depending on their geographic location in Kenya - transmission of these pathogens is greater than previously appreciated. This poses a public health risk, especially for DENV.

424) Broadly neutralizing alphavirus antibodies bind an epitope on E2 and inhibit entry and egress
Autor: Fox Julie M, Long Feng, Edeling Melissa A, Lin Hueylie, van Duijl-Richter Mareike K S, Fong Rachel H, Kahle Kristen M, Smit Jol-a M, Jin Jing, Simmons Graham, Doranz Benjamin J, Crowe James E, Fremont Daved H, Rossmann Michael G, Diamond Michael S
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Cell ; Chikungunya virus - Cytopathology ; Chikungunya virus - Molecular structure ; Chikungunya virus - Proteins ; Chikungunya virus - Antibodies ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Vaccine ; Chikungunya virus - Immunology
Fonte: Cell, v. 163, n. 5, p. 1095-1107, 2015
ISSN: 1097-4172
Resumo: We screened a panel of mouse - human monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against chikungunya virus - identified several with inhibitory activity against multiple alphaviruses. Passive transfer of broadly neutralizing MAbs protected mice against infection by chikungunya, Mayaro, - O'nyong'nyong alphaviruses. Using alanine-scanning mutagenesis, loss-of-function recombinant proteins - viruses, - multiple functional assays, we determined that broadly neutralizing MAbs block multiple steps in the viral lifecycle, including entry - egress, - bind to a conserved epitope on the B domain of the E2 glycoprotein. A 16 Å resolution cryo-electron microscopy structure of a Fab fragment bound to CHIKV E2 B domain provided an explanation for its neutralizing activity. Binding to the B domain was associated with repositioning of the A domain of E2 that enabled cross-linking of neighboring spikes. Our results suggest that B domain antigenic determinants could be targeted for vaccine or antibody therapeutic development against multiple alphaviruses of global concern.

425) The hub protein loquacious connects the microRNA and short interfering RNA pathways in mosquitoes
Autor: Haac Mary Etna, Anderson Michelle A E, Eggleston Heather, Myles Kevin M, Adelman Zach N
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Arbovirus ; Chikungunya virus - Biosynthesis ; Chikungunya virus - Cell ; Chikungunya virus - Pathogenesis ; Chikungunya virus - Proteins ; Chikungunya virus - RNA ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Dengue
Fonte: Nucleic Acids Research, v. 43, n. 7, p. 3688-3700, 2015
ISSN: 1362-4962
Resumo: Aedes aegypti mosquitoes vector several arboviruses of global health significance, including dengue viruses - chikungunya virus. RNA interference (RNAi) plays an important role in antiviral immunity, gene regulation - protection from transposable elements. Double-str-ed RNA binding proteins (dsRBPs) are important for efficient RNAi; in Drosophila functional specialization of the miRNA, endo-siRNA - exo-siRNA pathway is aided by the dsRBPs Loquacious (Loqs-PB, Loqs-PD) - R2D2, respectively. However, this functional specialization has not been investigated in other dipterans. We were unable to detect Loqs-PD in Ae. aegypti; analysis of other dipteran genomes demonstrated that this isoform is not conserved outside of Drosophila. Overexpression experiments - small RNA sequencing following depletion of each dsRBP revealed that R2D2 - Loqs-PA cooperate non-redundantly in siRNA production, - that these proteins exhibit an inhibitory effect on miRNA levels. Conversely, Loqs-PB alone interacted with mosquito dicer-1 - was essential for full miRNA production. Mosquito Loqs interacted with both argonaute 1 - 2 in a manner independent of its interactions with dicer. We conclude that the functional specialization of Loqs-PD in Drosophila is a recently derived trait, - that in other dipterans, including the medically important mosquitoes, Loqs-PA participates in both the miRNA - endo-siRNA based pathways.

426) ZIKA VIRUS INFECTION IN AUSTRALIA FOLLOWING A MONKEY BITE IN INDONESIA
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Leung G.H., Baird R.W., Druce J., Anstey N.M.
Assunto: genetics, transmission, virology
Descritores: Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: The Southeast Asian journal of tropical medicine and public health, v. 46, n. 3, p. 460-464, may 2015
ISSN: 0125-1562
Resumo: A traveller returning to Australia developed Zika virus infection, with fever, rash and conjunctivitis, with onset five days after a monkey bite in Bali, Indonesia. Flavivirus RNA detected on PCR from a nasopharyngeal swab was sequenced and identified as Zika virus. Although mosquito-borne transmission is also possible, we propose the bite as a plausible route of transmission. The literature for non-vector transmissions of Zika virus and other flaviviruses is reviewed.

427) Advances in the understanding, management, and prevention of dengue
Autor: Hermann, Laura L.; Gupta, Swati B.; Manoff, Susan B.; Kalayanarooj, Siripen; Gibbons, Robert V.; Coller, Beth-Ann G.
Assunto: Dengue; Treatment; Diagnosis; Vaccine; Epidemiology
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Cell ; Aedes aegypti - Immune response ; Aedes aegypti - Molecular structure ; Aedes aegypti - Viral infections ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Epidemiology
Fonte: Journal of Clinical Virology, v. 64, p. 153-159, 2015
ISSN: 1386-6532
Resumo: Dengue causes more human morbidity globally than any other vector-borne viral disease. Recent research has led to improved epidemiological methods that predict disease burden and factors involved in transmission, a better understanding of immune responses in infection, and enhanced animal models. In addition, a number of control measures, including preventative vaccines, are in clinical trials. However, significant gaps remain, including the need for better surveillance in large parts of the world, methods to predict which individuals will develop severe disease, and immunologic correlates of protection against dengue illness. During the next decade, dengue will likely expand its geographic reach and become an increasing burden on health resources in affected areas. Licensed vaccines and antiviral agents are needed in order to effectively control dengue and limit disease. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

428) Chikungunya virus infection alters expression of microRNAs involved in cellular proliferation, immune response and apoptosis
Autor: Sharma Anuj, Balakathiresan Nagaraja S, Maheshwari Radha K
Assunto: Chikungunya; MicroRNA; Host response; Cellular senescence; Topoisomerase
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Cell ; Chikungunya virus - Cytopathology ; Chikungunya virus - Immune response ; Chikungunya virus - Immune response ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus
Fonte: Intervirology, v. 58, n. 5, p. 332-341, 2015
ISSN: 1423-0100
Resumo: Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a reemerging virus of significant importance that has caused large-scale outbreaks in the countries with a temperate climate. CHIKV causes debilitating arthralgia which can persist for weeks - up to a year. Fibroblast cells are the main target of CHIKV infection. In this study, we analyzed microRNA (miRNA) modulation in the fibroblast cells infected with CHIKV at an early stage of infection. 760 miRNAs were analyzed for modulation following infection with CHIKV at 6 h after infection. Bioinformatic analysis was done to identify the signaling pathway that may be targeted by the significantly modulated miRNAs. Validation of the miRNAs was done using a singleplex miRNA assay - protein target validation of modulated miRNAs was done by Western blot analysis. Computational analysis of the significantly modulated miRNAs indicated their involvement in signaling pathways such as Toll-like receptor, mTOR, JAK-STAT - Pi3-Akt pathways, which have been shown to play important roles during CHIKV infection. Topoisomerase II?, a target of two of the modulated miRNAs, was downregulated upon CHIKV infection. We identified several miRNAs that may play important roles in early events after CHIKV infection - can be potential therapeutic targets against CHIKV infection.

429) An introduction to dengue-disease diagnostics
Autor: Darwish, Nadiya Taha; Alias, Yatimah Binti; Khor, Sook Mei
Assunto: Biomarker; Biosensor; Capture IgM; Dengue NS1 antigen; Dengue virus; Diagnosis; IgG ELISA; lmmunochromatography; Real-time polymerase chain reaction; Virus isolation
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - PCR detection ; Aedes aegypti - RT-PCR ; Aedes aegypti - Real Time PCR
Fonte: TrAC Trends in Analytical Chemistry, v. 67, p. 45-55, 2015
ISSN: 0165-9936
Resumo: In this review, we discuss how dengue disease can be diagnosed accurately at the viremia phase and the fever phase. Diagnostic tools currently used to detect dengue virus (DENV) are virus isolation, capture IgM and IgG ELISA, real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), and immunochromatography of the dengue NS1 antigen. First, we explain the advantages, the challenges and the limitations of different diagnostic tests. This account is followed by several examples using biosensors for detection of several important DENV biomarkers. Finally, we discuss our opinions regarding future perspectives in this field. (C) 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

430) Chikungunya: an arbovirus infection in the process of establishment and expansion in Brazil
Autor: Honório Nildimar Alves, Câmara Daniel Cardoso Portela, Calvet Guilherme Amaral, Brasil Patrícia
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Arbovirus ; Chikungunya virus - Pathogenesis ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Transmission ; Chikungunya virus - Public health
Fonte: Cadernos de Sau?de Pu?blica, v. 31, n. 5, p. 906-908, 2015
ISSN: 1678-4464
Resumo:

431) Persistence of anti-chikungunya virus-specific antibodies in a cohort of patients followed from the acute phase of infection after the 2007 outbreak in Italy
Autor: Pierro A, Rossini G, Gaibani P, Finarelli A C, Moro M L, Landini M P, Sambri V
Assunto: Antibody Response; Italy; Chikungunya virus; Infected patients; Serological follow-up
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Antibodies ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Public health
Fonte: New Microbes and New Infections, v. 7, p. 23-25, 2015
ISSN: 2052-2975
Resumo: Chikungunya is a mosquito-borne infection of humans, - its diffusion has increased worldwide. In 2007 an outbreak occurred in Italy. In this study, the antibody response of 133 patients followed up starting from the acute phase of infection was investigated. Antibody titres were periodically scored up to 1 year since the infection: 82.7% of the IgM antibody disappeared within 12 months, - the IgG response lasted longer than 12 months. Nevertheless, the IgG mean titre was lower in 95.5% of patients at the end of follow-up, thus suggesting a decrease within a relatively short period.

432) Correction: High rates of o'nyong nyong and Chikungunya virus transmission in coastal Kenya
Autor:
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Transmission
Fonte: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, v. 9, n. 4, p. e0003674, 2015
ISSN: 1935-2735
Resumo:

433) The global compendium of Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus occurrence
Autor: Kraemer Moritz U G, Sinka Marianne E, Duda Kirsten A, Mylne Adrian, Shearer Freya M, Brady Oliver J, Messina Jane P, Barker Christopher M, Moore Chester G, Carvalho Roberta G, Coelho Giovanini E, Van Bortel Wim, Hendrickx Guy, Schaffner Francis, Wint G R William, Elyazar Iqbal R F, Teng Hwa-Jen, Hay Simon I
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Cytopathology ; Chikungunya virus - Flaviviridae ; Chikungunya virus - Pathogenesis ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Transmission ; Chikungunya virus - Vaccine ; Chikungunya virus - Dengue ; Chikungunya virus - Epidemiology ; Chikungunya virus - Immunology ; Chikungunya virus - Public health
Fonte: Scientific Data, v. 2, p. 150035, 2015
ISSN: 2052-4463
Resumo: Aedes aegypti - Ae. albopictus are the main vectors transmitting dengue - chikungunya viruses. Despite being pathogens of global public health importance, knowledge of their vectors' global distribution remains patchy - sparse. A global geographic database of known occurrences of Ae. aegypti - Ae. albopictus between 1960 - 2014 was compiled. Herein we present the database, which comprises occurrence data linked to point or polygon locations, derived from peer-reviewed literature - unpublished studies including national entomological surveys - expert networks. We describe all data collection processes, as well as geo-positioning methods, database management - quality-control procedures. This is the first comprehensive global database of Ae. aegypti - Ae. albopictus occurrence, consisting of 19,930 - 22,137 geo-positioned occurrence records respectively. Both datasets can be used for a variety of mapping - spatial analyses of the vectors -, by inference, the diseases they transmit.

434) Zika virus infection in a traveller returning to europe from Brazil, march 2015
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Zammarchi L., Tappe D., Fortuna C., Remoli M.E., Günther S., Venturi G., Bartoloni A., Schmidt-Chanasit J.
Assunto: Flaviviridae infection (drug therapy, diagnosis, drug therapy), Zika virus infection (drug therapy, diagnosis, drug therapy)
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - Serology ; Zika virus - Chikungunya Fever ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Eurosurveillance, v. 20, n. 23, 2015
ISSN: 1560-7917 (electronic),1025-496X
Resumo: We report a case of laboratory-confirmed Zika virus infection imported into Europe from the Americas. The patient developed fever, rash, and oedema of hands and feet after returning to Italy from Brazil in late March 2015. The case highlights that, together with chikungunya virus and dengue virus, three major arboviruses are now co-circulating in Brazil. These arboviruses represent a burden for the healthcare systems in Brazil and other countries where competent mosquito vectors are present.

435) Syndromic approach to arboviral diagnostics for global travelers as a basis for infectious disease surveillance
Autor: Cleton Natalie B, Reusken Chantal B E M, Wagenaar Jiri F P, van der Vaart Elske E, Reimerink Johan, van der Eijk Annemiek A, Koopmans Marion P G
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Arbovirus ; Chikungunya virus - Infectious diseases ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Dengue ; Chikungunya virus - Public health
Fonte: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, v. 9, n. 9, p. e0004073, 2015
ISSN: 1935-2735
Resumo: Arboviruses have overlapping geographical distributions - can cause symptoms that coincide with more common infections. Therefore, arbovirus infections are often neglected by travel diagnostics. Here, we assessed the potential of syndrome-based approaches for diagnosis - surveillance of neglected arboviral diseases in returning travelers. To map the patients high at risk of missed clinical arboviral infections we compared the quantity of all arboviral diagnostic requests by physicians in the Netherl-s, from 2009 through 2013, with a literature-based assessment of the travelers' likely exposure to an arbovirus. 2153 patients, with travel - clinical history were evaluated. The diagnostic assay for dengue virus (DENV) was the most commonly requested (86%). Of travelers returning from Southeast Asia with symptoms compatible with chikungunya virus (CHIKV), only 55% were tested. For travelers in Europe, arbovirus diagnostics were rarely requested. Over all, diagnostics for most arboviruses were requested only on severe clinical presentation. Travel destination - syndrome were used inconsistently for triage of diagnostics, likely resulting in vast under-diagnosis of arboviral infections of public health significance. This study shows the need for more awareness among physicians - st-ardization of syndromic diagnostic algorithms.

436) CD8+ T cells control Ross River virus infection in musculoskeletal tissues of infected mice
Autor: Burrack Kristina S, Montgomery Stephanie A, Homann Dirk, Morrison Thomas E
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Biosynthesis ; Chikungunya virus - Cell ; Chikungunya virus - Cytopathology ; Chikungunya virus - Immune response ; Chikungunya virus - Pathogenesis ; Chikungunya virus - Proteins ; Chikungunya virus - Immune response ; Chikungunya virus - T lymphocytes ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Immunology
Fonte: The Journal of Immunology, v. 194, n. 2, p. 678-689, 2015
ISSN: 1550-6606
Resumo: Ross River virus (RRV), chikungunya virus, - related alphaviruses cause debilitating polyarthralgia - myalgia. Mouse models of RRV - chikungunya virus have demonstrated a role for the adaptive immune response in the control of these infections. However, questions remain regarding the role for T cells in viral control, including the magnitude, location, - dynamics of CD8(+) T cell responses. To address these questions, we generated a recombinant RRV expressing the H-2(b)-restricted glycoprotein 33 (gp33) determinant derived from the glycoprotein of lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus. Using tetramers, we tracked gp33-specific CD8(+) T cells during RRV-lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus infection. We found that acute RRV infection induces activation of CD8(+) T cell responses in lymphoid - musculoskeletal tissues that peak from 10-14 d postinoculation, suggesting that CD8(+) T cells contribute to control of acute RRV infection. Mice genetically deficient for CD8(+) T cells or wild-type mice depleted of CD8(+) T cells had elevated RRV loads in skeletal muscle tissue, but not joint-associated tissues, at 14 d postinoculation, suggesting that the ability of CD8(+) T cells to control RRV infection is tissue dependent. Finally, adoptively transferred T cells were capable of reducing RRV loads in skeletal muscle tissue of Rag1(-/-) mice, indicating that T cells can contribute to the control of RRV infection in the absence of B cells - Ab. Collectively, these data demonstrate a role for T cells in the control of RRV infection - suggest that the antiviral capacity of T cells is controlled in a tissue-specific manner.

437) Specific management of post-chikungunya rheumatic disorders: A retrospective study of 159 cases in Reunion Island from 2006-2012
Autor: Javelle Emilie, Ribera Anne, Degasne Isabelle, Gaüzère Bernard-Alex, Marimoutou Catherine, Simon Fabrice
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Pathogenesis ; Chikungunya virus - Infectious diseases ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever ; Chikungunya virus - Epidemiology ; Chikungunya virus - Public health
Fonte: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, v. 9, n. 3, p. e0003603, 2015
ISSN: 1935-2735
Resumo: Since 2003, the tropical arthritogenic chikungunya (CHIK) virus has become an increasingly medical - economic burden in affected areas as it can often result in long-term disabilities. The clinical spectrum of post-CHIK (pCHIK) rheumatic disorders is wide. Evidence-based recommendations are needed to help physicians manage the treatment of afflicted patients. We conducted a 6-year case series retrospective study in Reunion Isl- of patients referred to a rheumatologist due to continuous rheumatic or musculoskeletal pains that persisted following CHIK infection. These various disorders were documented in terms of their clinical - therapeutic courses. Post-CHIK de novo chronic inflammatory rheumatisms (CIRs) were identified according to validated criteria. We reviewed 159 patient medical files. Ninety-four patients (59%) who were free of any articular disorder prior to CHIK met the CIR criteria: rheumatoid arthritis (n=40), spondyloarthritis (n=33), undifferentiated polyarthritis (n=21). Bone lesions detectable by radiography occurred in half of the patients (median time: 3.5 years pCHIK). A positive therapeutic response was achieved in 54 out of the 72 patients (75%) who were treated with methotrexate (MTX). Twelve out of the 92 patients (13%) received immunomodulatory biologic agents due to failure of contra-indication of MTX treatment. Other patients mainly presented with mechanical shoulder or knee disorders, bilateral distal polyarthralgia that was frequently associated with oedema at the extremities - tunnel syndromes. These pCHIK musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) were managed with pain-killers, local -/or general anti-inflammatory drugs, - physiotherapy. Rheumatologists in Reunion Isl- managed CHIK rheumatic disorders in a pragmatic manner following the outbreak in 2006. This retrospective study describes the common mechanical - inflammatory pCHIK disorders. We provide a diagnostic - therapeutic algorithm to help physicians deal with chronic patients, - to limit both functional - economic impacts. The therapeutic indication of MTX in pCHIK CIR could be approved in future efficacy trials.

438) Reappearance of chikungunya, formerly called dengue, in the Americas
Autor: Halstead Scott B
Assunto: Aedes aegypti; Aedes albopictus; Africa; American tropics; Arthropod-borne viruses; Arthropodborne viruses; Chikungunya; Dengue; Flavivirus; History of medicine; Mosquitoborne; Mosquitoes; The Americas; Togavirus; Vectorborne; Viruses; Zoonoses
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Flaviviridae ; Aedes aegypti - Infectious diseases ; Aedes aegypti - Viral infections ; Aedes aegypti - virus ; Aedes aegypti - Chikungunya Fever ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Epidemiology
Fonte: Emerging Infectious Diseases, v. 21, n. 4, p. 557-561, 2015
ISSN: 1080-6059
Resumo: After an absence of â??200 years, chikungunya returned to the American tropics in 2013. The virus is maintained in a complex African zoonotic cycle but escapes into an urban cycle at 40- to 50-year intervals, causing global pandemics. In 1823, classical chikungunya, a viral exanthem in humans, occurred on Zanzibar, and in 1827, it arrived in the Caribbean and spread to North and South America. In Zanzibar, the disease was known as kidenga pepo, Swahili for a sudden cramp-like seizure caused by an evil spirit; in Cuba, it was known as dengue, a Spanish homonym of denga. During the eighteenth century, dengue (present-day chikungunya) was distinguished from breakbone fever (present-day dengue), another febrile exanthem. In the twentieth century, experiments resulted in the recovery and naming of present-day dengue viruses. In 1952, chikungunya virus was recovered during an outbreak in Tanzania, but by then, the virus had lost its original name to present-day dengue viruses.

439) Chikungunya virus and its mosquito vectors
Autor: Higgs Stephen, Vanlandingham Dana
Assunto: Ae. Albopictus; Aedes (Ae.) aegypti; Chikungunya virus; Geographic expansion; Mosquito-vector interactions; RNA strategies
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - RNA ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Transmission ; Chikungunya virus - Epidemic ; Chikungunya virus - Public health
Fonte: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases, v. 15, n. 4, p. 231-240, 2015
ISSN: 1557-7759
Resumo: Chikungunya virus (CHIKV), a mosquito-borne alphavirus of increasing public health significance, has caused large epidemics in Africa - the Indian Ocean basin; now it is spreading throughout the Americas. The primary vectors of CHIKV are Aedes (Ae.) aegypti -, after the introduction of a mutation in the E1 envelope protein gene, the highly anthropophilic - geographically widespread Ae. albopictus mosquito. We review here research efforts to characterize the viral genetic basis of mosquito-vector interactions, the use of RNA interference - other strategies for the control of CHIKV in mosquitoes, - the potentiation of CHIKV infection by mosquito saliva. Over the past decade, CHIKV has emerged on a truly global scale. Since 2013, CHIKV transmission has been reported throughout the Caribbean region, in North America, - in Central - South American countries, including Brazil, Columbia, Costa Rica, El Salvador, French Guiana, Guatemala, Guyana, Nicaragua, Panama, Suriname, - Venezuela. Closing the gaps in our knowledge of driving factors behind the rapid geographic expansion of CHIKV should be considered a research priority. The abundance of multiple primate species in many of these countries, together with species of mosquito that have never been exposed to CHIKV, may provide opportunities for this highly adaptable virus to establish sylvatic cycles that to date have not been seen outside of Africa. The short-term - long-term ecological consequences of such transmission cycles, including the impact on wildlife - people living in these areas, are completely unknown.

440) Social sustainability of Mesocyclops biological control for dengue in South Vietnam
Autor: Tran Thanh Tam,Olsen Anna,Viennet Elvina,Sleigh Adrian
Assunto: Aedes aegypti; Dengue control; Mesocyclops; Mixed methods; Social sustainability; Vietnam
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Flaviviridae ; Aedes aegypti - Pathogenesis ; Aedes aegypti - Viral infections ; Aedes aegypti - virus ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Epidemiology ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Acta Tropica, v. 141, Part. A, p. 54-59, 2015
ISSN: 1873-6254
Resumo: Copepod Mesocyclops as biological control agents for dengue was previously proven to be effective and sustainable in the Northern and Central provinces of Vietnam. We aim to study social sustainability of Mesocyclops intervention in south Vietnam. Both quantitative and qualitative approaches were used. An entomological survey was carried out in 100 random households of Chanh An commune, Vinh Long Province. Aedes larval indices and Mesocyclops prevalence were compared with historical pre- and post-intervention values. In the same commune, using purposeful sampling, sixteen semi-structured interviews (1 villager leader, 1 local doctor, 10 villagers, 2 teachers, 2 entomology officials), and a focus group discussion (6 Mesocyclops program collaborators) explored water storage habits, beliefs about dengue prevention and behaviour related to Mesocyclops. Thematic analysis was conducted to interpret the qualitative findings. Aedes abundance increased after responsibility for Mesocyclops intervention moved from government to community in 2010, with post-transfer surges in Breteau Index, Container Index, and Larval Density Index. Larval increments coincided with decrease in Mesocyclops prevalence. Villagers had some knowledge of dengue but it was conflated with other mosquito borne diseases and understanding of Mesocyclops was incomplete. Program adoption among the villagers was limited. With reduced government support program collaborators reported limited capacity to conduct population monitoring, and instead targeted 'problem' households. Although the Mesocyclops program was highly sustainable in northern and central provinces of Vietnam, the intervention has not been consistently adopted by southern households in Chanh An commune. Limited education, household monitoring and government support are affecting sustainability. Findings were based on a small household sample visited over a short time period, so other evaluations are needed. However, our results suggest that government support for the Mesocyclops program is still required in this part of Vietnam.

441) The global virus network: Challenging chikungunya
Autor: McSweegan Edward, Weaver Scott C, Lecuit Marc, Frieman Matthew, Morrison Thomas E, Hrynkow Sharon
Assunto: Arbovirus; Chikungunya; Emerging virus; Global Virus Network; Vector-borne
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Arbovirus ; Chikungunya virus - Infectious diseases ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Vaccine ; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever ; Chikungunya virus - Epidemic ; Chikungunya virus - Epidemiology ; Chikungunya virus - Immunology ; Chikungunya virus - Public health
Fonte: Antiviral Research, v. 120, p. 147-152, 2015
ISSN: 1872-9096
Resumo: The recent spread of chikungunya virus to the Western Hemisphere, together with the ongoing Ebola epidemic in West Africa, have highlighted the importance of international collaboration in the detection - management of disease outbreaks. In response to this need, the Global Virus Network (GVN) was formed in 2011. The GVN is a coalition of leading medical virologists in 34 affiliated laboratories in 24 countries, who collaborate to share their resources - expertise. The GVN supports research, promotes training for young scientists, serves as a technical resource for governments, businesses - international organizations, facilitates international scientific cooperation, - advocates for funding - evidence-based public policies. In response to the spread of chikungunya, the GVN formed a task force to identify research gaps - opportunities, including models of infection - disease, c-idate vaccines - antivirals, epidemiology - vector control measures. Its members also serve as authoritative sources of information for the public, press, - policy-makers. This article forms part of a symposium in Antiviral Research on Chikungunya discovers the New World"."

442) Characterization of a novel human-specific STING agonist that elicits antiviral activity against emerging alphaviruses
Autor: Sali Tina M, Pryke Kara M, Abraham Jinu, Liu Andrew, Archer Iris, Broeckel Rebecca, Staverosky Julia A, Smith Jessica L, Al-Shammari Ahmed, Amsler Lisi, Sheridan Kayla, Nilsen Aaron, Streblow Daniel N, DeFilippis Victor R
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Genome ; Chikungunya virus - Immune response ; Chikungunya virus - Proteins ; Chikungunya virus - Immune response ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Vaccine ; Chikungunya virus - Immunology
Fonte: PLoS Pathogens, v. 11, n. 12, p. e1005324, 2015
ISSN: 1553-7374
Resumo: Pharmacologic stimulation of innate immune processes represents an attractive strategy to achieve multiple therapeutic outcomes including inhibition of virus replication, boosting antitumor immunity, - enhancing vaccine immunogenicity. In light of this we sought to identify small molecules capable of activating the type I interferon (IFN) response by way of the transcription factor IFN regulatory factor 3 (IRF3). A high throughput in vitro screen yielded 4-(2-chloro-6-fluorobenzyl)-N-(furan-2-ylmethyl)-3-oxo-3,4-dihydro-2H-benzo[b][1,4]thiazine-6-carboxamide (referred to herein as G10), which was found to trigger IRF3/IFN-associated transcription in human fibroblasts. Further examination of the cellular response to this molecule revealed expression of multiple IRF3-dependent antiviral effector genes as well as type I - III IFN subtypes. This led to the establishment of a cellular state that prevented replication of emerging Alphavirus species including Chikungunya virus, Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis virus, - Sindbis virus. To define cellular proteins essential to elicitation of the antiviral activity by the compound we employed a reverse genetics approach that utilized genome editing via CRISPR/Cas9 technology. This allowed the identification of IRF3, the IRF3-activating adaptor molecule STING, - the IFN-associated transcription factor STAT1 as required for observed gene induction - antiviral effects. Biochemical analysis indicates that G10 does not bind to STING directly, however. Thus the compound may represent the first synthetic small molecule characterized as an indirect activator of human STING-dependent phenotypes. In vivo stimulation of STING-dependent activity by an unrelated small molecule in a mouse model of Chikungunya virus infection blocked viremia demonstrating that pharmacologic activation of this signaling pathway may represent a feasible strategy for combating emerging Alphaviruses.

443) Insecticide resistance and genetic variability in natural populations of Aedes (Stegomyia) aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) from Colombia
Autor: Aguirre-Obando, Oscar A.; Dalla Bona, Ana C.; Duque L., Jonny E.; Navarro-Silva, Mário A.
Assunto: Population genetics; Bioassays; Insecticides; Genetic isolation; Pest control; Public health; Haplotypes; Gene flow; Mitochondria; Genetic diversity; Vaccines; Mutation
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - DNA ; Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Vaccine ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Zoologia, v. 32, n. 1, p. 14-22, 2015.
ISSN: 1984-4670
Resumo: Mosquito control prevails as the most efficient method to protect humans from the dengue virus, despite recent efforts to find a vaccine for this disease. We evaluated insecticide resistance and genetic variability in natural populations of Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus, 1762) from Colombia. This is the first Colombian study examining kdr mutations and population structure. Bioassays with larvae of three mosquito populations (Armenia, Calarca and Montenegro) were performed according to the World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines, using Temephos. For the analysis of the Val1016Ile mutation and genetic diversity, we sampled recently-emerged adults from four mosquito populations (Armenia, Calarca, Montenegro and Barcelona). Following the WHO protocol, bioassays implemented with larvae showed resistance to Temephos in mosquito populations from Armenia (77% plus or minus 2) and Calarca (62% plus or minus 14), and an incipient altered susceptibility at Montenegro (88% plus or minus 8). The RR95 of mosquito populations ranged from 3.7 (Montenegro) to 6.0 (Calarca). The Val1016Ile mutation analysis of 107 genotyped samples indicates that 94% of the specimens were homozygous for the wild allele (1016Val) and 6% were heterozygous (Val1016Ile). The 1016Ile allele was not found in Barcelona. Genetic variability analysis found three mitochondrial lineages with low genetic diversity and gene flow. In comparison with haplotypes from the American continent, those from this study suggest connections with Mexican and North American populations. These results confirm that a continuous monitoring and managing program of A. aegypti resistance in the state of Quindio is required.

444) Sweetgum: An ancient source of beneficial compounds with modern benefits
Autor: Lingbeck Jody M,O'Bryan Corliss A,Martin Elizabeth M,Adams Joshua P,Crandall Philip G
Assunto: Anti-inflammatory; Liquidambar; Antimicrobial; Antioxidant; Storax; Sweetgum
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - virus
Fonte: Pharmacognosy Reviews, v. 9, n. 17, p. 1-11, 2015
ISSN: 0973-7847
Resumo: Sweetgum trees are large, deciduous trees found in Asia and North America. Sweetgum trees are important resources for medicinal and other beneficial compounds. Many of the medicinal properties of sweetgum are derived from the resinous sap that exudes when the outer bark of the tree has been damaged. The sap, known as storax, has been used for centuries to treat common ailments such as skin problems, coughs, and ulcers. More recently, storax has proven to be a strong antimicrobial agent even against multidrug resistant bacteria such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. In addition to the sap, the leaves, bark, and seeds of sweetgum also possess beneficial compounds such as shikimic acid, a precursor to the production of oseltamivir phosphate, the active ingredient in Tamiflu®-an antiviral drug effective against several influenza viruses. Other extracts derived from sweetgum trees have shown potential as antioxidants, anti-inflammatory agents, and chemopreventive agents. The compounds found in the extracts derived from sweetgum sap suppress hypertension in mice. Extracts from sweetgum seeds have anticonvulsant effects, which may make them suitable in the treatment of epilepsy. In addition to the potential medicinal uses of sweetgum extracts, the extracts of the sap possess antifungal activity against various phytopathogenic fungi and have been effective treatments for reducing nematodes and the yellow mosquito, Aedes aegypti, populations thus highlighting the potential of these extracts as environment-friendly pesticides and antifungal agents. The list of value-added products derived from sweetgum trees can be increased by continued research of this abundantly occurring tree.

445) Increase in tolerance of Aedes aegypti larvae (Diptera: Culicidae) to the insecticide temephos after exposure to atrazine
Autor: Jacquet, M.; Tilquin, M.; Ravanel, P.; Boyer, S.
Assunto: Insecticides; Pest control; Public health; Detoxification; Monooxygenase; Dengue; Organophosphates; Aedes aegypti
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Virus ; Aedes aegypti - Chikungunya Fever ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: African Entomology, v. 23, n. 1, p. 110-119, 2015.
ISSN: 1021-3589
Resumo: Female Aedes aegypti mosquitoes are vectors of yellow fever, dengue and chikungunya viruses. Pre-exposure of Ae. aegypti larvae to the herbicide atrazine significantly reduced their sensitivity to the organophosphate insecticide temephos. Mosquito larvae pre-exposed for 48 h to non-lethal concentrations of atrazine ranging from 1 to 10 mu g/l commonly encountered in the field, appeared slightly less sensitive to temephos than non-pre-exposed larvae. The effect of a pre-exposure to atrazine on larval tolerance to temephos did not seem to be related to an induction of detoxification processes by this herbicide. No important increase in glutathione transferase, or alpha - and beta -esterase activities was observed in pre-exposed larvae, while P450 monooxygenase activities increased.

446) Potential sexual transmission of zika virus
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Musso D., Roche C., Robin E., Nhan T., Teissier A., Cao-Lormeau V.-M.
Assunto: sexual transmission, virus infection, Zika virus
Descritores: Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Sexual ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Zika fever ;
Fonte: Emerging Infectious Diseases, v. 21, n. 2, p. 359-361, 2015
ISSN: 1080-6059 (electronic),1080-6040
Resumo: In December 2013, during a Zika virus (ZIKV) outbreak in French Polynesia, a patient in Tahiti sought treatment for hematospermia, and ZIKV was isolated from his semen. ZIKV transmission by sexual intercourse has been previously suspected. This observation supports the possibility that ZIKV could be transmitted sexually.

447) Laboratory evaluation of Indian medicinal plants as repellents against malaria, dengue, and filariasis vector mosquitoes
Autor: Govindarajan Marimuthu, Sivakumar Rajamohan
Assunto: Repellent activity; Erythrina indica; Asparagus racemosus; Mosquitoes
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Pathogenesis ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Repellent ; Chikungunya virus - Transmission ; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever ; Chikungunya virus - Dengue ; Chikungunya virus - Public health
Fonte: Parasitology Research, v. 114, n. 2, p. 601-612, 2015
ISSN: 1432-1955
Resumo: Mosquito-borne diseases have an economic impact, including loss in commercial - labor outputs, particularly in countries with tropical - subtropical climates; however, no part of the world is free from vector-borne diseases. Mosquitoes are the carriers of severe - well-known illnesses such as malaria, arboviral encephalitis, dengue fever, chikungunya fever, West Nile virus, - yellow fever. These diseases produce significant morbidity - mortality in humans - livestock around the world. In view of the recently increased interest in developing plant origin insecticides as an alternative to chemical insecticides, in the present study, the repellent activity of crude hexane, ethyl acetate, benzene, chloroform, - methanol extracts of leaf of Erythrina indica - root of Asparagus racemosus were assayed for their repellency against three important vector mosquitoes, viz., Anopheles stephensi, Aedes aegypti, - Culex quinquefasciatus. The crude extract was applied on a membrane used for membrane feeding of unfed mosquitoes in a 1-ft cage. About 50 unfed 3-4-day-old laboratory-reared pathogen-free strains of A. stephensi, A. aegypti, - C. quinquefasciatus were introduced in a 1-ft cage fitted with a membrane with blood for feeding with temperature maintained at 37 °C through circulating water bath maintained at 40-45 °C. Three concentrations (1.0, 2.0, - 5.0 mg/cm(2)) of the crude extracts were evaluated. Repellents in E. indica afforded longer protection time against A. stephensi, A. aegypti, - C. quinquefasciatus than those in A. racemosus at 5.0 mg/cm(2) concentration, - the mean complete protection time ranged from 120 to 210 min with the different extracts tested. In this observation, these two plant crude extracts gave protection against mosquito bites; also, the repellent activity is dependent on the strength of the plant extracts. These results suggest that the leaf extract of E. indica - root extract of A. racemosus have the potential to be used as an ideal eco-friendly approach for the control of mosquitoes. This is the first report on the mosquito repellent activity of the reported A. racemosus - E. indica plants.

448) Microbiological diagnosis of emerging arboviral and rodent borne diseases
Autor: Negredo Antón Ana Isabel, de Ory Manchón Fern-o, Sánchez-Seco Fariñas M Paz, Franco Narváez Leticia, Gegúndez Cámara M Isabel, Navarro Mari José M, Tenorio Matanzo Antonio
Assunto: Arbovirosis; Arboviruses; Arenaviruses; Diagnóstico virológico; Emerging viruses; Robovirosis; Vector borne viruses; Virological diagnosis; Virus emergentes; Virus transmitidos por vector
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Arbovirus; Chikungunya virus - Infectious diseases; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections; Chikungunya Virus - Virus; Chikungunya virus - Transmission; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever; Chikungunya virus - Dengue; Chikungunya virus - Public health
Fonte: Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiologi?a Cli?nica, v. 33, n. 3, p. 197-205, 2015
ISSN: 1578-1852
Resumo: Vector borne viruses (VBV) include viruses transmitted by arthropods, rodents - other animals. In Spain the three main autochthonous VBVs causing human diseases are: Toscana, West Nile - Lymphocytic Choriomeningitis viruses. There are also other imported viruses that are potential threats to our public health, due to the presence of competent transmission vectors (dengue - chikungunya viruses in areas infested with Aedes albopictus), or due to the potential person-to-person transmission (Lassa - other viruses causing haemorrhagic fever). The Spanish Society for Infectious Diseases - Clinical Microbiology has responded to the emergence of VBVs by publishing a special issue of Microbiological Proceedings focused on the diagnosis of those emerging vector borne viruses of major concern in our country.

449) Co-infections with chikungunya and dengue viruses: A serological study in Karnataka State, India
Autor: Shaikh N, Raut C G, Manjunatha M
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Flaviviridae ; Chikungunya virus - Pathogenesis ; Chikungunya virus - Proteins ; Chikungunya virus - Antibodies ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever ; Chikungunya virus - Dengue ; Chikungunya virus - Epidemiology ; Chikungunya virus - Immunology ; Chikungunya virus - Public health
Fonte: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology, v. 33, n. 3, p. 459-460, 2015
ISSN: 1998-3646
Resumo:

450) Correction: Heat shock protein 90 positively regulates chikungunya virus replication by stabilizing viral non-structural protein nsP2 during infection
Autor:
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya Virus - Virus
Fonte: PloS One, v. 10, n. 3, p. e0122906, 2015
ISSN: 1932-6203
Resumo:

451) Seroepidemiology of selected arboviruses in febrile patients visiting selected health facilities in the lake/river basin areas of Lake Baringo, Lake Naivasha, and Tana River, Kenya
Autor: Tigoi Caroline, Lwande Olivia, Orindi Benedict, Irura Zephania, Ongus Juliette, Sang Rosemary
Assunto: Arboviruses; Chikungunya virus; Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus; Febrile patients; Kenya; Lake/River Basin areas; Rift Valley fever virus; West Nile virus
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Arbovirus ; Chikungunya virus - Antibodies ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever
Fonte: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases, v. 15, n. 2, p. 124-132, 2015
ISSN: 1557-7759
Resumo: Arboviruses cause emerging - re-emerging infections affecting humans - animals. They are spread primarily by blood-sucking insects such as mosquitoes, ticks, midges, - s-flies. Changes in climate, ecology, demographic, l--use patterns, - increasing global travel have been linked to an upsurge in arboviral disease. Outbreaks occur periodically followed by persistent low-level circulation. This study was undertaken to determine the seroepidemiology of selected arboviruses among febrile patients in selected lake/river basins of Kenya. Using a hospital-based cross-sectional descriptive survey, febrile patients were recruited - their serum samples tested for exposure to immunoglobulin M (IgM) - IgG antibodies against Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV), Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV), West Nile virus (WNV), - chikungunya virus (CHIKV). Samples positive for CHIKV - WNV were further confirmed by the plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT). Of the 379 samples examined, 176 were IgG positive for at least one of these arboviruses (46.4%, 95% confidence interval [CI] 41.4-51.5%). Virus-specific prevalence for CCHF, RVF, WN, - CHIK was 25.6%, 19.5%, 12.4%, - 2.6%, respectively. These prevalences varied significantly with geographical site (p<0.001), with Tana recording the highest overall arboviral seropositivity. PRNT results for Alphaviruses confirmed that the actual viruses circulating in Baringo were Semliki Forest virus (SFV) - CHIKV, o'nyong nyong virus (ONNV) in Naivasha, - SFV - Sindbis virus (SINDV) in Tana delta. Among the flaviviruses tested, WNV was circulating in all the three sites. There is a high burden of febrile illness in humans due to CCHFV, RVFV, WNV, - CHIKV infection in the river/lake basin regions of Kenya.

452) Chikungunya, an emerging viral disease. Proposal of an algorithm for its clinical management
Autor: Palacios-Martínez D, Díaz-Alonso R A, Arce-Segura L J, Díaz-Vera E
Assunto: Alfavirus; Alphavirus; Alphavirus infections; Chikungunya virus; Chikungunya virus infection; Enfermedades víricas; Infecciones por Togaviridae; Infecciones por alfavirus; Infecciones por virus constituidos por ácido ribonucleico; Infección por virus de Chikungunya; Ribonucleic acid virus infections; Togaviridae; Togaviridae infections; Viral diseases; Virus; Virus de Chikungunya; Viruses
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Viral infections; Chikungunya Virus - Virus; Chikungunya virus - Transmission; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever; Chikungunya virus - Dengue
Fonte: Semergen - Medicina de Familia, v. 41, n. 4, p. 221-225, 2015
ISSN: 1578-8865
Resumo: Chikungunya fever (CHIK) is an emerging viral disease. It is caused by the Chikungunya virus, an alphavirus from the Togaviridae family. It is transmitted to humans by the bite of infected mosquitoes, mainly Aedes aegypti - Aedes albopictus. They are also involved in the transmission of dengue, malaria, etc. CHIK is now endemic in any region of Africa - Southeast-Asia. Cases of CHIK have been reported in America, the Caribbean, - Europe (France, Italy - Spain). There are reservoirs of these mosquitoes in some regions of Spain (Catalonia, Alicante, Murcia - Balearic isl-s). CHIK is characterized by a sudden high - debilitating fever, - severe or disabling symmetrical arthralgia. It tends to improve in days or weeks. There are severe - chronic forms of CHIK. There is no specific treatment or prophylaxis for CHIK. An algorithm is proposed for the clinical management of CHIK based in the latest guidelines.

453) Sequence analysis reveals a conserved extension in the capping enzyme of the alphavirus supergroup, and a homologous domain in nodaviruses
Autor: Ahola Tero, Karlin David G
Assunto: Methyltransferase; Guanylyltransferase; Capping; Alphavirus; Bromovirus; Nodavirus; Homology detection; Protein sequence analysis; Amphipathic alpha-helix; Viral replication factory; Chikungunya virus; Sindbis virus; Hepatitis E virus
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Cell ; Chikungunya virus - DNA ; Chikungunya virus - Genome ; Chikungunya virus - Molecular structure ; Chikungunya virus - Pathogenesis ; Chikungunya virus - Proteins ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus
Fonte: Biology Direct, v. 10, p. 16, 2015
ISSN: 1745-6150
Resumo: Members of the alphavirus supergroup include human pathogens such as chikungunya virus, hepatitis E virus - rubella virus. They encode a capping enzyme with methyltransferase-guanylyltransferase (MTase-GTase) activity, which is an attractive drug target owing to its unique mechanism. However, its experimental study has proven very difficult. We examined over 50 genera of viruses by sequence analyses. Earlier studies showed that the MTase-GTase contains a Core" region conserved in sequence. We show that it is followed by a long extension, which we termed "Iceberg" region, whose secondary structure, but not sequence, is strikingly conserved throughout the alphavirus supergroup. Sequence analyses strongly suggest that the minimal capping domain corresponds to the Core - Iceberg regions combined, which is supported by earlier experimental data. The Iceberg region contains all known membrane association sites that contribute to the assembly of viral replication factories. We predict that it may also contain an overlooked, widely conserved membrane-binding amphipathic helix. Unexpectedly, we detected a sequence homolog of the alphavirus MTase-GTase in taxa related to nodaviruses - to chronic bee paralysis virus. The presence of a capping enzyme in nodaviruses is biologically consistent, since they have capped genomes but replicate in the cytoplasm, where no cellular capping enzyme is present. The putative MTase-GTase domain of nodaviruses also contains membrane-binding sites that may drive the assembly of viral replication factories, revealing an unsuspected parallel with the alphavirus supergroup. Our work will guide the functional analysis of the alphaviral MTase-GTase - the production of domains for structure determination. The identification of a homologous domain in a simple model system, nodaviruses, which replicate in numerous eukaryotic cell systems (yeast, flies, worms, mammals, - plants), can further help crack the function - structure of the enzyme."

454) Reemergence and Autochthonous Transmission of Dengue Virus, Eastern China, 2014
Autor: Wang Wen,Yu Bin,Lin Xian-Dan,Kong De-Guang,Wang Jian,Tian Jun-Hua,Li Ming-Hui,Holmes Edward C,Zhang Yong-Zhen
Assunto: Aedes aegypti; Bangladesh; China; Dengue virus; Fujian; India; Sri Lanka; Surinam; Thailand; Autochthonous transmission; Evolution; Mosquitoes; Phylogeny; Vector-borne infections; Viruses
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - virus ; Aedes aegypti - Transmission ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue
Fonte: Emerging Infectious Diseases, v. 21, n. 9, p. 1670-1673, 2015
ISSN: 1080-6059
Resumo: In 2014, 20 dengue cases were reported in the cities of Wenzhou (5 cases) and Wuhan (15 cases), China, where dengue has rarely been reported. Dengue virus 1 was detected in 4 patients. Although most of these cases were likely imported, epidemiologic analysis provided evidence for autochthonous transmission.

455) Potent antibody protection against an emerging alphavirus threat
Autor: Kielian Margaret, Saphire Erica Ollmann
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Cell ; Chikungunya virus - Proteins ; Chikungunya virus - Antibodies ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Immunology
Fonte: Cell, v. 163, n. 5, p. 1053-1054, 2015
ISSN: 1097-4172
Resumo: Chikungunya virus recently caused large outbreaks world-wide. In this issue of Cell, Fox et al. describe several potently neutralizing antibodies against multiple alphaviruses. The structure of the virus in complex with one of the antibodies reveals the antibody-induced rearrangement - crosslinking of the viral surface proteins that result in neutralization.

456) Zika virus infections imported to Italy: Clinical, immunological and virological findings, and public health implications
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Zammarchi L., Stella G., Mantella A., Bartolozzi D., Tappe D., Günther S., Oestereich L., Cadar D., Muñoz-Fontela C., Bartoloni A., Schmidt-Chanasit J.
Assunto: virus infection (diagnosis, etiology), Zika virus
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Cell ; Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - RNA ; Zika virus - Immunology ; Zika virus - Infectious diseases ; Zika virus - RNA virus ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Public health ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Journal of Clinical Virology, v. 63, p. 32-35, feb. 2015
ISSN: 1873-5967 (electronic),1386-6532
Resumo: We report the first two cases of laboratory confirmed Zika virus (ZIKV) infections imported into Italy from French Polynesia. Both patients presented with low grade fever, malaise, conjunctivitis, myalgia, arthralgia, ankle oedema, and axillary and inguinal lymphadenopathy. One patient showed leukopenia with relative monocytosis and thrombocytopenia. The diagnosis was based on ZIKV seroconversion in both cases and on ZIKV RNA detection in one patient from acute serum sample. Sera from both patients exhibited cross-reactivity with dengue virus antigens. Our immunological analysis demonstrated that recovery from ZIKV infection is associated with restoration of normal numbers of immune cells in the periphery as well as with normal function of antigen-presenting cells. ZIKV is an emerging arbovirus, which has recently spread extensively in tourist destinations on several West Pacific islands. Returning viremic travelers may ignite autochthonous infections in countries like Italy, which are infested by Aedes albopictus, a suitable vector for ZIKV. The role of clinicians is crucial and includes early diagnosis and timely notification of public health authorities in order to quickly implement adequate focal vector control measurements.

457) Zika virus: a new epidemic on our doorstep
Autor: Galindo-Fraga Arturo, Ochoa-Hein Eric, Sifuentes-Osornio José, Ruiz-Palacios Guillermo
Assunto: Zika; Microcephaly; Aedes albopictus; Mexico
Descritores: Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Dengue ; Chikungunya virus - Epidemic ; Chikungunya virus - Epidemiology ; Chikungunya virus - Microcephaly ; Chikungunya virus - Public health
Fonte: Revista de Investigacio?n Cli?nica, v. 67, n. 6, p. 329-332, 2015
ISSN: 0034-8376
Resumo: Zika virus, a flavivirus transmitted to humans by mosquitoes of the genus Aedes, was first described in humans as isolated cases in Africa. Outbreaks have been reported outside that region since 2007, followed by its gradual introduction to different geographical areas. In 2015, Zika virus was detected in Brazil, from where it is rapidly exp-ing in the continent; the first case in Mexico was detected in October 2015. Initially deemed as a cause of mild illness, confirmation of microcephaly cases associated with this infection in Brazil have resulted in the World Health Organization declaration of Zika virus infection as a Public Health Emergency of International Concern. The US Centers for Disease Control - Prevention issued travel alerts for countries with declared cases. The vector is widely distributed in Mexico - control measures are the most effective means for prevention, not only of Zika virus, but also dengue - chikungunya.

458) Caribbean and la réunion Chikungunya virus isolates differ in their capacity to induce proinflammatory Th1 and NK Cell responses and acute joint pathology
Autor: Teo Teck-Hui, Her Zhisheng, Tan Jeslin J L, Lum Fok-Moon, Lee Wendy W L, Chan Yi-Hao, Ong Ruo-Yan, Kam Yiu-Wing, Leparc-Goffart Isabelle, Gallian Pierre, Rénia Laurent, de Lamballerie Xavier, Ng Lisa F P
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Biochemistry ; Chikungunya virus - Cell ; Chikungunya virus - Cytopathology ; Chikungunya virus - Immune response ; Chikungunya virus - Pathogenesis ; Chikungunya virus - Proteins ; Chikungunya virus - Cytokines ; Chikungunya virus - Immune response ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever ; Chikungunya virus - Epidemiology ; Chikungunya virus - Immunology ; Chikungunya virus - Public health
Fonte: Journal of Virology, v. 89, n. 15, p. 7955-7969, 2015
ISSN: 1098-5514
Resumo: Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a mosquito-borne arthralgic alphavirus that has garnered international attention as an important emerging pathogen since 2005. More recently, it invaded the Caribbean isl-s - the Western Hemisphere. Intriguingly, the current CHIKV outbreak in the Caribbean is caused by the Asian CHIKV genotype, which differs from the La Réunion LR2006 OPY1 isolate belonging to the Indian Ocean lineage. Here, we adopted a systematic - comparative approach against LR2006 OPY1 to characterize the pathogenicity of the Caribbean CNR20235 isolate - consequential host immune responses in mice. Ex vivo infection using primary mouse tail fibroblasts revealed a weaker replication efficiency by CNR20235 isolate. In the CHIKV mouse model, CNR20235 infection induced an enervated joint pathology characterized by moderate edema - swelling, independent of mononuclear cell infiltration. Based on systemic cytokine analysis, localized immunophenotyping, - gene expression profiles in the popliteal lymph node - inflamed joints, two pathogenic phases were defined for CHIKV infection: early acute (2 to 3 days postinfection [dpi]) - late acute (6 to 8 dpi). Reduced joint pathology during early acute phase of CNR20235 infection was associated with a weaker proinflammatory Th1 response - natural killer (NK) cell activity. The pathological role of NK cells was further demonstrated as depletion of NK cells reduced joint pathology in LR2006 OPY1. Taken together, this study provides evidence that the Caribbean CNR20235 isolate has an enfeebled replication - induces a less pathogenic response in the mammalian host. The introduction of CHIKV in the Americas has heightened the risk of large-scale outbreaks due to the close proximity between the United States - the Caribbean. The immunopathogenicity of the circulating Caribbean CHIKV isolate was explored, where it was demonstrated to exhibit reduced infectivity resulting in a weakened joint pathology. Analysis of serum cytokine levels, localized immunophenotyping, - gene expression profiles in the organs revealed that a limited Th1 response - reduced NK cells activity could underlie the reduced pathology in the host. Interestingly, higher asymptomatic infections were observed in the Caribbean compared to the La Réunion outbreaks in 2005 - 2006. This is the first study that showed an association between key proinflammatory factors - pathology-mediating leukocytes with a less severe pathological outcome in Caribbean CHIKV infection. Given the limited information regarding the sequela of Caribbean CHIKV infection, our study is timely - will aid the underst-ing of this increasingly important disease.

459) ?? T cells play a protective role in chikungunya virus-induced disease
Autor: Long Kristin M, Ferris Martin T, Whitmore Alan C, Montgomery Stephanie A, Thurlow Lance R, McGee Charles E, Rodriguez Carlos A, Lim Jean K, Heise Mark T
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Cell ; Chikungunya virus - Cytopathology ; Chikungunya virus - Cytokines ; Chikungunya virus - Inflammation ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Vaccine ; Chikungunya virus - Epidemic ; Chikungunya virus - Immunology
Fonte: Journal of Virology, v. 90, n. 1, p. 433-443, 2015
ISSN: 1098-5514
Resumo: Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is an alphavirus responsible for causing epidemic outbreaks of polyarthralgia in humans. Because CHIKV is initially introduced via the skin, where ?? T cells are prevalent, we evaluated the response of these cells to CHIKV infection. CHIKV infection led to a significant increase in ?? T cells in the infected foot - draining lymph node that was associated with the production of proinflammatory cytokines - chemokines in C57BL/6J mice. ?? T cell(-/-) mice demonstrated exacerbated CHIKV disease characterized by less weight gain - greater foot swelling than occurred in wild-type mice, as well as a transient increase in monocytes - altered cytokine/chemokine expression in the foot. Histologically, ?? T cell(-/-) mice had increased inflammation-mediated oxidative damage in the ipsilateral foot - ankle joint compared to wild-type mice which was independent of differences in CHIKV replication. These results suggest that ?? T cells play a protective role in limiting the CHIKV-induced inflammatory response - subsequent tissue - joint damage. Recent epidemics, including the 2004 to 2007 outbreak - the spread of CHIKV to naive populations in the Caribbean - Central - South America with resultant cases imported into the United States, have highlighted the capacity of CHIKV to cause explosive epidemics where the virus can spread to millions of people - rapidly move into new areas. These studies identified ?? T cells as important to both recruitment of key inflammatory cell populations - dampening the tissue injury due to oxidative stress. Given the importance of these cells in the early response to CHIKV, this information may inform the development of CHIKV vaccines - therapeutics.

460) Correction for Chen et al., Bindarit, an inhibitor of monocyte chemotactic protein synthesis, protects against bone loss induced by Chikungunya virus infection
Autor: Chen Weiqiang, Foo Suan-Sin, Taylor Adam, Lulla Aleksei, Merits Andres, Hueston Linda, Forwood Mark R, Walsh Nicole C, Sims Natalie A, Herrero Lara J, Mahalingam Suresh
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Arbovirus ; Chikungunya virus - Protein synthesis ; Chikungunya virus - Infectious diseases ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus
Fonte: Journal of Virology, v. 89, n. 23, p. 12232, 2015
ISSN: 1098-5514
Resumo:

461) IFIT1 differentially interferes with translation and replication of alphavirus genomes and promotes induction of type I interferon
Autor: Reynaud Josephine M, Kim Dal Young, Atasheva Svetlana, Rasalouskaya Aliaksandra, White James P, Diamond Michael S, Weaver Scott C, Frolova Elena I, Frolov Ilya
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Cell ; Chikungunya virus - Cytopathology ; Chikungunya virus - Genome ; Chikungunya virus - RNA ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Vaccine ; Chikungunya virus - Immunology
Fonte: PLoS Pathogens, v. 11, n. 4, p. e1004863, 2015
ISSN: 1553-7374
Resumo: Alphaviruses are a group of widely distributed human - animal pathogens. It is well established that their replication is sensitive to type I IFN treatment, but the mechanism of IFN inhibitory function remains poorly understood. Using a new experimental system, we demonstrate that in the presence of IFN-?, activation of interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs) does not interfere with either attachment of alphavirus virions to the cells, or their entry - nucleocapsid disassembly. However, it strongly affects translation of the virion-delivered virus-specific RNAs. One of the ISG products, IFIT1 protein, plays a major role in this translation block, although an IFIT1-independent mechanism is also involved. The 5'UTRs of the alphavirus genomes were found to differ significantly in their ability to drive translation in the presence of increased concentration of IFIT1. Prior studies have shown that adaptation of naturally circulating alphaviruses to replication in tissue culture results in accumulation of mutations in the 5'UTR, which increase the efficiency of the promoter located in the 5'end of the genome. Here, we show that these mutations also decrease resistance of viral RNA to IFIT1-induced translation inhibition. In the presence of higher levels of IFIT1, alphaviruses with wt 5'UTRs became potent inducers of type I IFN, suggesting a new mechanism of type I IFN induction. We applied this knowledge of IFIT1 interaction with alphaviruses to develop new attenuated variants of Venezuelan equine encephalitis - chikungunya viruses that are more sensitive to the antiviral effects of IFIT1, - thus could serve as novel vaccine c-idates.

462) Zika virus: A review to clinicians
Titulo Alternativo: Vírus zika: Revisão para clínicos
Autor: Pinto Junior V.L., Luz K., Parreira R., Ferrinho P.
Assunto: Arbovirus, zika virus
Descritores: Zika virus - Arbovirus ; Zika virus - Flaviviridae ; Zika virus - Antibodies ; Zika virus - PCR detection ; Zika virus - Transmission ; Zika virus - Chikungunya Fever ; Zika virus - Dengue ; Zika virus - Epidemic ; Zika virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Acta Medica Portuguesa, v. 28, n. 6, p. 760-765, nov. 2015
ISSN: 1646-0758 (electronic),0870-399X
Resumo: Zika virus is a flavivirus related to Dengue virus, yellow fever virus and West Nile virus. It is considered an emerging arbovirus transmitted by mosquitos of the genus Aedes. Its first description took place in 1947 in the Zika Forest in Uganda, isolated on Rhesus monkey used as bait to study the yellow fever virus. Sporadic cases have been detected in African countries and at the end of the 70’s in Indonesia. In 2007, epidemics were described in Micronesia and other islands in the Pacific Ocean and more recently in Brazil. Clinical picture is characterized as a ‘dengue-like’ syndrome, with abrupt onset of fever and an early onset evanescent rash, often pruritic. Occasionally the disease has been associated with Guillain-Barré syndrome. Nevertheless, until now deaths and complications caused by the disease were not reported. The diagnosis can be performed by PCR or by IgG and IgM antibodies detection. The rapid spread of the virus and its epidemic potential are especially problematic in countries where there are the circulation of other arboviruses which imposes difficulties in the differential diagnosis and healthcare burden. Control measures are the same recommended for dengue and chikungunya which are based in health education and vector control.

463) Mortality and fatality due to Chikungunya virus infection in Colombia
Autor: Cardona-Ospina Jaime A, Henao-SanMartin Valentina, Paniz-Mondolfi Alberto E, Rodríguez-Morales Alfonso J
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Biochemistry ; Chikungunya virus - Cytopathology ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Public health
Fonte: Journal of Clinical Virology, v. 70, p. 14-5, 2015
ISSN: 1873-5967
Resumo:

464) Bitten by a bug or a bag? Transfusion-transmitted dengue: a rare complication in the bleeding surgical patient
Autor: Oh Han Boon, Muthu Vaishnavi, Daruwalla Zubin J, Lee Shir Ying, Koay Evelyn S, Tambyah Paul A
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Arbovirus ; Chikungunya virus - Cell ; Chikungunya virus - Flaviviridae ; Chikungunya virus - Pathogenesis ; Chikungunya virus - Infectious diseases ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Transmission ; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever ; Chikungunya virus - Dengue
Fonte: Transfusion, v. 55, n. 7, p. 1655-1661, 2015
ISSN: 1537-2995
Resumo: Blood-borne infections remain a risk of blood transfusions. While routine screening of donated blood products has greatly reduced the risk of human immunodeficiency virus, hepatitis B, - hepatitis C transmission, arboviruses such as dengue, chikungunya, - the West Nile virus remain significant risks especially during outbreaks. We report a rare case of dengue documented to be acquired through a blood transfusion, which resulted in severe thrombocytopenia prolonging admission in hospital in a neurosurgical patient. The donor of one of the units of red blood cells presented with dengue fever 2 days after donating. Sanger sequencing confirmed DENV-2 (dengue virus, Serotype 2) in both the donor - the patient samples - showed 100% nucleotide sequence identity between the two viruses, confirming transfusion-transmitted dengue infection. This case highlights the importance of arboviral screening of donor blood, especially for populations in endemic areas during outbreaks.

465) Fighting back against chikungunya
Autor: Rudd Penny A, Mahalingam Suresh
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Pathogenesis ; Chikungunya virus - Proteins ; Chikungunya virus - Antibodies ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Vaccine ; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever ; Chikungunya virus - Immunology
Fonte: The Lancet. Infectious Diseases, v. 15, n. 54, p. 88-89, 2015
ISSN: 1474-4457
Resumo:

466) Bindarit, an inhibitor of monocyte chemotactic protein synthesis, protects against bone loss induced by chikungunya virus infection
Autor: Chen Weiqiang, Foo Suan-Sin, Taylor Adam, Lulla Aleksei, Merits Andres, Hueston Linda, Forwood Mark R, Walsh Nicole C, Sims Natalie A, Herrero Lara J, Mahalingam Suresh
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Arbovirus ; Chikungunya virus - Pathogenesis ; Chikungunya virus - Protein synthesis ; Chikungunya virus - Proteins ; Chikungunya virus - Cytokines ; Chikungunya virus - Infectious diseases ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever
Fonte: Journal of Virology, v. 89, n. 1, p. 581-593, 2015
ISSN: 1098-5514
Resumo: The recent global resurgence of arthritogenic alphaviruses, in particular chikungunya virus (CHIKV), highlights an urgent need for the development of therapeutic intervention strategies. While there has been significant progress in defining the pathophysiology of alphaviral disease, relatively little is known about the mechanisms involved in CHIKV-induced arthritis or potential therapeutic options to treat the severe arthritic symptoms associated with infection. Here, we used microcomputed tomographic (?CT) - histomorphometric analyses to provide previously undescribed evidence of reduced bone volume in the proximal tibial epiphysis of CHIKV-infected mice compared to the results for mock controls. This was associated with a significant increase in the receptor activator of nuclear factor-?B lig-/osteoprotegerin (RANKL/OPG) ratio in infected murine joints - in the serum of CHIKV patients. The expression levels of the monocyte chemoattractant proteins (MCPs), including MCP-1/CCL2, MCP-2/CCL8, - MCP-3/CCL7, were also highly elevated in joints of CHIKV-infected mice, accompanied by increased cellularity within the bone marrow in tibial epiphysis - ankle joints. Both this effect - CHIKV-induced bone loss were significantly reduced by treatment with the MCP inhibitor bindarit. Collectively, these findings demonstrate a unique role for MCPs in promoting CHIKV-induced osteoclastogenesis - bone loss during disease - suggest that inhibition of MCPs with bindarit may be an effective therapy for patients affected with alphavirus-induced bone loss. Arthritogenic alphaviruses, including chikungunya virus (CHIKV) - Ross River virus (RRV), cause worldwide outbreaks of polyarthritis, which can persist in patients for months following infection. Previous studies have shown that host proinflammatory soluble factors are associated with CHIKV disease severity. Furthermore, it is established that chemokine (C-C motif) lig- 2 (CCL2/MCP-1) is important in cellular recruitment - inducing bone-resorbing osteoclast (OC) formation. Here, we show that CHIKV replicates in bone - triggers bone loss by increasing the RANKL/OPG ratio. CHIKV infection results in MCP-induced cellular infiltration in the inflamed joints, - bone loss can be ameliorated by treatment with an MCP-inhibiting drug, bindarit. Taken together, our data reveal a previously undescribed role for MCPs in CHIKV-induced bone loss: one of recruiting monocytes/OC precursors to joint sites - thereby favoring a pro-osteoclastic microenvironment. This suggests that bindarit may be an effective treatment for alphavirus-induced bone loss - arthritis in humans.

467) Chikungunya virus mutation, Indonesia, 2011
Autor: Maha Masri Sembiring, Susilarini Ni Ketut, Hariastuti Nur Ika
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - DNA ; Chikungunya virus - Genome ; Chikungunya virus - Pathogenesis ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever ; Chikungunya virus - Epidemiology ; Chikungunya virus - Public health
Fonte: Emerging Infectious Diseases, v. 21, n. 2, p. 379-381, 2015
ISSN: 1080-6059
Resumo:

468) Emerging infectious disease (EID) communication during the 2009 H1N1 influenza outbreak: Literature review (2009-2013) of the methodology used for EID communication analysis
Autor: Gesser-Edelsburg Anat, Stolero Nathan, Mordini Emilio, Billingsley Matthew, James James J, Green Manfred S
Assunto: Risk communication; H1N1 pandemic outbreak; Influenza; Framing risk; Literature review
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Infectious diseases ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Epidemic ; Chikungunya virus - Public health
Fonte: Disaster Medicine and Public health Preparedness, v. 9, n. 2, p. 199-206, 2015
ISSN: 1938-744X
Resumo: This year alone has seen outbreaks of epidemics such as Ebola, Chikungunya, - many other emerging infectious diseases (EIDs). We must look to the responses of recent outbreaks to help guide our strategies in current - future outbreaks or we risk repeating the same mistakes. The objective of this paper was to conduct a systematic literature review of the methodology used by studies that examined EID communication during the 2009 H1N1 p-emic outbreak through different communication channels or by analyzing contents - strategies. This was a systematic review of the literature (n=61) studying risk communication strategies of H1N1 influenza, published between 2009 - 2013, - retrieved from searches of computerized databases, h- searches, - authoritative texts by use of specific search criteria. Searches were followed by review, categorization, - mixed qualitative - quantitative content analysis. Of 41 articles that used quantitative methods, most used surveys (n=35); some employed content analyses (n=4) - controlled trials (n=2). The 16 articles that employed qualitative methods relied on content analyses (n=10), semi-structured interviews (n=2) - focus groups (n=4). Four more articles used mixed-methods or nonst-ard methods. Seven different topic categories were found: risk perception - effects on behaviors, framing the risk in the media, public concerns, trust, optimistic bias, uncertainty, - evaluating risk communication. Up until 2013, studies tended to be descriptive - quantitative rather than discursive - qualitative - to focus on the role of the media as representing information - not as a medium for actual communication with the public. Several studies from 2012, - increasingly more in 2013, addressed issues of discourse - framing - the complexity of risk communication with the public. Formative evaluations that use recommendations from past research when designing communication campaigns from the first stages of crises are recommended. Research should employ diverse triangulation processes based on representatives from different stakeholders. Further studies should address the potential offered by social media to create dialogue with individuals - the public at large.

469) Susceptibility of Aedes albopictus and Aedes aegypti to three imported Chikungunya virus strains, including the E1/226V variant in Taiwan
Autor: Chen Tien-Huang, Jian Shu-Wan, Wang Chih-Yuan, Lin Cheo, Wang Pei-Feng, Su Chien-Ling, Teng Hwa-Jen, Shu Pei-Yun, Wu Ho-Sheng
Assunto: Aedes aegypti; Aedes albopictus; Chikungunya virus; Taiwan; Mosquito infection
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - RNA ; Chikungunya virus - Real Time PCR ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Vaccine ; Chikungunya virus - Public health
Fonte: Journal of the Formosan Medical Association, v. 114, n. 6, p. 546-552, 2015
ISSN: 0929-6646
Resumo: An E1/226V variant Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) efficiently transmitted by Aedes albopictus to humans poses a significant threat to public health for those areas with the presence of Aedes albopictus, including Taiwan. We infected three imported CHIKV isolates including the E1/226V variant with Ae. albopictus - Aedes aegypti in the laboratory to underst- the disease risk. Viral RNA was measured by real time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. The viral susceptibility varied by virus strain - mosquito species - strain. The Asian virus strain started to replicate at 5-6 days post infection (dpi) with the maximum virus yield, ranging from 10(3.63) to 10(3.87) at 5-10 dpi in both species. The variant CHIKV Central/East/South African (CESA) virus genotype replicated earlier at 1 dpi with the maximum virus yield ranging from 10(5.63) to 10(6.52) at 3-6 dpi in Ae. albopictus females while the nonvariant virus strain replicated at 1-2 dpi with the maximum virus yield ranging from 10(5.51) to 10(6.27) at 6-12 dpi. In Ae. aegypti, these viruses replicated at 1-2 dpi, with maximum yields at 4-5 dpi (range from 10(5.38) to 10(5.62)). We concluded that the risk of CHIKV in Taiwan is high in all distribution areas of Ae. aegypti - Ae. albopictus for the CESA genotype - that the E1/226V variant virus strain presents an even higher risk.

470) A naturally occurring substitution in the E2 protein of Salmonid alphavirus subtype 3 changes viral fitness
Autor: Karlsen Marius, Andersen Linda, Blindheim Steffen H, Rimstad Espen, Nylund Are
Assunto: Adaptation; E2; Evolution; SAV3; Salmo salar; Salmonid alphavirus
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Biosynthesis ; Chikungunya virus - Cell ; Chikungunya virus - DNA ; Chikungunya virus - Molecular structure ; Chikungunya virus - Pathogenesis ; Chikungunya virus - Proteins ; Chikungunya virus - RNA ; Chikungunya virus - Infectious diseases ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus
Fonte: Virus Research, v. 196, p. 79-86, 2015
ISSN: 1872-7492
Resumo: Phylogenetic analyses of the Salmonid alphavirus subtype 3 (SAV3) epizootic have suggested that a substitution from proline to serine in the receptor binding protein E2 position 206 has occurred after the introduction of virus from a wild reservoir to farmed salmonid fish in Norway. We modelled the 3D structure of P62, the uncleaved E3-E2 precursor, of SAVH20/03 based on its sequence homology to the Chikungunya virus (CHIKV), - studied in vitro - in vivo effects of the mutation using reverse genetics. E2(206) is located on the surface of the B-domain of E2, which is associated with receptor attachment in alphaviruses. Recombinant virus expressing the E2(206S) codon replicated slower - produced significantly less genomic copies than virus expressing the ancestral E2(206P) codon in vitro in Bluegill Fry (BF2) cells. The E2(206S) mutant was out-competed by the E2(206P) mutant after 5 passages in an in vitro competition assay, confirming that the substitution negatively affects the efficacy of virus multiplication in cell culture. Both mutants were highly infectious to Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar), produced similar viral RNA loads in gills, heart, kidney - brain, - induced similar histopathologic changes in these organs. The E2(206S) mutant produced a less persistent infection in salmon - was shed more rapidly to water than the E2(206P) mutant. Reduced generation time through more rapid shedding could therefore explain why a serine in this position became dominant in the viral population after SAV3 was introduced to farmed salmon from the wild reservoir.

471) Sequence-specific modifications enhance the broad-spectrum antiviral response activated by RIG-I agonists
Autor: Chiang Cindy, Beljanski Vladimir, Yin Kevin, Olagnier David, Ben Yebdri Fethia, Steel Courtney, Goulet Marie-Line, DeFilippis Victor R, Streblow Daniel N, Haddad Elias K, Trautmann Lydie, Ross Ted, Lin Rongtuan, Hiscott John
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Cell ; Chikungunya virus - Flaviviridae ; Chikungunya virus - Immune response ; Chikungunya virus - Molecular structure ; Chikungunya virus - Pathogenesis ; Chikungunya virus - RNA ; Chikungunya virus - Immune response ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Vaccine ; Chikungunya virus - Dengue ; Chikungunya virus - Immunology
Fonte: Journal of Virology, v. 89, n. 15, p. 8011-8025, 2015
ISSN: 1098-5514
Resumo: The cytosolic RIG-I (retinoic acid-inducible gene I) receptor plays a pivotal role in the initiation of the immune response against RNA virus infection by recognizing short 5'-triphosphate (5'ppp)-containing viral RNA - activating the host antiviral innate response. In the present study, we generated novel 5'ppp RIG-I agonists of varieous lengths, structures, - sequences - evaluated the generation of the antiviral - inflammatory responses in human epithelial A549 cells, human innate immune primary cells, - murine models of influenza - chikungunya viral pathogenesis. A 99-nucleotide, uridine-rich hairpin 5'pppRNA termed M8 stimulated an extensive - robust interferon response compared to other modified 5'pppRNA structures, RIG-I aptamers, or poly(I·C). Interestingly, manipulation of the primary RNA sequence alone was sufficient to modulate antiviral activity - inflammatory response, in a manner dependent exclusively on RIG-I - independent of MDA5 - TLR3. Both prophylactic - therapeutic administration of M8 effectively inhibited influenza virus - dengue virus replication in vitro. Furthermore, multiple strains of influenza virus that were resistant to oseltamivir, an FDA-approved therapeutic treatment for influenza, were highly sensitive to inhibition by M8. Finally, prophylactic M8 treatment in vivo prolonged survival - reduced lung viral titers of mice challenged with influenza virus, as well as reducing chikungunya virus-associated foot swelling - viral load. Altogether, these results demonstrate that 5'pppRNA can be rationally designed to achieve a maximal RIG-I-mediated protective antiviral response against human-pathogenic RNA viruses. The development of novel therapeutics to treat human-pathogenic RNA viral infections is an important goal to reduce spread of infection - to improve human health - safety. This study investigated the design of an RNA agonist with enhanced antiviral - inflammatory properties against influenza, dengue, - chikungunya viruses. A novel, sequence-dependent, uridine-rich RIG-I agonist generated a protective antiviral response in vitro - in vivo - was effective at concentrations 100-fold lower than prototype sequences or other RNA agonists, highlighting the robust activity - potential clinical use of the 5'pppRNA against RNA virus infection. Altogether, the results identify a novel, sequence-specific RIG-I agonist as an attractive therapeutic c-idate for the treatment of a broad range of RNA viruses, a pressing issue in which a need for new - more effective options persists.

472) Autochthonous chikungunya transmission and extreme climate events in Southern France
Autor: Roiz David, Boussès Philippe, Simard Frédéric, Paupy Christophe, Fontenille Didier
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Arbovirus ; Chikungunya virus - Pathogenesis ; Chikungunya virus - Infectious diseases ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Transmission ; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever ; Chikungunya virus - Epidemiology ; Chikungunya virus - Public health
Fonte: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, v. 9, n. 6, p. e0003854, 2015
ISSN: 1935-2735
Resumo: Extreme precipitation events are increasing as a result of ongoing global warming, but controversy surrounds the relationship between flooding - mosquito-borne diseases. A common view among the scientific community - public health officers is that heavy rainfalls have a flushing effect on breeding sites, which negatively affects vector populations, thereby diminishing disease transmission. During 2014 in Montpellier, France, there were at least 11 autochthonous cases of chikungunya caused by the invasive tiger mosquito Aedes albopictus in the vicinity of an imported case. We show that an extreme rainfall event increased - extended the abundance of the disease vector Ae. albopictus, hence the period of autochthonous transmission of chikungunya. We report results from close monitoring of the adult - egg population of the chikungunya vector Ae. albopictus through weekly sampling over the entire mosquito breeding season, which revealed an unexpected pattern. Statistical analysis of the seasonal dynamics of female abundance in relation to climatic factors showed that these relationships changed after the heavy rainfall event. Before the inundations, accumulated temperatures are the most important variable predicting Ae. albopictus seasonal dynamics. However, after the inundations, accumulated rainfall over the 4 weeks prior to capture predicts the seasonal dynamics of this species - extension of the transmission period. Our empirical data suggests that heavy rainfall events did increase the risk of arbovirus transmission in Southern France in 2014 by favouring a rapid rise in abundance of vector mosquitoes. Further studies should now confirm these results in different ecological contexts, so that the impact of global change - extreme climatic events on mosquito population dynamics - the risk of disease transmission can be adequately understood.

473) Reflections on the emergence of Chikungunya virus in the United States: Time to revisit a successful paradigm for the safety of blood-derived therapies
Autor: Farrugia Albert, Kreil Thomas R
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Pathogenesis ; Chikungunya virus - Infectious diseases ; Chikungunya virus - Inflammation ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever ; Chikungunya virus - Epidemiology ; Chikungunya virus - Public health
Fonte: Transfusion, v. 55, n. 1, p. 224-226, 2015
ISSN: 1537-2995
Resumo:

474) A novel class of small molecule compounds that inhibit hepatitis C virus infection by targeting the prohibitin-CRaf pathway
Autor: Liu Shufeng, Wang Wenyu, Brown Lauren E, Qiu Chao, Lajkiewicz Neil, Zhao Ting, Zhou Jianhua, Porco John A, Wang Tony T
Assunto: HCV; Entry factors; Entry inhibitors; Rocaglates
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Cell ; Chikungunya virus - Molecular structure ; Chikungunya virus - Proteins ; Chikungunya virus - Infectious diseases ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Immunology ; Chikungunya virus - Public health
Fonte: EBioMedicine, v. 2, n. 11, p. 1600-1606, 2015
ISSN: 2352-3964
Resumo: Identification of novel drug targets - affordable therapeutic agents remains a high priority in the fight against chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. Here, we report that the cellular proteins prohibitin 1 (PHB1) - 2 (PHB2) are pan-genotypic HCV entry factors functioning at a post-binding step. While predominantly found in mitochondria, PHBs localize to the plasma membrane of hepatocytes through their transmembrane domains - interact with both EGFR - CRaf. Targeting PHB by rocaglamide (Roc-A), a natural product that binds PHB1 - 2, reduced cell surface PHB1 - 2, disrupted PHB-CRaf interaction, - inhibited HCV entry at low nanomolar concentrations. A structure-activity analysis of 32 synthetic Roc-A analogs indicated that the chiral, racemic version of aglaroxin C, a natural product biosynthetically related to Roc-A, displayed improved potency - therapeutic index against HCV infection. This study reveals a new class of HCV entry inhibitors that target the PHB1/2-CRaf pathway.

475) Zika virus in Brazil and the danger of infestation by Aedes (Stegomyia) mosquitoes
Autor: Marcondes Carlos Brisola, Ximenes Maria de Fátima Freire de Melo
Assunto: Aedes aegypti; Aedes albopictus; Arbovirus; Stegomyia; Culicidae
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Arbovirus ; Chikungunya virus - Cytopathology ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Transmission ; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever ; Chikungunya virus - Dengue ; Chikungunya virus - Epidemiology ; Chikungunya virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical, v. 49, n. 1, p. 4-10, 2015
ISSN: 1678-9849
Resumo: Zika virus, already widely distributed in Africa - Asia, was recently reported in two Northeastern Brazilian: State of Bahia - State of Rio Gr-e do Norte, - one Southeastern: State of São Paulo. This finding adds a potentially noxious virus to a list of several other viruses that are widely transmitted by Aedes (Stegomyia) aegypti - Aedes (Stegomyia) albopictus in Brazil. The pathology - epidemiology, including the distribution - vectors associated with Zika virus, are reviewed. This review is focused on viruses transmitted by Aedes (Stegomyia) mosquitoes, including dengue, Chikungunya, Zika, Mayaro, - yellow fever virus, to emphasize the risks of occurrence for these arboviruses in Brazil - neighboring countries. Other species of Aedes (Stegomyia) are discussed, emphasizing their involvement in arbovirus transmission - the possibility of adaptation to environments modified by human activities - introduction in Brazil.

476) Collaborative study for the characterization of a chikungunya virus RNA reference reagent for use in nucleic acid testing
Autor: Añez G, Jiang Z, Heisey D A R, Kerby S, Rios M
Assunto: Chikungunya virus; Nucleic acid amplification tests; Reference standards
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Cell ; Chikungunya virus - RNA ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Epidemiology
Fonte: Vox Sanguinis, v. 109, n. 4, p. 312-318, 2015
ISSN: 1423-0410
Resumo: Infections with the mosquito-borne chikungunya virus (CHIKV) can cause febrile illness or be asymptomatic. Laboratory diagnosis of CHIKV is often made with laboratory-developed nucleic acid amplification technology (NAT) assays because there are no U.S. Food - Drug Administration (FDA)-approved diagnostic or blood screening assays. We aimed to produce a well-characterized CHIKV RNA reference reagent (CHIKV-RR) for use in NAT assays. A CHIKV RNA-RR consisting of cell culture-grown, heat-inactivated CHIKV diluted in human plasma was assessed by 8 laboratories in a collaborative study. The participants were asked to test the CHIKV-RR using their NAT assay(s) by qualitative testing (determination of RNA end-point by testing log - half-log dilutions followed by calculation of estimated NAT-detectable units/ml, after adjustment for the sample volume used for testing), - by quantitative testing, when available. Results from the testing showed that the CHIKV-RR had an estimated overall mean of 7.56 log10 detectable units/ml, ranging from 6.2 log10 to 8.6 log10. The Center for Biologics for Evaluation - Research/FDA CHIKV RNA-RR for NAT was established with a concentration of 7.56 log10 detectable units/ml.

477) Towards antivirals against Chikungunya virus
Autor: Abdelnabi Rana, Neyts Johan, Delang Leen
Assunto: Antiviral therapy; Arbidol; Chikungunya virus; Favipiravir; Monoclonal antibodies; Ribavirin
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Antibodies ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Vaccine ; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever
Fonte: Antiviral Research, v. 121, p. 59-68, 2015
ISSN: 1872-9096
Resumo: Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) has re-emerged in recent decades, causing major outbreaks of chikungunya fever in many parts of Africa - Asia, - since the end of 2013 also in Central - South America. Infections are usually associated with a low mortality rate, but can proceed into a painful chronic stage, during which patients may suffer from polyarthralgia - joint stiffness for weeks - even several years. There are no vaccines or antiviral drugs available for the prevention or treatment of CHIKV infections. Current therapy therefore consists solely of the administration of analgesics, antipyretics - anti-inflammatory agents to relieve symptoms. We here review molecules that have been reported to inhibit CHIKV replication, either as direct-acting antivirals, host-targeting drugs or those that act via a yet unknown mechanism. This article forms part of a symposium in Antiviral Research on Chikungunya discovers the New World.""

478) Zika virus: yet another emerging threat to Nepal
Titulo Alternativo:
Autor: Dhimal, M; Gautam, I; Baral, G; Pandey, B; Karki, K B
Assunto: Aedes aegypti; Aedes albopictus; Zika virus; Microcephaly; Birth defect, Nepal
Descritores: Zika Virus - Arbovirus ; Zika Virus - RNA ; Zika Virus - RNA virus ; Zika Virus - Transmission ; Zika Virus - Dengue ; Zika Virus - Microcephaly ; Zika Virus - Public health ; Zika Virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Journal of Nepal Health Research Council, v. 13, n. 3, p. 248-251, 2015.
ISSN: 1999-6217
Resumo: Zika virus (ZIKV) is a flavivirus with single stranded RNA related to yellow fever, dengue, West Nile, and Japanese encephalitis viruses and is transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes primarily by Aedes aegipti which is widely distributed in Nepal. ZIKV was first identified incidentally in Rhesus monkey in Uganda in 1947 and human infection in 1952; and by now outbreaks of ZIKV disease have been recorded in Africa, the Americas, Asia and the Pacific. The World Health Organization (WHO) has recently declared the ZIKV an international public health emergency. The aim of this paper is to briefly summarize origin, signs, symptoms, transmission, diagnosis, preventions and management of ZIKV and possible threat to Nepal in light of endemicity of other arbovirus infections and common mosquito vector species in Nepal. Keyword: Aedes aegypti; aedes albopictus; zika virus; microcephaly; birth defect; Nepal.

479) Differential Phosphatidylinositol-3-Kinase-Akt-mTOR activation by Semliki forest and Chikungunya viruses is dependent on nsP3 and connected to replication complex internalization
Autor: Thaa Bastian, Biasiotto Roberta, Eng Kai, Neuvonen Maarit, Götte Benjamin, Rheinemann Lara, Mutso Margit, Utt Age, Varghese Finny, Balistreri Giuseppe, Merits Andres, Ahola Tero, McInerney Gerald M
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Biosynthesis ; Chikungunya virus - Cell ; Chikungunya virus - Cytopathology ; Chikungunya virus - Molecular structure ; Chikungunya virus - Pathogenesis ; Chikungunya virus - Proteins ; Chikungunya virus - RNA ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever
Fonte: Journal of Virology, v. 89, n. 22, p. 11420-11437, 2015
ISSN: 1098-5514
Resumo: Many viruses affect or exploit the phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K)-Akt-mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway, a crucial prosurvival signaling cascade. We report that this pathway was strongly activated in cells upon infection with the Old World alphavirus Semliki Forest virus (SFV), even under conditions of complete nutrient starvation. We mapped this activation to the hyperphosphorylated/acidic domain in the C-terminal tail of SFV nonstructural protein nsP3. Viruses with a deletion of this domain (SFV-?50) but not of other regions in nsP3 displayed a clearly delayed - reduced capacity of Akt stimulation. Ectopic expression of the nsP3 of SFV wild type (nsP3-wt), but not nsP3-?50, equipped with a membrane anchor was sufficient to activate Akt. We linked PI3K-Akt-mTOR stimulation to the intracellular dynamics of viral replication complexes, which are formed at the plasma membrane - subsequently internalized in a process blocked by the PI3K inhibitor wortmannin. Replication complex internalization was observed upon infection of cells with SFV-wt - SFV mutants with deletions in nsP3 but not with SFV-?50, where replication complexes were typically accumulated at the cell periphery. In cells infected with the closely related chikungunya virus (CHIKV), the PI3K-Akt-mTOR pathway was only moderately activated. Replication complexes of CHIKV were predominantly located at the cell periphery. Exchanging the hypervariable C-terminal tail of nsP3 between SFV - CHIKV induced the phenotype of strong PI3K-Akt-mTOR activation - replication complex internalization in CHIKV. In conclusion, infection with SFV but not CHIKV boosts PI3K-Akt-mTOR through the hyperphosphorylated/acidic domain of nsP3 to drive replication complex internalization. SFV - CHIKV are very similar in terms of molecular - cell biology, e.g., regarding replication - molecular interactions, but are strikingly different regarding pathology: CHIKV is a relevant human pathogen, causing high fever - joint pain, while SFV is a low-pathogenic model virus, albeit neuropathogenic in mice. We show that both SFV - CHIKV activate the prosurvival PI3K-Akt-mTOR pathway in cells but greatly differ in their capacities to do so: Akt is strongly - persistently activated by SFV infection but only moderately activated by CHIKV. We mapped this activation capacity to a region in nonstructural protein 3 (nsP3) of SFV - could functionally transfer this region to CHIKV. Akt activation is linked to the subcellular dynamics of replication complexes, which are efficiently internalized from the cell periphery for SFV but not CHIKV. This difference in signal pathway stimulation - replication complex localization may have implications for pathology.

480) Chikungunya virus in Macaques, Malaysia
Autor: Sam I-Ching, Chua Chong Long, Rovie-Ryan Jeffrine J, Fu Jolene Y L, Tong Charmaine, Sitam Frankie Thomas, Chan Yoke Fun
Assunto: Macaca; Macaca fascicularis; Malaysia; Chikungunya virus; Macaques; Monkeys; Neutralizing antibodies; Nonhuman primates; Seroprevalence; Viruses
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Antibodies ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus
Fonte: Emerging Infectious Diseases, v. 21, n. 9, p. 1683-1685, 2015
ISSN: 1080-6059
Resumo:

481) Wolbachia utilize host actin for efficient maternal transmission in Drosophila melanogaster
Autor: Newton Irene L G, Savytskyy Oleksandr, Sheehan Kathy B
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Cell ; Chikungunya virus - RNA ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Transmission ; Chikungunya virus - Dengue
Fonte: PLoS Pathogens, v. 11, n. 4, p. e1004798, 2015
ISSN: 1553-7374
Resumo: Wolbachia pipientis is a ubiquitous, maternally transmitted bacterium that infects the germline of insect hosts. Estimates are that Wolbachia infect nearly 40% of insect species on the planet, making it the most prevalent infection on Earth. The bacterium, infamous for the reproductive phenotypes it induces in arthropod hosts, has risen to recent prominence due to its use in vector control. Wolbachia infection prevents the colonization of vectors by RNA viruses, including Drosophila C virus - important human pathogens such as Dengue - Chikungunya. Here we present data indicating that Wolbachia utilize the host actin cytoskeleton during oogenesis for persistence within - transmission between Drosophila melanogaster generations. We show that phenotypically wild type flies heterozygous for cytoskeletal mutations in Drosophila profilin (chic(221/+) - chic(1320/+)) or villin (qua(6-396/+)) either clear a Wolbachia infection, or result in significantly reduced infection levels. This reduction of Wolbachia is supported by PCR evidence, Western blot results - cytological examination. This phenotype is unlikely to be the result of maternal loading defects, defects in oocyte polarization, or germline stem cell proliferation, as the flies are phenotypically wild type in egg size, shape, - number. Importantly, however, heterozygous mutant flies exhibit decreased total G-actin in the ovary, compared to control flies - chic(221) heterozygous mutants exhibit decreased expression of profilin. Additionally, RNAi knockdown of profilin during development decreases Wolbachia titers. We analyze evidence in support of alternative theories to explain this Wolbachia phenotype - conclude that our results support the hypothesis that Wolbachia utilize the actin skeleton for efficient transmission - maintenance within Drosophila.

482) An improved odor bait for monitoring populations of Aedes aegypti-vectors of dengue and chikungunya viruses in Kenya
Autor: Owino Eunice A, Sang Rosemary, Sole Catherine L, Pirk Christian, Mbogo Charles, Torto Baldwyn
Assunto: Aedes aegypti; Dengue; Chikungunya; Attractant; Electrophysiology; Mosquito; Traps
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Flaviviridae ; Chikungunya virus - Pathogenesis ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Transmission ; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever ; Chikungunya virus - Dengue ; Chikungunya virus - Epidemic ; Chikungunya virus - Epidemiology ; Chikungunya virus - Public health
Fonte: Parasites & Vectors, v. 8, p. 253, 2015
ISSN: 1756-3305
Resumo: Effective surveillance - estimation of the biting fraction of Aedes aegypti is critical for accurate determination of the extent of virus transmission during outbreaks - inter-epidemic periods of dengue - chikungunya fever. Here, we describe the development - use of synthetic human odor baits for improved sampling of adult Ae. aegypti, in two dengue - chikungunya fevers endemic areas in Kenya; Kilifi - Busia counties. We collected volatiles from the feet - trunks of two female - two male volunteers aged between 25 - 45 years. We used coupled gas chromatography- electroantennographic detection (GC/EAD) analysis to screen for antennally-active components from the volatiles - coupled GC-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) to identify the EAD-active components. Using r-omized replicated designs, we compared the efficacies of Biogents (BG) sentinel traps baited with carbon dioxide plus either single or blends of the identified compounds against the BG sentinel trap baited with carbon dioxide plus the BG commercial lure in trapping Ae. aegypti. The daily mosquito counts in the different traps were subjected to negative binomial regression following the generalized linear models procedures. A total of ten major EAD-active components identified by GC/MS as mainly aldehydes - carboxylic acids, were consistently isolated from the human feet - trunk volatiles from at least two volunteers. Field assays with synthetic chemicals of the shared EAD-active components identified from the feet - trunk gave varying results. Ae. aegypti were more attracted to carbon dioxide baited BG sentinel traps combined with blends of aldehydes than to similar traps combined with blends of carboxylic acids. When we assessed the efficacy of hexanoic acid detected in odors of the BG commercial lure - volunteers plus carbon dioxide, trap captures of Ae. aegypti doubled over the trap baited with the commercial BG lure. However, dispensing aldehydes - carboxylic acids together in blends, reduced trap captures of Ae. aegypti by ~45%-50%. Our results provide evidence for roles of carboxylic acids - aldehydes in Ae. aegypti host attraction - also show that of the carboxylic acids, hexanoic acid is a more effective lure for the vector than the BG commercial lure.

483) Therapeutics and vaccines against Chikungunya virus
Autor: Ahola Tero, Courderc Therese, Ng Lisa F P, Hallengärd David, Powers Ann, Lecuit Marc, Esteban Mariano, Merits Andres, Roques Pierre, Liljeström Peter
Assunto: Antibodies; Antiviral; Attenuated virus; Chikungunya; DNA chimeric viruses; Polymerase; Protease; Vaccine; Virus-like particles
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - DNA ; Chikungunya virus - Proteins ; Chikungunya virus - Antibodies ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Vaccine
Fonte: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases, v. 15, n. 4, p. 250-257, 2015
ISSN: 1557-7759
Resumo: Currently, there are no licensed vaccines or therapies available against chikungunya virus (CHIKV), - these were subjects discussed during a CHIKV meeting recently organized in Langkawi, Malaysia. In this review, we chart the approaches taken in both areas. Because of a sharp increase in new data in these fields, the present paper is complementary to previous reviews by Weaver et al. in 2012 - Kaur - Chu in 2013 . The most promising antivirals so far discovered are reviewed, with a special focus on the virus-encoded replication proteins as potential targets. Within the vaccines in development, our review emphasizes the various strategies in parallel development that are unique in the vaccine field against a single disease.

484) Benzouracil-coumarin-arene conjugates as inhibiting agents for Chikungunya virus
Autor: Hwu Jih Ru, Kapoor Mohit, Tsay Shwu-Chen, Lin Chun-Cheng, Hwang Kuo Chu, Horng Jia-Cherng, Chen I-Chia, Shieh Fa-Kuen, Leyssen Pieter, Neyts Johan
Assunto: Benzouracil; Chikungunya virus; Conjugate; Coumarin; Sulfonate ester; Thiomethylene
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Arbovirus ; Chikungunya virus - Cell ; Chikungunya virus - Molecular structure ; Chikungunya virus - Molecular methods ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Vaccine ; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever ; Chikungunya virus - Epidemic
Fonte: Antiviral Research, v. 118, p. 103-109, 2015
ISSN: 1872-9096
Resumo: Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is an arbovirus that was first recognized in an epidemic form in East Africa in 1952-1953. The virus is primarily transmitted through mosquitoes - the resulting disease, chikungunya fever, is found in nearly 40 countries. Neither an effective vaccine nor a specific antiviral drug exists for treatments of chikungunya fever. Thus 22 new conjugated compounds of uracil-coumarin-arene were designed - synthesized as potential inhibiting agents. Their chemical structures were determined unambiguously by spectroscopic methods, including single-crystal X-ray diffraction crystallography. The three units in these conjugates were connected by specially designed -SCH2- - -OSO2- joints. Five of these new conjugates were found to inhibit CHIKV in Vero cells with significant potency (EC50 = 10.2-19.1 ?M) - showed low toxicity (CC50 = 75.2-178 ?M). The selective index values were 8.8-11.5 for three conjugates. By analysis of the data from the anti-viral assays, the structure-activity relationship is derived on the basis of the nature of the uracil, the functional groups attached to the arene, - the joints between the ring units.

485) Zika virus in an american recreational traveler
Autor: Summers Dyan J, Acosta Rebecca Wolfe, Acosta Alberto M
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Vaccine ; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever ; Chikungunya virus - Dengue ; Chikungunya virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Journal of Travel Medicine, v. 22, n. 5, p. 338-340, 2015
ISSN: 1708-8305
Resumo: We report the case of a 48-year-old American traveler who presented to our clinic with diffuse rash, malaise, fatigue, fever, arthralgia, low back pain, - bilateral exudative conjunctivitis. The patient had an extensive vaccination - travel history: most notable for prior receipt of yellow fever vaccine; extensive travel or residence in areas endemic for dengue, chikungunya, - West Nile virus; - recent travel to French Polynesia. Clinical - laboratory findings were consistent with Zika virus (ZIKV) infection. Our report highlights the need to include ZIKV in the differential diagnosis, especially in febrile patients with a rash returning from endemic areas.

486) Role of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus during the 2011 dengue fever epidemics in Hanoi, Vietnam
Autor: Kim Lien Pham Thi,Duoc Vu Trong,Gavotte Laurent,Cornillot Emmanuel,Nga Phan Thi,Briant Laurence,Frutos Roger,Duong Tran Nhu
Assunto: Aedes aegypti; Aedes albopictus; Dengue; Vector density
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - virus ; Aedes aegypti - Dengue ; Aedes aegypti - Epidemic ; Aedes aegypti - Epidemiology
Fonte: Asian Pacific journal of tropical medicine, v. 8, n. 7, p. 543-548, 2015
ISSN: 1995-7645
Resumo: To record the human cases of dengue fever (DF) and investigate the Aedes mosquito species circulating during the Hanoi 2011 DF epidemics. 24 different outbreak points were recorded in 8 districts between August and December 2011. 140 patients were hospitalized following dengue diagnostic with a predominance of males (59.3%) and the 15-34 age class. Only DENV-1 (11.27%) and DENV-2 (88.73%) serotypes were detected in human samples. Mosquito sampling performed in and around patients households revealed the predominance of Aedes aegypti (A. aegypti) (95.15%) versus Aedes albopictus (4.85%). There is a positive correlation between the population density of A. aegypti and the number of human cases and duration of outbreaks. This was not observed for Aedes albopictus. Three pools of A. aegypti were positive with dengue virus, two with DENV-1 and one with DENV-2.

487) Chikungunya virus infections
Autor: Weaver Scott C, Lecuit Marc
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever ; Chikungunya virus - Public health
Fonte: The New England Journal of Medicine, v. 373, n. 1, p. 94-95, 2015
ISSN: 1533-4406
Resumo:

488) Chikungunya viral arthritis in the United States: A mimic of seronegative rheumatoid arthritis
Autor: Miner Jonathan J, Aw Yeang Han Xian, Fox Julie M, Taffner Samantha, Malkova Olga N, Oh Stephen T, Kim Alfred H J, Diamond Michael S, Lenschow Deborah J, Yokoyama Wayne M
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Cell ; Chikungunya virus - Pathogenesis ; Chikungunya virus - Proteins ; Chikungunya virus - Antibodies ; Chikungunya virus - T lymphocytes ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya virus - Clinical examination ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever ; Chikungunya virus - Immunology ; Chikungunya virus - Public health
Fonte: Arthritis & Rheumatology, v. 67, n. 5, p. 1214-1220, 2015
ISSN: 2326-5205
Resumo: Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is an arthritogenic mosquito-transmitted alphavirus that spread to the Caribbean in 2013 - to the US in 2014. CHIKV-infected patients develop inflammatory arthritis that can persist for months or years, but little is known about the rheumatologic - immunologic features of CHIKV-related arthritis in humans, particularly as compared to rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The purpose of this study was to describe these features in a group of 10 American travelers who were nearly simultaneously infected while visiting Haiti in June 2014. Patient history was obtained - physical examination - laboratory tests were performed. All patients with CHIKV-related arthritis had detectable levels of anti-CHIKV IgG. Using cytometry by time-of-flight (CyTOF), we analyzed peripheral blood mononuclear cells in CHIKV-infected patients, healthy controls, - patients with untreated, active RA. Among 10 CHIKV-infected individuals, 8 developed persistent symmetric polyarthritis that met the American College of Rheumatology/European League Against Rheumatism 2010 criteria for (seronegative) RA. CyTOF analysis revealed that RA - CHIKV-infected patients had greater percentages of activated - effector CD4+ - CD8+ T cells than healthy controls. In addition to similar clinical features, patients with CHIKV infection - patients with RA develop very similar peripheral T cell phenotypes. These overlapping clinical - immunologic features highlight a need for rheumatologists to consider CHIKV infection when evaluating patients with new, symmetric polyarthritis.

489) Temperature tolerance and inactivation of Chikungunya virus
Autor: Huang Yan-Jang S, Hsu Wei-Wen, Higgs Stephen, Vanlandingham Dana L
Assunto: Chikungunya virus; Heat inactivation; Thermostability
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Antibodies ; Chikungunya virus - Serological diagnosis ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus
Fonte: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases, v. 15, n. 11, p. 674-677, 2015
ISSN: 1557-7759
Resumo: In late 2013, chikungunya virus (CHIKV) was introduced to the New World - large outbreaks occurred in the Caribbean isl-s causing over a million suspected - over 20,000 laboratory-confirmed cases. Serological analysis is an essential component for the diagnosis of CHIKV infection together with virus isolation - detection of viral nucleic acid. Demonstrating virus neutralizing by serum antibodies in a plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT) is the gold st-ard of all serological diagnostic assays. Prior to the testing, heat inactivation of serum at 56°C for 30 min is required for the inactivation of complement activity - adventitious viruses. The presence of adventitious contaminating viruses may interfere with the results by leading to a higher number of plaques on the monolayers - subsequent false-negative results. This procedure is widely accepted for the inactivation of flaviviruses - alphaviruses. In this study, the thermostability of CHIKV was evaluated. Heat inactivation at 56°C for 30 min was demonstrated to be insufficient for the complete removal of infectious CHIKV virions present in the samples. This thermotolerance of CHIKV could compromise the accuracy of serum tests, - therefore longer treatment for greater than 120 min is recommended.

490) Climate change influences on global distributions of dengue and chikungunya virus vectors
Autor: Campbell Lindsay P, Luther Caylor, Moo-Llanes David, Ramsey Janine M, Danis-Lozano Rogelio, Peterson A Townsend
Assunto: Chikungunya; Climate change; Dengue; Mosquitoes; Potential distribution
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Flaviviridae ; Chikungunya virus - Pathogenesis ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Transmission ; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever ; Chikungunya virus - Dengue ; Chikungunya virus - Epidemiology ; Chikungunya virus - Public health
Fonte: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, v. 370, n. 1665, 2015
ISSN: 1471-2970
Resumo: Numerous recent studies have illuminated global distributions of human cases of dengue - other mosquito-transmitted diseases, yet the potential distributions of key vector species have not been incorporated integrally into those mapping efforts. Projections onto future conditions to illuminate potential distributional shifts in coming decades are similarly lacking, at least outside Europe. This study examined the global potential distributions of Aedes aegypti - Aedes albopictus in relation to climatic variation worldwide to develop ecological niche models that, in turn, allowed anticipation of possible changes in distributional patterns into the future. Results indicated complex global rearrangements of potential distributional areas, which--given the impressive dispersal abilities of these two species--are likely to translate into actual distributional shifts. This exercise also signalled a crucial priority: digitization - sharing of existing distributional data so that models of this sort can be developed more rigorously, as present availability of such data is fragmentary - woefully incomplete.

491) Effect of isodillapiole on the expression of the insecticide resistance genes GSTE7 and CYP6N12 in Aedes aegypti from central Amazonia
Autor: Lima, V. S.; Pinto, A. C.; Rafael, M. S.
Assunto: Aedes aegypti; Isodillapiole; qRT-PCR
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - Arbovirus ; Aedes aegypti - RT-PCR
Fonte: Genetics and Molecular Research, v. 14, n. 4, p. 16728-16735, 2015
ISSN: 1676-5680
Resumo: The yellow fever mosquito Aedes (Stegomyia) aegypti is the main vector of dengue arbovirus and other arboviruses. Dengue prevention measures for the control of A. aegypti involve mainly the use of synthetic insecticides. The constant use of insecticides has caused resistance in this mosquito. Alternative studies on plant extracts and their products have been conducted with the aim of controlling the spread of the mosquito. Dillapiole is a compound found in essential oils of the plant Piper aduncum (Piperaceae) which has been effective as a biopesticide against A. aegypti. Isodillapiole is a semisynthetic substance obtained by the isomerization of dillapiole. In the present study, isodillapiole was evaluated for its potential to induce differential expression of insecticide resistance genes (GSTE7 and CYP6N12) in 3rd instar larvae of A. aegypti. These larvae were exposed to this compound at two concentrations (20 and 40 mu g/mL) for 4 h during four generations (G(1), G(2), G(3), and G(4)). Quantitative RT-PCR was used to assess the expression of GSTE7 and CYP6N12 genes. GSTE7 and CYP6N12 relative expression levels were higher at 20 than at 40 mu g/mL and varied among generations. The decrease in GSTE7 and CYP6N12 expression levels at the highest isodillapiole concentration suggests that larvae may have suffered from metabolic stress, revealing a potential alternative product in the control of A. aegypti.

492) Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) inhibitors from natural sources: A medicinal chemistry perspective
Autor: Bhakat Soumendranath, Soliman Mahmoud E S
Assunto: Chikungunya virus; Antivirals; Natural product
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Molecular structure ; Chikungunya virus - Infectious diseases ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Vaccine ; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever
Fonte: Journal of Natural Medicines, v. 69, n. 4, p. 451-462, 2015
ISSN: 1861-0293
Resumo: Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is one of the re-emerging neglected" tropical diseases whose recent outbreak affected not only Africa - South-East Asia but also several parts of America - Europe. To date, despite its serious nature, no antivirals or vaccines were developed in order to counter this resurgent infectious disease. The recent advancement in crystallography - availability of crystal structures of certain domains of CHIKV initiates the development of anti-CHIKV agents using structure-based drug design or synthetic medicinal chemistry approach. Despite the fact that almost 50% of the new chemical entities against several biological targets were either obtained from natural products or natural product analogues, a very humble effort was directed towards identification of novel CHIKV inhibitors from natural products. In this review, besides a brief overview on CHIKV as well as the nature as a source of medicines, we highlight the current progress - future steps towards the discovery of CHIKV inhibitors from natural products. This report could pave the road towards the design of novel semi-synthetic derivatives with enhanced anti-viral activities."

493) West nile virus encephalitis 16 years later
Autor: Kleinschmidt-DeMasters Bette K, Beckham J David
Assunto: Arbovirus; Epidemic; Infection; Neuropathology
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Arbovirus ; Chikungunya virus - Cytopathology ; Chikungunya virus - Flaviviridae ; Chikungunya virus - Genome ; Chikungunya virus - RNA ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Dengue ; Chikungunya virus - Epidemic
Fonte: Brain Pathology, v. 25, n. 5, p. 625-633, 2015
ISSN: 1750-3639
Resumo: Arboviruses (Arthropod-borne viruses) include several families of viruses (Flaviviridae, Togaviradae, Bunyaviradae, Reoviradae) that are spread by arthropod vectors, most commonly mosquitoes, ticks - s-flies. The RNA genome allows these viruses to rapidly adapt to ever-changing host - environmental conditions. Thus, these virus families are largely responsible for the recent expansion in geographic range of emerging viruses including West Nile virus (WNV), dengue virus - Chikungunya virus. This review will focus on WNV, especially as it has progressively spread westward in North America since its introduction in New York in 1999. By 2003, WNV infections in humans had reached almost all lower 48 contiguous United States (US) - since that time, fluctuations in outbreaks have occurred. Cases decreased between 2008 - 2011, followed by a dramatic flair in 2012, with the epicenter in the Dallas-Fort Worth region of Texas. The 2012 outbreak was associated with an increase in reported neuroinvasive cases. Neuroinvasive disease continues to be a problem particularly in the elderly - immunocompromised populations, although WNV infections also represented the second most frequent cause of pediatric encephalitis in these same years. Neuropathological features in cases from the 2012 epidemic highlight the extent of viral damage that can occur in the CNS.

494) Zika virus: following the path of dengue and chikungunya?
Autor: Musso Didier, Cao-Lormeau Van Mai, Gubler Duane J
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Infectious diseases ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever ; Chikungunya virus - Dengue ; Chikungunya virus - Epidemiology ; Chikungunya virus - Public health ; Chikungunya virus - Zika fever
Fonte: Lancet, v. 386, n. 9990, p. 243-244, 2015
ISSN: 1474-547X
Resumo:

495) Chikungunya virus infection and bilateral stromal keratouveitis
Autor: Hayek Stéphanie, Rousseau Antoine, Bouthry Elise, Prat Christine M, Labetoulle Marc
Assunto:
Descritores: Chikungunya virus - Pathogenesis ; Chikungunya virus - Viral infections ; Chikungunya Virus - Virus ; Chikungunya virus - Chikungunya fever ; Chikungunya virus - Public health
Fonte: JAMA Ophthalmology, v. 133, n. 7, p. 849-850, 2015
ISSN: 2168-6173
Resumo:

496) Susceptibility of Aedes albopictus and Aedes aegypti to three imported Chikungunya virus strains, including the E1/226V variant in Taiwan
Autor: Chen Tien-Huang,Jian Shu-Wan,Wang Chih-Yuan,Lin Cheo,Wang Pei-Feng,Su Chien-Ling,Teng Hwa-Jen,Shu Pei-Yun,Wu Ho-Sheng
Assunto: Aedes aegypti; Aedes albopictus; Chikungunya virus; Taiwan; Mosquito infection
Descritores: Aedes aegypti - RNA ; Aedes aegypti - Real Time PCR ; Aedes aegypti - virus ; Aedes aegypti - Vaccine ; Aedes aegypti - Public health
Fonte: Journal of the Formosan Medical Association = Taiwan yi zhi, v. 114, n. 6, p. 546-552, 2015
ISSN: 0929-6646
Resumo: An E1/226V variant Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) efficiently transmitted by Aedes albopictus to humans poses a significant threat to public health for those areas with the presence of Aedes albopictus, including Taiwan. We infected three im